Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: truck

85 Understanding the Safety Impacts of Imbalances in Truck Parking Supply and Demand

Authors: Rahil Saeedi

Abstract:

The imbalance in truck parking supply and demand can create important safety issues for truck drivers and the public. Research has shown that breaks at specific intervals can increase drivers’ alertness by reducing the monotony of the task. However, if fatigued truck drivers are unable to find a safe parking spot for rest, they may continue to drive or choose to park at remote and insecure areas or undesignated locations. All of these situations pose serious safety and security risks to truck drivers and other roadway users. This study uses 5-year truck crash data in Ohio to develop and test a framework for identifying crashes that happen as a result of imbalances in truck parking supply and demand. The societal impacts of these crashes are then interpreted as monetary values, calculated using the costs associated with various crash severity levels.

Keywords: truck parking, road safety, crash data, geofencing, driver fatigue, undesignated parking

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
84 Latent Factors of Severity in Truck-Involved and Non-Truck-Involved Crashes on Freeways

Authors: Shin-Hyung Cho, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

Truck-involved crashes have higher crash severity than non-truck-involved crashes. There have been many studies about the frequency of crashes and the development of severity models, but those studies only analyzed the relationship between observed variables. To identify why more people are injured or killed when trucks are involved in the crash, we must examine to quantify the complex causal relationship between severity of the crash and risk factors by adopting the latent factors of crashes. The aim of this study was to develop a structural equation or model based on truck-involved and non-truck-involved crashes, including five latent variables, i.e. a crash factor, environmental factor, road factor, driver’s factor, and severity factor. To clarify the unique characteristics of truck-involved crashes compared to non-truck-involved crashes, a confirmatory analysis method was used. To develop the model, we extracted crash data from 10,083 crashes on Korean freeways from 2008 through 2014. The results showed that the most significant variable affecting the severity of a crash is the crash factor, which can be expressed by the location, cause, and type of the crash. For non-truck-involved crashes, the crash and environment factors increase severity of the crash; conversely, the road and driver factors tend to reduce severity of the crash. For truck-involved crashes, the driver factor has a significant effect on severity of the crash although its effect is slightly less than the crash factor. The multiple group analysis employed to analyze the differences between the heterogeneous groups of drivers.

Keywords: crash severity, structural structural equation modeling (SEM), truck-involved crashes, multiple group analysis, crash on freeway

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
83 Modeling Sustainable Truck Rental Operations Using Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network

Authors: Khaled S. Abdallah, Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

Moving industries consume numerous resources and dispose masses of used packaging materials. Proper sorting, recycling and disposing the packaging materials is necessary to avoid a sever pollution disaster. This research paper presents a conceptual model to propose sustainable truck rental operations instead of the regular one. An optimization model was developed to select the locations of truck rental centers, collection sites, maintenance and repair sites, and identify the rental fees to be charged for all routes that maximize the total closed supply chain profits. Fixed costs of vehicle purchasing, costs of constructing collection centers and repair centers, as well as the fixed costs paid to use disposal and recycling centers are considered. Operating costs include the truck maintenance, repair costs as well as the cost of recycling and disposing the packing materials, and the costs of relocating the truck are presented in the model. A mixed integer model is developed followed by a simulation model to examine the factors affecting the operation of the model.

Keywords: modeling, truck rental, supply chains management.

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
82 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck

Authors: Aude Pérard Lecomte, Georges Fokoua, Amine Mehel, Anne Tanière

Abstract:

Air quality in urban areas is deteriorated by pollution, mainly due to the constant increase of the traffic of different types of ground vehicles. In particular, particulate matter pollution with important concentrations in urban areas can cause serious health issues. Characterizing and understanding particle dynamics is therefore essential to establish recommendations to improve air quality in urban areas. To analyze the effects of turbulence on particulate pollutants dispersion, the first step is to focus on the single-phase flow structure and turbulence characteristics in the wake of a heavy truck model. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of a full- and reduced-scale heavy truck. The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM)as the turbulence model closure was used. The simulations highlight the apparition of a large vortex coming from the under trailer. This vortex belongs to the recirculation region, located in the near-wake of the heavy truck. These vortical structures are expected to have a strong influence on particle dynamics that are emitted by the truck.

Keywords: CDF, heavy truck, recirculation region, reduced scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
81 Managing Truck Drivers’ Fatigue: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies

Authors: Mozhgan Aliakbari, Sara Moridpour

Abstract:

In recent years, much attention has been given to truck drivers’ fatigue management. Long working hours negatively influence truck drivers’ physiology, health, and safety. However, there is little empirical research in the heavy vehicle transport sector in Australia to identify the influence of working hours’ management on drivers’ fatigue and consequently, on the risk of crashes and injuries. There is no national legislation regulating the number of hours or kilometres travelled by truck drivers. Consequently, it is almost impossible to define a standard number of hours or kilometres for truck drivers in a safety management system. This paper reviews the existing studies concerning safe system interventions such as tachographs in relation to fatigue caused by long working hours. This paper also reviews the literature to identify the influence of frequency of rest breaks on the reduction of work-related road transport accidents involving trucks. A framework is presented to manage truck drivers’ fatigue, which may result in the reduction of injuries and fatalities involving heavy vehicles.

Keywords: fatigue, time management, trucks, traffic safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
80 Development of Forging Technology of Cam Ring Gear for Truck Using Small Bar

Authors: D. H. Park, Y. H. Tak, H. H. Kwon, G. J. Kwon, H. G. Kim

Abstract:

This study focused on developing forging technology of a large-diameter cam ring gear from the small bar. The analyses of temperature variation and deformation behavior of the material are important to obtain the optimal forging products. The hot compression test was carried out to know formability at high temperature. In order to define the optimum forging conditions including material temperature, strain and forging load, the finite element method was used to simulate the forging process of cam ring gear parts. Test results were in good agreement with the simulations. An existing cam ring gear is presented the chips generated by cutting the rod material and the durability issues, but this would be to develop a large-diameter cam ring gear forging parts for truck in order to solve the durability problem and the material waste.

Keywords: forging technology, cam ring, gear, truck, small bar

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
79 Fatigue Truck Modification Factor for Design Truck (CL-625)

Authors: Mohamad Najari, Gilbert Grondin, Marwan El-Rich

Abstract:

Design trucks in standard codes are selected based on the amount of damage they cause on structures-specifically bridges- and roads to represent the real traffic loads. Some limited numbers of trucks are run on a bridge one at a time and the damage on the bridge is recorded for each truck. One design track is also run on the same bridge “n” times -“n” is the number of trucks used previously- to calculate the damage of the design truck on the same bridge. To make these damages equal a reduction factor is needed for that specific design truck in the codes. As the limited number of trucks cannot be the exact representative of real traffic through the life of the structure, these reduction factors are not accurately calculated and they should be modified accordingly. Started on July 2004, the vehicle load data were collected in six weigh in motion (WIM) sites owned by Alberta Transportation for eight consecutive years. This database includes more than 200 million trucks. Having these data gives the opportunity to compare the effect of any standard fatigue trucks weigh and the real traffic load on the fatigue life of the bridges which leads to a modification for the fatigue truck factor in the code. To calculate the damage for each truck, the truck is run on the bridge, moment history of the detail under study is recorded, stress range cycles are counted, and then damage is calculated using available S-N curves. A 2000 lines FORTRAN code has been developed to perform the analysis and calculate the damages of the trucks in the database for all eight fatigue categories according to Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (CSA S-16). Stress cycles are counted using rain flow counting method. The modification factors for design truck (CL-625) are calculated for two different bridge configurations and ten span lengths varying from 1 m to 200 m. The two considered bridge configurations are single-span bridge and four span bridge. This was found to be sufficient and representative for a simply supported span, positive moment in end spans of bridges with two or more spans, positive moment in interior spans of three or more spans, and the negative moment at an interior support of multi-span bridges. The moment history of the mid span is recorded for single-span bridge and, exterior positive moment, interior positive moment, and support negative moment are recorded for four span bridge. The influence lines are expressed by a polynomial expression obtained from a regression analysis of the influence lines obtained from SAP2000. It is found that for design truck (CL-625) fatigue truck factor is varying from 0.35 to 0.55 depending on span lengths and bridge configuration. The detail results will be presented in the upcoming papers. This code can be used for any design trucks available in standard codes.

Keywords: bridge, fatigue, fatigue design truck, rain flow analysis, FORTRAN

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78 Truck Scheduling Problem in a Cross-Dock Centre with Fixed Due Dates

Authors: Mohsen S. Sajadieha, Danyar Molavia

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In this paper, a truck scheduling problem is investigated at a two-touch cross-docking center with due dates for outbound trucks as a hard constraint. The objective is to minimize the total cost comprising penalty and delivery cost of delayed shipments. The sequence of unloading shipments is considered and is assumed that shipments are sent to shipping dock doors immediately after unloading and a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) policy is considered for loading the shipments. A mixed integer programming model is developed for the proposed model. Two meta-heuristic algorithms including genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighborhood search (VNS) are developed to solve the problem in medium and large sized scales. The numerical results show that increase in due dates for outbound trucks has a crucial impact on the reduction of penalty costs of delayed shipments. In addition, by increase the due dates, the improvement in the objective function arises on average in comparison with the situation that the cross-dock is multi-touch and shipments are sent to shipping dock doors only after unloading the whole inbound truck.

Keywords: cross-docking, truck scheduling, fixed due date, door assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
77 Impact of Vehicle Travel Characteristics on Level of Service: A Comparative Analysis of Rural and Urban Freeways

Authors: Anwaar Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal Khurshid, Samuel Labi

Abstract:

The effect of trucks on the level of service is determined by considering passenger car equivalents (PCE) of trucks. The current version of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) uses a single PCE value for all tucks combined. However, the composition of truck traffic varies from location to location; therefore a single PCE-value for all trucks may not correctly represent the impact of truck traffic at specific locations. Consequently, present study developed separate PCE values for single-unit and combination trucks to replace the single value provided in the HCM on different freeways. Site specific PCE values, were developed using concept of spatial lagging headways (the distance from the rear bumper of a leading vehicle to the rear bumper of the following vehicle) measured from field traffic data. The study used data from four locations on a single urban freeway and three different rural freeways in Indiana. Three-stage-least-squares (3SLS) regression techniques were used to generate models that predicted lagging headways for passenger cars, single unit trucks (SUT), and combination trucks (CT). The estimated PCE values for single-unit and combination truck for basic urban freeways (level terrain) were: 1.35 and 1.60, respectively. For rural freeways the estimated PCE values for single-unit and combination truck were: 1.30 and 1.45, respectively. As expected, traffic variables such as vehicle flow rates and speed have significant impacts on vehicle headways. Study results revealed that the use of separate PCE values for different truck classes can have significant influence on the LOS estimation.

Keywords: level of service, capacity analysis, lagging headway, trucks

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
76 Driver Take-Over Time When Resuming Control from Highly Automated Driving in Truck Platooning Scenarios

Authors: Bo Zhang, Ellen S. Wilschut, Dehlia M. C. Willemsen, Marieke H. Martens

Abstract:

With the rapid development of intelligent transportation systems, automated platooning of trucks is drawing increasing interest for its beneficial effects on safety, energy consumption and traffic flow efficiency. Nevertheless, one major challenge lies in the safe transition of control from the automated system back to the human drivers, especially when they have been inattentive after a long period of highly automated driving. In this study, we investigated driver take-over time after a system initiated request to leave the platooning system Virtual Tow Bar in a non-critical scenario. 22 professional truck drivers participated in the truck driving simulator experiment, and each was instructed to drive under three experimental conditions before the presentation of the take-over request (TOR): driver ready (drivers were instructed to monitor the road constantly), driver not-ready (drivers were provided with a tablet) and eye-shut. The results showed significantly longer take-over time in both driver not-ready and eye-shut conditions compared with the driver ready condition. Further analysis revealed hand movement time as the main factor causing long response time in the driver not-ready condition, while in the eye-shut condition, gaze reaction time also influenced the total take-over time largely. In addition to comparing the means, large individual differences can be found especially in two driver, not attentive conditions. The importance of a personalized driver readiness predictor for a safe transition is concluded.

Keywords: driving simulation, highly automated driving, take-over time, transition of control, truck platooning

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
75 Experimental Study and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flow Over Pickup Truck’s Cargo Area Using Bed Covers

Authors: Jonathan Rodriguez, Dominga Guerrero, Surupa Shaw

Abstract:

Automobiles are modeled in various forms, and they interact with air when in motion. Aerodynamics is the study of such interactions where solid bodies affect the way air moves around them. The shape of solid bodies can impact the ease at which they move against the flow of air; due to which any additional freightage, or loads, impact its aerodynamics. It is important to transport people and cargo safely. Despite the various safety measures, there are a large number of vehicle-related accidents. This study precisely explores the effects an automobile experiences, with added cargo and covers. The addition of these items changes the original vehicle shape and the approved design for safe driving. This paper showcases the effects of the changed vehicle shape and design via experimental testing conducted on a physical 1:27 scale and CAD model of an F-150 pickup truck, the most common pickup truck in the United States, with differently shaped loads and weight traveling at a constant speed. The additional freightage produces unwanted drag or lift resulting in lower fuel efficiencies and unsafe driving conditions. This study employs an adjustable external shell on the F-150 pickup truck to create a controlled aerodynamic geometry to combat the detrimental effects of additional freightage. The results utilize colored powder [ which acts as a visual medium for the interaction of air with the vehicle], to highlight the impact of the additional freight on the automobile’s external shell. This will be done along with simulation models using Altair CFD software of twelve cases regarding the effects of an added load onto an F-150 pickup truck. This paper is an attempt toward standardizing the geometric design of the external shell, given the uniqueness of every load and its placement on the vehicle; while providing real-time data to be compared to simulation results from the existing literature.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, freightage, pickup cover

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74 Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry

Authors: Alesandro Romero, Inaki Maulida Hakim

Abstract:

This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck; the average efficiency was 97,4 % with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. Furthermore, from the calculation of logistics cost of the ideal condition, it brings savings of Rp53.011.800,00 in a month. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost Rp3.966.559,40 per day, and increase the average of the truck efficiency 8,78% per day.

Keywords: efficiency, logistic cost, milkrun, saving methode, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
73 Using Finite Element to Predict Failure of Light Weight Bridges Due to Vehicles Impact: Case Study

Authors: Amin H. Almasria, Rajai Z. Alrousanb, Al-Harith Manasrah

Abstract:

The collapse of a light weight pedestrian bridges due to vehicle collision is investigated and studied in detail using a dynamic nonlinear finite element analysis. Typical bridge widely used in Jordan is studied and modeled under truck collision using one dimensional beam finite element in order to minimize analysis time due to the dynamic nature of the problem. Truck collision with the bridge is simulated at different speeds and locations of collisions using dynamic explicit finite element scheme with material nonlinearity taken into account. Energy absorption of bridge is investigated through principle of energy conservation, where truck kinetic energy is assumed to be stored in the bridge as strain energy. Weak failure points in the bridges were identified, and modifications are proposed in order to strengthen the bridge structure and prevent total collapse. The proposed design modifications on bridge structure were successful in allowing the bridge to fail locally rather than globally and expected to help in saving lives.

Keywords: finite element method, dynamic impact, pedestrian bridges, strain energy, collapse failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
72 Numerical Simulation of Truck Collision with Road Blocker

Authors: Engin Metin Kaplan, Kemal Yaman

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In this study, the crash of a medium heavy vehicle onto a designed Road blocker (vehicle barrier) is studied numerically. Structural integrity of the Road blocker is studied by nonlinear dynamic methods under the loading conditions which are defined in the standards. NASTRAN® and LS-DYNA® which are commercial software are used to solve the problem. Outer geometry determination, alignment of the inner part and material properties of the road blocker are studied linearly to yield design parameters. Best design parameters are determined to achieve the most structurally optimized road blocker. Strain and stress values of the vehicle barrier are obtained by solving the partial differential equations.

Keywords: vehicle barrier, truck collision, road blocker, crash analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
71 Influence of Shock Absorber Condition on the Vertical Dynamic Load Applied on the Pavement by a Truck’s Front Suspension

Authors: Pablo Kubo, Cassio Paiva, Adelino Ferreira

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The main objective of this research study is to present the results of the influence of shock absorber condition, from a truck front suspension, on the vertical dynamic load applied on the pavement. For the measurements, it has been used a durability test track located in Brazil. The shock absorber conditions were new, used and failed with a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension, the maximum allowed load for front axle according to Brazilian legislation. By applying relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation on the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the load applied on the pavement. Although, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology in order to analyze the influence on the variation of the quarter car model variants.

Keywords: damage, shock absorber, vertical dynamic load, absorber

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70 Status and Proposed Models of Backhauling System in Thailand

Authors: Tarathorn Podcharathitikull, Jirarat Teeravaraprug

Abstract:

Transportation cost is the highest cost in logistics cost of Thailand, and truck transportation is counted as about 90% of the overall transportation cost. The main problem of truck transportation is backhauling. Backhauling has become an attractive cost-saving approach in logistics. To explore such opportunities, this paper investigated the current backhauling systems in Thailand. It was found that the backhauling problem is attracted to both governmental agencies and private sector. They gave attempts to build backhauling systems. This paper investigated two systems built by governmental agencies and one by private sector. Moreover, based on the interviews with the system representatives and users, pros and cons of the systems were found. The obstacles and challenges were obtained. This paper finally proposed a conceptual model of to-be backhauling system in Thailand.

Keywords: backhauling system, backhauls, interview, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
69 Logistics Hub Location and Scheduling Model for Urban Last-Mile Deliveries

Authors: Anastasios Charisis, Evangelos Kaisar, Steven Spana, Lili Du

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Logistics play a vital role in the prosperity of today’s cities, but current urban logistics practices are proving problematic, causing negative effects such as traffic congestion and environmental impacts. This paper proposes an alternative urban logistics system, leasing hubs inside cities for designated time intervals, and using handcarts for last-mile deliveries. A mathematical model for selecting the locations of hubs and allocating customers, while also scheduling the optimal times during the day for leasing hubs is developed. The proposed model is compared to current delivery methods requiring door-to-door truck deliveries. It is shown that truck traveled distances decrease by more than 60%. In addition, analysis shows that in certain conditions the approach can be economically competitive and successfully applied to address real problems.

Keywords: hub location, last-mile, logistics, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
68 Analysis of a Multiejector Cooling System in a Truck at Different Loads

Authors: Leonardo E. Pacheco, Carlos A. Díaz

Abstract:

An alternative way of addressing the difficult to recover the useless heat is through an ejector refrigeration cycle for vehicles applications. A group of thermo-compressor supply the mechanical compressor function at conventional refrigeration compression system. The thermo-compressor group recovers the thermal energy from waste streams (exhaust gases product in internal combustion motors, gases burned in wellhead among others) to eliminate the power consumption of the mechanical compressor. These types of alternative cooling system (air-conditioners) present a kind of advantages in both the increase in energy efficiency and the improvement of the COP of the system being studied from their its mechanical simplicity (decrease of moving parts). An ejector refrigeration cycle represents a significant step forward in the optimization of the efficient use of energy in the process of air conditioning and an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts. On one side, with the energy recycling decreases the temperature of the gases thrown into the atmosphere, which contributes to the principal beneficiaries of the average temperature of the planet. In parallel, mitigating the environmental impact caused by the production and handling of conventional cooling fluids commonly available in the market, causing the destruction of the ozone layer. This work had studied the operation of the multiejector cooling system for a truck with a 420 HP engine at different rotation speed. The operation condition limits and the COP of multi-ejector cooling systems applied in a truck are analyzed for a variable rpm range from to 800–1800 rpm.

Keywords: ejector system, exhaust gas, multiejector cooling system, recovery energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
67 Integrated Target Tracking and Control for Automated Car-Following of Truck Platforms

Authors: Fadwa Alaskar, Fang-Chieh Chou, Carlos Flores, Xiao-Yun Lu, Alexandre M. Bayen

Abstract:

This article proposes a perception model for enhancing the accuracy and stability of car-following control of a longitudinally automated truck. We applied a fusion-based tracking algorithm on measurements of a single preceding vehicle needed for car-following control. This algorithm fuses two types of data, radar and LiDAR data, to obtain more accurate and robust longitudinal perception of the subject vehicle in various weather conditions. The filter’s resulting signals are fed to the gap control algorithm at every tracking loop composed by a high-level gap control and lower acceleration tracking system. Several highway tests have been performed with two trucks. The tests show accurate and fast tracking of the target, which impacts on the gap control loop positively. The experiments also show the fulfilment of control design requirements, such as fast speed variations tracking and robust time gap following.

Keywords: object tracking, perception, sensor fusion, adaptive cruise control, cooperative adaptive cruise control

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66 Investigating the Efficacy of HIV/AIDS Psycho-Education and Behavioural Skills Training in Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviours in a Trucking Population in Nigeria

Authors: Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Benjamin Oladapo Olley

Abstract:

Long Distance Truck Drivers (LDTDs) have been found to be a high-risk group in the spread of HIV/AIDS globally; perhaps, due to their high Sexual Risk Behaviours (SRBs). Interventions for reducing SRBs in trucking population have not been fully exploited. A quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the efficacy of psycho-education and behavioural skills training in reducing SRBs among LDTDs. Sixteen drivers rivers were randomly assigned into either experimental or control groups using balloting technique. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. Repeated measures t-test and independent t-test were used to test hypotheses. The intervention had a significant effect on the SRBs among LDTDs at post-test(t{7}=6.01, p<.01) and at followup (t{7}=6.42, p<.01). No significant difference in sexual risk behaviour of LDTDs at post-test and at follow-up stage. Similarly, intervention had significant effects on sexual risk behaviour at post-test (t {14}=- 4.69, p<.05) and at follow-up (t {14}= -9.56, p < .05) respectively. At post-test and follow-up stages, drivers in experimental group reported reduced SRBs than those in the control group. Drivers in an experimental group reported lower sexual risk behaviour a week after intervention as well as at three months follow-up than those in the control group. It is concluded that HIV/AIDS preventive intervention that provides the necessary informational and behavioural skills content can significantly impact long distance truck drivers sexual risk behaviours.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS interventions, long distance truck drivers, Nigeria, sexual risk behaviours

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65 Using Real Truck Tours Feedback for Address Geocoding Correction

Authors: Dalicia Bouallouche, Jean-Baptiste Vioix, Stéphane Millot, Eric Busvelle

Abstract:

When researchers or logistics software developers deal with vehicle routing optimization, they mainly focus on minimizing the total travelled distance or the total time spent in the tours by the trucks, and maximizing the number of visited customers. They assume that the upstream real data given to carry the optimization of a transporter tours is free from errors, like customers’ real constraints, customers’ addresses and their GPS-coordinates. However, in real transporter situations, upstream data is often of bad quality because of address geocoding errors and the irrelevance of received addresses from the EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). In fact, geocoders are not exempt from errors and could give impertinent GPS-coordinates. Also, even with a good geocoding, an inaccurate address can lead to a bad geocoding. For instance, when the geocoder has trouble with geocoding an address, it returns those of the center of the city. As well, an obvious geocoding issue is that the mappings used by the geocoders are not regularly updated. Thus, new buildings could not exist on maps until the next update. Even so, trying to optimize tours with impertinent customers GPS-coordinates, which are the most important and basic input data to take into account for solving a vehicle routing problem, is not really useful and will lead to a bad and incoherent solution tours because the locations of the customers used for the optimization are very different from their real positions. Our work is supported by a logistics software editor Tedies and a transport company Upsilon. We work with Upsilon's truck routes data to carry our experiments. In fact, these trucks are equipped with TOMTOM GPSs that continuously save their tours data (positions, speeds, tachograph-information, etc.). We, then, retrieve these data to extract the real truck routes to work with. The aim of this work is to use the experience of the driver and the feedback of the real truck tours to validate GPS-coordinates of well geocoded addresses, and bring a correction to the badly geocoded addresses. Thereby, when a vehicle makes its tour, for each visited customer, the vehicle might have trouble with finding this customer’s address at most once. In other words, the vehicle would be wrong at most once for each customer’s address. Our method significantly improves the quality of the geocoding. Hence, we achieve to automatically correct an average of 70% of GPS-coordinates of a tour addresses. The rest of the GPS-coordinates are corrected in a manual way by giving the user indications to help him to correct them. This study shows the importance of taking into account the feedback of the trucks to gradually correct address geocoding errors. Indeed, the accuracy of customer’s address and its GPS-coordinates play a major role in tours optimization. Unfortunately, address writing errors are very frequent. This feedback is naturally and usually taken into account by transporters (by asking drivers, calling customers…), to learn about their tours and bring corrections to the upcoming tours. Hence, we develop a method to do a big part of that automatically.

Keywords: driver experience feedback, geocoding correction, real truck tours

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64 Preparing Data for Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulraaof H. Alqaili, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Through progress in pavement design developments, a pavement design method was developed, which is titled the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Nowadays, the evolution in roads network and highways is observed in Saudi Arabia as a result of increasing in traffic volume. Therefore, the MEPDG currently is implemented for flexible pavement design by the Saudi Ministry of Transportation. Implementation of MEPDG for local pavement design requires the calibration of distress models under the local conditions (traffic, climate, and materials). This paper aims to prepare data for calibration of MEPDG in Central Saudi Arabia. Thus, the first goal is data collection for the design of flexible pavement from the local conditions of the Riyadh region. Since, the modifying of collected data to input data is needed; the main goal of this paper is the analysis of collected data. The data analysis in this paper includes processing each: Trucks Classification, Traffic Growth Factor, Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT), Monthly Adjustment Factors (MAFi), Vehicle Class Distribution (VCD), Truck Hourly Distribution Factors, Axle Load Distribution Factors (ALDF), Number of axle types (single, tandem, and tridem) per truck class, cloud cover percent, and road sections selected for the local calibration. Detailed descriptions of input parameters are explained in this paper, which leads to providing of an approach for successful implementation of MEPDG. Local calibration of MEPDG to the conditions of Riyadh region can be performed based on the findings in this paper.

Keywords: mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG), traffic characteristics, materials properties, climate, Riyadh

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
63 Computational Fluid Dynamics Design and Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Devices for a Mazda T3500 Truck

Authors: Basil Nkosilathi Dube, Wilson R. Nyemba, Panashe Mandevu

Abstract:

In highway driving, over 50 percent of the power produced by the engine is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, which is a force that opposes a body’s motion through the air. Aerodynamic drag and thus fuel consumption increase rapidly at speeds above 90kph. It is desirable to minimize fuel consumption. Aerodynamic drag reduction in highway driving is the best approach to minimize fuel consumption and to reduce the negative impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the natural environment. Fuel economy is the ultimate concern of automotive development. This study aims to design and analyze drag-reducing devices for a Mazda T3500 truck, namely, the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings. The aerodynamic effects of adding these append devices were subsequently investigated. To accomplish this, two 3D CAD models of the Mazda truck were designed using the Design Modeler. One, with these, append devices and the other without. The models were exported to ANSYS Fluent for computational fluid dynamics analysis, no wind tunnel tests were performed. A fine mesh with more than 10 million cells was applied in the discretization of the models. The realizable k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment was used to solve the Reynold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. In order to simulate the highway driving conditions, the tests were simulated with a speed of 100 km/h. The effects of these devices were also investigated for low-speed driving. The drag coefficients for both models were obtained from the numerical calculations. By adding the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings, the simulations show a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag at a higher speed. The results show that the greatest drag reduction is obtained when both devices are used. Visuals from post-processing show that the rear fairing minimized the low-pressure region at the rear of the trailer when moving at highway speed. The rear fairing achieved this by streamlining the turbulent airflow, thereby delaying airflow separation. For lower speeds, there were no significant differences in drag coefficients for both models (original and modified). The results show that these devices can be adopted for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the Mazda T3500 truck at highway speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, computation fluid dynamics, fluent, fuel consumption

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62 Case Study: Hybrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall System Built on Basal Reinforced Raft

Authors: S. Kaymakçı, D. Gündoğdu, H. Özçelik

Abstract:

The truck park of a warehouse for a chain of supermarket was going to be constructed on a poor ground. Rather than using a piled foundation, the client was convinced that a ground improvement using a reinforced foundation raft also known as “basal reinforcement” shall work. The retaining structures supporting the truck park area were designed using a hybrid structure made up of the Terramesh® Wall System and MacGrid™ high strength geogrids. The total wall surface area is nearly 2740 sq.m , reaching a maximum height of 13.00 meters. The area is located in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey and the design seismic acceleration is high. The design of walls has been carried out using pseudo-static method (limit equilibrium) taking into consideration different loading conditions using Eurocode 7. For each standard approach stability analysis in seismic condition were performed. The paper presents the detailed design of the reinforced soil structure, basal reinforcement and the construction methods; advantages of using such system for the project are discussed.

Keywords: basal reinforcement, geogrid, reinforced soil raft, reinforced soil wall, soil reinforcement

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61 Application of Cube IQ Software to Optimize Heterogeneous Packing Products in Logistics Cargo and Minimize Transportation Cost

Authors: Muhammad Ganda Wiratama

Abstract:

XYZ company is one of the upstream chemical companies that produce chemical products such as NaOH, HCl, NaClO, VCM, EDC, and PVC for downstream companies. The products are shipped by land using trucks and sea lanes using ship mode. Especially for solid products such as flake caustic soda (F-NaOH) and PVC resin, the products are sold in loose bag packing and palletize packing (packed in pallet). The focus of this study is to increase the number of items that can be loaded in pallet packaging on the company's logistics vehicle. This is very difficult because on this packaging, the dimensions or size of the material to be loaded become larger and certainly much heavier than the loose bag packing. This factor causes the arrangement and handling of materials in the mode of transportation more difficult. In this case, it is difficult to load a different type of volume packing pallet dimension in one truck or container. By using the Cube-IQ software, it is hoped that the planning of stuffing activity material by pallet can become easier in optimizing the existing space with various possible combinations of possibilities. In addition, the output of this software can also be used as a reference for operators in the material handling include the order and orientation of materials contained in the truck or container. The more optimal contents of logistics cargo, then transportation costs can also be minimized.

Keywords: loading activity, container loading, palletize product, simulation

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60 The Analysis Fleet Operational Performance as an Indicator of Load and Haul Productivity

Authors: Linet Melisa Daubanes, Nhleko Monique Chiloane

Abstract:

The shovel-truck system is the most prevalent material handling system used in surface mining operations. Material handling entails the loading and hauling of material from production areas to dumping areas. The material handling process has operational delays that have a negative impact on the productivity of the load and haul fleet. Factors that may contribute to operational delays include shovel-truck mismatch, haul routes, machine breakdowns, extreme weather conditions, etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate factors that contribute to operational delays affecting the productivity of the load and haul fleet at the mine. Productivity is the measure of the effectiveness of producing products from a given quantity of units, the ratio of output to inputs. Productivity can be improved by producing more outputs with the same or fewer units and/or introducing better working methods etc. Several key performance indicators (KPI) for the evaluation of productivity will be discussed in this study. These KPIs include but are not limited to hauling conditions, bucket fill factor, cycle time, and utilization. The research methodology of this study is a combination of on-site time studies and observations. Productivity can be optimized by managing the factors that affect the operational performance of the haulage fleet.

Keywords: cycle time, fleet performance, load and haul, surface mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
59 Waterborne Platooning: Cost and Logistic Analysis of Vessel Trains

Authors: Alina P. Colling, Robert G. Hekkenberg

Abstract:

Recent years have seen extensive technological advancement in truck platooning, as reflected in the literature. Its main benefits are the improvement of traffic stability and the reduction of air drag, resulting in less fuel consumption, in comparison to using individual trucks. Platooning is now being adapted to the waterborne transport sector in the NOVIMAR project through the development of a Vessel Train (VT) concept. The main focus of VT’s, as opposed to the truck platoons, is the decrease in manning on board, ultimately working towards autonomous vessel operations. This crew reduction can prove to be an important selling point in achieving economic competitiveness of the waterborne approach when compared to alternative modes of transport. This paper discusses the expected benefits and drawbacks of the VT concept, in terms of the technical logistic performance and generalized costs. More specifically, VT’s can provide flexibility in destination choices for shippers but also add complexity when performing special manoeuvres in VT formation. In order to quantify the cost and performances, a model is developed and simulations are carried out for various case studies. These compare the application of VT’s in the short sea and inland water transport, with specific sailing regimes and technologies installed on board to allow different levels of autonomy. The results enable the identification of the most important boundary conditions for the successful operation of the waterborne platooning concept. These findings serve as a framework for future business applications of the VT.

Keywords: autonomous vessels, NOVIMAR, vessel trains, waterborne platooning

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58 Meat Qualities and Death on Arrival (DOA) of Broiler Chickens Transported in a Brazilian Tropical Conditions

Authors: Arlan S. Freitas, Leila M. Carvalho, Adriana L. Soares, Arnoud Neto, Marta S. Madruga, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic profile of broiler transport trucks under commercial conditions over the breast meat quality and DOA (Death On Arrival) in a tropical Brazilian regions as the North East where routinely the season is divided into dry and wet seasons. The temperature remains fairly constant and obviously the relative humidity changes accordingly. Three loads of 4,100 forty seven days old broiler were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse in a distance of 4.3 km, morning period of October 2015 rainy days. The profile of the environmental variables inside the container truck throughout the journey was obtained by the installation of thermo anemometers in 6 different locations by monitoring the heat index (HI), air velocity (AV), temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH). Meat qualities were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and DFD (dark, firm dry) meat. The percentage of birds DOA per loaded truck was determined by counting the dead broiler during the hanging step at the slaughtering plant. The analysis of variance was performed using statistical software (Statistica 8 for windows, Statsoft 2007, Tulsa, OK, USA). The Tukey significance test (P<0.05) was applied to compare means from microenvironmental data, PSE, DFD and DOA. Fillet samples were collected at 24h post mortem for pH e color (L*, a* e b*) determination through the CIELAB system. Results showed the occurrence of 2.98% of PSE and 0.66% de DFD and only 0.016% of DOA and overall the most uncomfortable container location was at the truck frontal inferior presenting 6.25% of PSE. DFD of 2.0% were obtained from birds located at central and inferior rear locations. These values were unexpected in comparison to other results obtained in our laboratories in previous experiments carried out within the country south state. The results reported herein were lower in every aspect. Reasonable explanation would be the shorter distance, wet conditions throughout around 15-20 min journeys and lower T and RH values as observed in samples taken from the rear location as higher DFD values were obtained. These facts mean the animals were not under heat stressful condition but in fact under cold stress conditions as the result of DFD suggested in association to the lower number of DOA.

Keywords: cold stress, DFD, microclimatic profile, PSE

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57 The Coexistence of Creativity and Information in Convergence Journalism: Pakistan's Evolving Media Landscape

Authors: Misha Mirza

Abstract:

In recent years, the definition of journalism in Pakistan has changed, so has the mindset of people and their approach towards a news story. For the audience, news has become more interesting than a drama or a film. This research thus provides an insight into Pakistan’s evolving media landscape. It tries not only to bring forth the outcomes of cross-platform cooperation among print and broadcast journalism but also gives an insight into the interactive data visualization techniques being used. The storytelling in journalism in Pakistan has evolved from depicting merely the truth to tweaking, fabricating and producing docu-dramas. It aims to look into how news is translated to a visual. Pakistan acquires a diverse cultural heritage and by engaging audience through media, this history translates into the storytelling platform today. The paper explains how journalists are thriving in a converging media environment and provides an analysis of the narratives in television talk shows today.’ Jack of all, master of none’ is being challenged by the journalists today. One has to be a quality information gatherer and an effective storyteller at the same time. Are journalists really looking more into what sells rather than what matters? Express Tribune is a very popular news platform among the youth. Not only is their newspaper more attractive than the competitors but also their style of narrative and interactive web stories lead to well-rounded news. Interviews are used as the basic methodology to get an insight into how data visualization is compassed. The quest for finding out the difference between visualization of information versus the visualization of knowledge has led the author to delve into the work of David McCandless in his book ‘Knowledge is beautiful’. Journalism in Pakistan has evolved from information to combining knowledge, infotainment and comedy. What is being criticized the most by the society most often becomes the breaking news. Circulation in today’s world is carried out in cultural and social networks. In recent times, we have come across many examples where people have gained overnight popularity by releasing songs with substandard lyrics or senseless videos perhaps because creativity has taken over information. This paper thus discusses the various platforms of convergence journalism from Pakistan’s perspective. The study concludes with proving how Pakistani pop culture Truck art is coexisting with all the platforms in convergent journalism. The changing media landscape thus challenges the basic rules of journalism. The slapstick humor and ‘jhatka’ in Pakistani talk shows has evolved from the Pakistani truck art poetry. Mobile journalism has taken over all the other mediums of journalism; however, the Pakistani culture coexists with the converging landscape.

Keywords: convergence journalism in Pakistan, data visualization, interactive narrative in Pakistani news, mobile journalism, Pakistan's truck art culture

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56 A Study on Accident Result Contribution of Individual Major Variables Using Multi-Body System of Accident Reconstruction Program

Authors: Donghun Jeong, Somyoung Shin, Yeoil Yun

Abstract:

A large-scale traffic accident refers to an accident in which more than three people die or more than thirty people are dead or injured. In order to prevent a large-scale traffic accident from causing a big loss of lives or establish effective improvement measures, it is important to analyze accident situations in-depth and understand the effects of major accident variables on an accident. This study aims to analyze the contribution of individual accident variables to accident results, based on the accurate reconstruction of traffic accidents using PC-Crash’s Multi-Body, which is an accident reconstruction program, and simulation of each scenario. Multi-Body system of PC-Crash accident reconstruction program is used for multi-body accident reconstruction that shows motions in diverse directions that were not approached previously. MB System is to design and reproduce a form of body, which shows realistic motions, using several bodies. Targeting the 'freight truck cargo drop accident around the Changwon Tunnel' that happened in November 2017, this study conducted a simulation of the freight truck cargo drop accident and analyzed the contribution of individual accident majors. Then on the basis of the driving speed, cargo load, and stacking method, six scenarios were devised. The simulation analysis result displayed that the freight car was driven at a speed of 118km/h(speed limit: 70km/h) right before the accident, carried 196 oil containers with a weight of 7,880kg (maximum load: 4,600kg) and was not fully equipped with anchoring equipment that could prevent a drop of cargo. The vehicle speed, cargo load, and cargo anchoring equipment were major accident variables, and the accident contribution analysis results of individual variables are as follows. When the freight car only obeyed the speed limit, the scattering distance of oil containers decreased by 15%, and the number of dropped oil containers decreased by 39%. When the freight car only obeyed the cargo load, the scattering distance of oil containers decreased by 5%, and the number of dropped oil containers decreased by 34%. When the freight car obeyed both the speed limit and cargo load, the scattering distance of oil containers fell by 38%, and the number of dropped oil containers fell by 64%. The analysis result of each scenario revealed that the overspeed and excessive cargo load of the freight car contributed to the dispersion of accident damage; in the case of a truck, which did not allow a fall of cargo, there was a different type of accident when driven too fast and carrying excessive cargo load, and when the freight car obeyed the speed limit and cargo load, there was the lowest possibility of causing an accident.

Keywords: accident reconstruction, large-scale traffic accident, PC-Crash, MB system

Procedia PDF Downloads 112