Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: J. Razavi

17 A Multimodal Approach towards Intersemiotic Translations of 'The Great Gatsby'

Authors: Neda Razavi Kaleibar, Bahloul Salmani

Abstract:

The present study dealt with the multimodal analysis of two cinematic adaptations of The Great Gatsby as intersemiotic translation. The assessment in this study went beyond the faithfulness based on repetition, addition, deletion, and creation which limit the analysis from other aspects. In fact, this research aimed to pinpoint the role of multimodality in examining the intersemiotic translations of the novel into film by means of analyzing different applied modes. Through a qualitative type of research, the analysis was conducted based on the theory proposed by Burn as Kineikonic mode theory derived from the concept of multimodality. The results of the study revealed that due to the applied modes, each adaptation represents a sense and meaning different from the other one. Analyzing the results and discussions, it was concluded that not only the modes have an undeniable role in film adaptations, but rather multimodal analysis including different nonverbal modes can be a useful and functional choice for analyzing the intersemiotic translations.

Keywords: cinematic adaptation, intersemiotic translation, kineikonic mode, multimodality

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16 The Approach of Male and Female Spectators about the Presence of Female Spectators in Sport Stadiums of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh, Seyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Azam Fazli Darzi

Abstract:

The issue of female presence in Iran stadiums has long been considered and debated by governmental experts and authorities, however, no conclusion is yielded yet. Thus, the present study has been done with the aim of investigating the approach of male and female spectators about the presence of female spectators in Iranian stadiums. The statistical population of the study includes all male and female spectators who have not experienced the live watching of male championship matches in stadiums. 224 subjects from the statistical population have selected through stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. For data collection, researcher-made questionnaire has been used whose validity has been confirmed by the university professors and its reliability has been studied and confirmed through an preliminary study. (r= 0.81). Data analysis has been done using descriptive and referential statistics in P< 0.05. The results of the study showed that male and female were meaningfully agreed with the female presence in stadiums and there is no meaningful difference between male and female approaches concerning the female spectators’ presence in sport stadiums of Iran (sig= 0.867).

Keywords: male, female spectators, Iran, sport stadiums, population

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15 Realistic Testing Procedure of Power Swing Blocking Function in Distance Relay

Authors: Farzad Razavi, Behrooz Taheri, Mohammad Parpaei, Mehdi Mohammadi Ghalesefidi, Siamak Zarei

Abstract:

As one of the major problems in protecting large-dimension power systems, power swing and its effect on distance have caused a lot of damages to energy transfer systems in many parts of the world. Therefore, power swing has gained attentions of many researchers, which has led to invention of different methods for power swing detection. Power swing detection algorithm is highly important in distance relay, but protection relays should have general requirements such as correct fault detection, response rate, and minimization of disturbances in a power system. To ensure meeting the requirements, protection relays need different tests during development, setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps. This paper covers power swing scheme of the modern numerical relay protection, 7sa522 to address the effect of the different fault types on the function of the power swing blocking. In this study, it was shown that the different fault types during power swing cause different time for unblocking distance relay.

Keywords: power swing, distance relay, power system protection, relay test, transient in power system

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14 Xanthotoxin: A Plant Derived Furanocoumarin with Antipathogenic and Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Razavi Khosroshahi

Abstract:

In recent years a great deal of efforts has been made to find natural derivative compounds to replace it's with synthetic drugs, herbicides or pesticides for management of human health and agroecosystem programs. This process can lead to a reduction in environmental harmful effects of synthetic chemicals. Xanthotoxin, as a furanocoumarin compound, found in some genera of the Apiaceae family of plants. The current work focuses on some xanthotoxin cytotoxicity and antipathogenic activities. The results indicated that xanthotoxin showed strong cytotoxic effects against LNCaP cell line with the IC₅₀ value of 0.207 mg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. After treatments of the cell line with 0.1 mg/ml of the compound, the viability of the cells was reached to zero. The current study revealed that xanthotoxin displayed strong antifungal activity against human or plant pathogen fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspegillusn flavus and Fusarum graminearum with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 52-68 µg/ml. The compound exhibited antibacterial effects on some Erwinia and Xanthomonas species of bacteria, as well

Keywords: Xanthomonas, cytotoxic, antipathogen, LNCaP, Aspergillus fumigatus, spegillusn flavus

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13 Application of Computer Aided Engineering Tools in Performance Prediction and Fault Detection of Mechanical Equipment of Mining Process Line

Authors: K. Jahani, J. Razavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, to decrease the number of downtimes in the industries such as metal mining, petroleum and chemical industries, predictive maintenance is crucial. In order to have efficient predictive maintenance, knowing the performance of critical equipment of production line such as pumps and hydro-cyclones under variable operating parameters, selecting best indicators of this equipment health situations, best locations for instrumentation, and also measuring of these indicators are very important. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) tools are implemented to study some important elements of copper process line, namely slurry pumps and cyclone to predict the performance of these components under different working conditions. These modeling and simulations can be used in predicting, for example, the damage tolerance of the main shaft of the slurry pump or wear rate and location of cyclone wall or pump case and impeller. Also, the simulations can suggest best-measuring parameters, measuring intervals, and their locations.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, predictive maintenance, fault detection, mining process line, slurry pump, hydrocyclone

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12 Presenting the Mathematical Model to Determine Retention in the Watersheds

Authors: S. Shamohammadi, L. Razavi

Abstract:

This paper based on the principle concepts of SCS-CN model, a new mathematical model for computation of retention potential (S) presented. In the mathematical model, not only precipitation-runoff concepts in SCS-CN model are precisely represented in a mathematical form, but also new concepts, called “maximum retention” and “total retention” is introduced, and concepts of potential retention capacity, maximum retention, and total retention have been separated from each other. In the proposed model, actual retention (F), maximum actual retention (Fmax), total retention (S), maximum retention (Smax), and potential retention (Sp), for the first time clearly defined, so that Sp is not variable, but a function of morphological characteristics of the watershed. Indeed, based on the mathematical relation of the conceptual curve of SCS-CN model, the proposed model provides a new method for the computation of actual retention in watershed and it simply determined runoff based on. In the corresponding relations, in addition to Precipitation (P), Initial retention (Ia), cumulative values of actual retention capacity (F), total retention (S), runoff (Q), antecedent moisture (M), potential retention (Sp), total retention (S), we introduced Fmax and Fmin referring to maximum and minimum actual retention, respectively. As well as, ksh is a coefficient which depends on morphological characteristics of the watershed. Advantages of the modified version versus the original model include a better precision, higher performance, easier calibration and speed computing.

Keywords: model, mathematical, retention, watershed, SCS

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11 Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.

Keywords: hydrochemistry, water quality classification, water quality indexes, Torogh and Kardeh dam reservoir

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10 Geology, Geomorphology and Genesis of Andarokh Karstic Cave, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Andarokh basin is one of the main karstic regions in Khorasan Razavi province NE Iran. This basin is part of Kopeh-Dagh mega zone extending from Caspian Sea in the east to northern Afghanistan in the west. This basin is covered by Mozdooran Formation, Ngr evaporative formation and quaternary alluvium deposits in descending order of age. Mozdooran carbonate formation is notably karstified. The main surface karstic features in Mozdooran formation are Groove karren, Cleft karren, Rain pit, Rill karren, Tritt karren, Kamintza, Domes, and Table karren. In addition to surface features, deep karstic feature Andarokh Cave also exists in the region. Studying Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe concentration and Sr/Mn ratio in Mozdooran formation samples with distance to main faults and joints system using PCA analyses demonstrates intense meteoric digenesis role in controlling carbonate rock geochemistry. The karst evaluation in Andarokh basin varies from early stages 'deep seated karst' in Mesozoic to mature karstic system 'Exhumed karst' in quaternary period. Andarokh cave (the main cave in Andarokh basin) is rudimentary branch work consists of three passages of A, B and C and two entrances Andarokh and Sky.

Keywords: Andarokh basin, Andarokh cave, geochemical analyses, karst evaluation

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9 A Study on Architectural Characteristics‎ of Traditional Iranian Ordinary Houses in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Rana Daneshvar Salehi

Abstract:

In many Iranian cities including ‎‎Mashhad‎, the capital of ‎‎‎‎Razavi Khorasan Province‎, ‎ordinary samples of domestic architecture ‎on a ‎small scale is not ‎‎‎considered as ‎heritage. ‎While the ‎principals of house formation are ‎‎respected in all ‎‎traditional Iranian ‎‎‎‎houses‎; ‎from moderate to great ones. During the past decade, Mashhad has lost its identity, and has become a modern city. Identifying it as the capital of the Islamic Culture in 2017 by ISESCO and consequently looking for new developments and transfiguration caused to demolish a large ‎number ‎of ‎traditional modest habitation. ‎For this ‎reason, the present paper aims to introduce ‎the three ‎undiscovered houses with the ‎historical and monumental values located in the ‎oldest ‎neighborhoods of Mashhad which have been neglected in the cultural ‎heritage field. The preliminary phase of this approach will be a measured survey to identify the significant characteristics ‎of ‎selected dwellings and understand the challenges through focusing on building ‎form, orientation, ‎‎room function, space proportion and ornamental elements’ details. A comparison between the ‎‎case studies and the wealthy domestically buildings ‎presents that a house belongs to inhabitants ‎with an average income could introduce the same accurate, regular, harmonic and proportionate ‎design which can be found in the great mansions. It reveals that an ordinary traditional house can ‎be regarded as valuable construction not only for its historical characteristics but also ‎for its ‎aesthetical and architectural features that could avoid further destructions in the future.

Keywords: traditional ordinary house, architectural characteristic, proportion, heritage

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8 Low Temperature Biological Treatment of Chemical Oxygen Demand for Agricultural Water Reuse Application Using Robust Biocatalysts

Authors: Vedansh Gupta, Allyson Lutz, Ameen Razavi, Fatemeh Shirazi

Abstract:

The agriculture industry is especially vulnerable to forecasted water shortages. In the fresh and fresh-cut produce sector, conventional flume-based washing with recirculation exhibits high water demand. This leads to a large water footprint and possible cross-contamination of pathogens. These can be alleviated through advanced water reuse processes, such as membrane technologies including reverse osmosis (RO). Water reuse technologies effectively remove dissolved constituents but can easily foul without pre-treatment. Biological treatment is effective for the removal of organic compounds responsible for fouling, but not at the low temperatures encountered at most produce processing facilities. This study showed that the Microvi MicroNiche Engineering (MNE) technology effectively removes organic compounds (> 80%) at low temperatures (6-8 °C) from wash water. The MNE technology uses synthetic microorganism-material composites with negligible solids production, making it advantageously situated as an effective bio-pretreatment for RO. A preliminary technoeconomic analysis showed 60-80% savings in operation and maintenance costs (OPEX) when using the Microvi MNE technology for organics removal. This study and the accompanying economic analysis indicated that the proposed technology process will substantially reduce the cost barrier for adopting water reuse practices, thereby contributing to increased food safety and furthering sustainable water reuse processes across the agricultural industry.

Keywords: biological pre-treatment, innovative technology, vegetable processing, water reuse, agriculture, reverse osmosis, MNE biocatalysts

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7 The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Hossein Mohammadzadeh, Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.

Keywords: Dam reservoir, Iran, Kardeh river, Khorasan razavi, Stable isotopes

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6 The Utility of Sonographic Features of Lymph Nodes during EBUS-TBNA for Predicting Malignancy

Authors: Atefeh Abedini, Fatemeh Razavi, Mihan Pourabdollah Toutkaboni, Hossein Mehravaran, Arda Kiani

Abstract:

In countries with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, such as Iran, the differentiation of malignant tumors from non-malignant is very important. In this study, which was conducted for the first time among the Iranian population, the utility of the ultrasonographic morphological characteristics in patients undergoing EBUS was used to distinguish the non-malignant versus malignant lymph nodes. The morphological characteristics of lymph nodes, which consist of size, shape, vascular pattern, echogenicity, margin, coagulation necrosis sign, calcification, and central hilar structure, were obtained during Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Bronchial Needle Aspiration and were compared with the final pathology results. During this study period, a total of 253 lymph nodes were evaluated in 93 cases. Round shape, non-hilar vascular pattern, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, distinct margin, and the presence of necrosis sign were significantly higher in malignant nodes. On the other hand, the presence of calcification and also central hilar structure were significantly higher in the benign nodes (p-value ˂ 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that size>1 cm, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, the presence of necrosis signs and, the absence of central hilar structure are independent predictive factors for malignancy. The accuracy of each of the aforementioned factors is 42.29 %, 71.54 %, 71.90 %, 73.51 %, and 65.61 %, respectively. Of 74 malignant lymph nodes, 100% had at least one of these independent factors. According to our results, the morphological characteristics of lymph nodes based on Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Bronchial Needle Aspiration can play a role in the prediction of malignancy.

Keywords: EBUS-TBNA, malignancy, nodal characteristics, pathology

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5 Satureja bachtiarica Bunge Induce Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Hamed Karimian, Noraziah Nordin, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Syam Mohan, Mahboubeh Razavi, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Happipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Satureja bachtiarica Bunge is a perennial medicinal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family and endemic species in Iran. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge with the local name of Marzeh koohi is edible vegetable use as flavoring agent, anti-bacterial and to relieve cough and indigestion. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge on the MDA-MB-231 cell line as an Breast cancer cell model has been analyzed for the first time. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge was extracted using different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. Cytotoxicity activity of hexane extract of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge (SBHE) was observed using MTT assay. Acridine orange/Propidium iodide staining was used to detect early apoptosis; Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS), with Annexin-Vserving as a marker for apoptotic cells. Caspase 3/7, 8 and-9 assays showed significantly activation of caspase-9 where lead intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Bcl-2/Bax expressions and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. SBHE had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 Cell line compare to other cell lines. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed by fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with SBHE encouraged apoptosis, by down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax, which lead the activation of caspase 9. Moreover, SBHE treatment significantly arrested MDA-MB-231 cells in the G1 phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that SBHE inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was confirmed to be through the mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, MDA-MB-231, apoptosis, annexin-V, cell cycle

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4 Investigation Two Polymorphism of hTERT Gene (Rs 2736098 and Rs 2736100) and miR- 146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Alaheh Gholami Roud-Majany, Zahra Razavi, Massoud Hoshmand

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is multi step disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of hTERT and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of hTERT genotypes and miR-146a genotypes in cervical cancer. Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of hTERT and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, hTERT ( rs 2736098) GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of hTERT rs 2736098 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: polymorphism of hTERT gene, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, cervical cancer, virus

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3 The Impact of Climate Change on Typical Material Degradation Criteria over Timurid Historical Heritage

Authors: Hamed Hedayatnia, Nathan Van Den Bossche

Abstract:

Understanding the ways in which climate change accelerates or slows down the process of material deterioration is the first step towards assessing adaptive approaches for the conservation of historical heritage. Analysis of the climate change effects on the degradation risk assessment parameters like freeze-thaw cycles and wind erosion is also a key parameter when considering mitigating actions. Due to the vulnerability of cultural heritage to climate change, the impact of this phenomenon on material degradation criteria with the focus on brick masonry walls in Timurid heritage, located in Iran, was studied. The Timurids were the final great dynasty to emerge from the Central Asian steppe. Through their patronage, the eastern Islamic world in northwestern of Iran, especially in Mashhad and Herat, became a prominent cultural center. Goharshad Mosque is a mosque in Mashhad of the Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. It was built by order of Empress Goharshad, the wife of Shah Rukh of the Timurid dynasty in 1418 CE. Choosing an appropriate regional climate model was the first step. The outputs of two different climate model: the 'ALARO-0' and 'REMO,' were analyzed to find out which model is more adopted to the area. For validating the quality of the models, a comparison between model data and observations was done in 4 different climate zones in Iran for a period of 30 years. The impacts of the projected climate change were evaluated until 2100. To determine the material specification of Timurid bricks, standard brick samples from a Timurid mosque were studied. Determination of water absorption coefficient, defining the diffusion properties and determination of real density, and total porosity tests were performed to characterize the specifications of brick masonry walls, which is needed for running HAM-simulations. Results from the analysis showed that the threatening factors in each climate zone are almost different, but the most effective factor around Iran is the extreme temperature increase and erosion. In the north-western region of Iran, one of the key factors is wind erosion. In the north, rainfall erosion and mold growth risk are the key factors. In the north-eastern part, in which our case study is located, the important parameter is wind erosion.

Keywords: brick, climate change, degradation criteria, heritage, Timurid period

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2 Effect of Planting Date on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Different Bread Wheat and Durum Cultivars

Authors: Mahdi Nasiri Tabrizi, A. Dadkhah, M. Khirkhah

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of planting on yield, yield components and quality traits in bread and durum wheat varieties, a field split-plot experiment based on complete randomized design with three replications was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Razavi Khorasan located in city of Mashhad during 2013-2014. Main factor were consisted of five sowing dates (first October, fifteenth December, first March, tenth March, twentieth March) and as sub-factors consisted of different bread wheat (Bahar, Pishgam, Pishtaz, Mihan, Falat and Karim) and two durum wheat (Dena and Dehdasht). According to results of analysis variance the effect of planting date was significant on all examined traits (grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, number of grain per spike, thousands kernel weight, number of spike per square meter, plant height, the number of days to heading, the number of days to maturity, during the grain filling period, percentage of wet gluten, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, percentage of protein). By delay in planting, majority of traits significantly decreased, except quality traits (percentage of wet gluten, percentage of dry gluten and percentage of protein). Results of means comparison showed, among planting date the highest grain yield and biological yield were related to first planting date (Octobr) with mean of production of 5/6 and 1/17 tons per hectare respectively and the highest bread quality (gluten index) with mean of 85 and percentage of protein with mean of 13% to fifth planting date also the effect of genotype was significant on all traits. The highest grain yield among of studied wheat genotypes was related to Dehdasht cultivar with an average production of 4.4 tons per hectare. The highest protein percentage and bread quality (gluten index) were related to Dehdasht cultivar with 13.4% and Falat cultivar with number of 90 respectively. The interaction between cultivar and planting date was significant on all traits and different varieties had different trend for these traits. The highest grain yield was related to first planting date (October) and Falat cultivar with an average of production of 6/7 tons per hectare while in grain yield did not show a significant different with Pishtas and Mihan cultivars also the most of gluten index (bread quality index) and protein percentage was belonged to the third planting date and Karim cultivar with 7.98 and Dena cultivar with 7.14% respectively.

Keywords: yield component, yield, planting date, cultivar, quality traits, wheat

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1 Probing Mechanical Mechanism of Three-Hinge Formation on a Growing Brain: A Numerical and Experimental Study

Authors: Mir Jalil Razavi, Tianming Liu, Xianqiao Wang

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Cortical folding, characterized by convex gyri and concave sulci, has an intrinsic relationship to the brain’s functional organization. Understanding the mechanism of the brain’s convoluted patterns can provide useful clues into normal and pathological brain function. During the development, the cerebral cortex experiences a noticeable expansion in volume and surface area accompanied by tremendous tissue folding which may be attributed to many possible factors. Despite decades of endeavors, the fundamental mechanism and key regulators of this crucial process remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to taking even a small role in unraveling of brain folding mystery, we present a mechanical model to find mechanism of 3-hinges formation in a growing brain that it has not been addressed before. A 3-hinge is defined as a gyral region where three gyral crests (hinge-lines) join. The reasons that how and why brain prefers to develop 3-hinges have not been answered very well. Therefore, we offer a theoretical and computational explanation to mechanism of 3-hinges formation in a growing brain and validate it by experimental observations. In theoretical approach, the dynamic behavior of brain tissue is examined and described with the aid of a large strain and nonlinear constitutive model. Derived constitute model is used in the computational model to define material behavior. Since the theoretical approach cannot predict the evolution of cortical complex convolution after instability, non-linear finite element models are employed to study the 3-hinges formation and secondary morphological folds of the developing brain. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses on a multi-layer soft tissue model which mimics a small piece of the brain are performed to investigate the fundamental mechanism of consistent hinge formation in the cortical folding. Results show that after certain amount growth of cortex, mechanical model starts to be unstable and then by formation of creases enters to a new configuration with lower strain energy. By further growth of the model, formed shallow creases start to form convoluted patterns and then develop 3-hinge patterns. Simulation results related to 3-hinges in models show good agreement with experimental observations from macaque, chimpanzee and human brain images. These results have great potential to reveal fundamental principles of brain architecture and to produce a unified theoretical framework that convincingly explains the intrinsic relationship between cortical folding and 3-hinges formation. This achieved fundamental understanding of the intrinsic relationship between cortical folding and 3-hinges formation would potentially shed new insights into the diagnosis of many brain disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, lissencephaly and polymicrogyria.

Keywords: brain, cortical folding, finite element, three hinge

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