Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: dihydroxybenzene isomers

43 Synthesis of [email protected] Cu Core−Shell Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement of Cu by Pd²⁺ Ions as a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Dihydroxybenzene Isomers Speciation

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Parisa Jahani, Amir Shafiee, Mehrdad Mofidi

Abstract:

The dihydroxybenzene isomers, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) have been widely recognized as important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and low degradability in the ecological environment. Speciation of HQ, CC and RS is very important for environmental analysis because they co-exist of these isomers in environmental samples and are too difficult to degrade as an environmental contaminant with high toxicity. There are many analytical methods have been reported for detecting these isomers, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical methods. These methods have attractive advantages such as simple and fast response, low maintenance costs, wide linear analysis range, high efficiency, excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. A novel modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with [email protected] Cu/CNTs core−shell nanowires for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) is described. A detailed investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry was performed in order to elucidate the preparation process and properties of the GCE/ Pd/CuNWs-CNTs. The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified GPE/LFOR toward HQ, CC and RS were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and Chronoamperometry. Under optimum conditions, the calibrations curves were linear up to 228 µM for each with detection limits of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 µM for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. The diffusion coefficient for the oxidation of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode was calculated as 6.5×10⁻⁵, 1.6 ×10⁻⁵ and 8.5 ×10⁻⁵ cm² s⁻¹, respectively. DPV was used for the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode and the relative standard deviations were 2.1%, 1.9% and 1.7% for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. Moreover, GCE/Pd/CuNWs-CNTs was successfully used for determination of HQ, CC and RS in real samples.

Keywords: dihydroxybenzene isomers, galvanized copper nanowires, electrochemical sensor, Palladium, speciation

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42 High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) Analysis of Naproxen and Omeprazole Active Isomers

Authors: Marwa Ragab, Eman El-Kimary

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Chiral separation and analysis of omeprazole and naproxen enantiomers in tablets were achieved using high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Kromasil Cellucoat chiral column was used as a stationary phase for separation and the eluting solvent consisted of hexane, isopropanol and trifluoroacetic acid in a ratio of: 90, 9.9 and 0.1, respectively. The chromatographic system was suitable for the enantiomeric separation and analysis of active isomers of the drugs. Resolution values of 2.17 and 3.84 were obtained after optimization of the chromatographic conditions for omeprazole and naproxen isomers, respectively. The determination of S-isomers of each drug in their dosage form was fully validated.

Keywords: chiral analysis, esomeprazole, S-Naproxen, HPLC-DAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
41 Mostar Type Indices and QSPR Analysis of Octane Isomers

Authors: B. Roopa Sri, Y Lakshmi Naidu

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Chemical Graph Theory (CGT) is the branch of mathematical chemistry in which molecules are modeled to study their physicochemical properties using molecular descriptors. Amongst these descriptors, topological indices play a vital role in predicting the properties by defining the graph topology of the molecule. Recently, the bond-additive topological index known as the Mostar index has been proposed. In this paper, we compute the Mostar-type indices of octane isomers and use the data obtained to perform QSPR analysis. Furthermore, we show the correlation between the Mostar type indices and the properties.

Keywords: chemical graph theory, mostar type indices, octane isomers, qspr analysis, topological index

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40 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Health Benefits and Sources

Authors: Hilal Ahmad Punoo

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with two conjugated double bonds. Of more than a dozen isomers of CLA found naturally in dairy and meat products from ruminants, c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 are the two isomers with known physiological importance, including anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antilipogenic, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may influence the onset and severity of several chronic diseases, including various cancers, atherosclerosis, obesity, bone density loss, and diabetes. These findings are of special interest to the agriculture community, because dietary sources of CLA are almost exclusively beef and dairy products. Thus, a better understanding of the specific isomers and mechanisms responsible for these positive effects of CLA on human health would be both prudent and economically beneficial. To date, research related to the advantages of CLA consumption on human health has been conducted using experimental laboratory animals and cell culture systems. These data consistently show that relatively low levels of CLA can influence risk of cancer. Further, very recent investigations suggest that the predominate CLA isoform (cis-9, trans-11 CLA or rumenic acid) found in beef and milk fat possesses anticarcinogenic effects but does not alter body composition; the trans-10, cis-12 CLA has been shown to inhibit lipogenesis. Clearly, further work, especially using human subjects, will be required to characterize the potential benefits of CLA consumption on human health. Moreover, we suggest that foods naturally containing high amounts of CLA (e.g., beef and dairy products) be considered as meeting the definition of functional foods.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, potential health benefits, fats, animals, humans

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39 QSAR Study and Haptotropic Rearrangement in Estradiol Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed Abd Esselem Dems, Souhila Laib, Nadjia Latelli, Nadia Ouddai

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In this work, we have developed QSAR model for Relative Binding Affinity (RBA) of a large diverse set of estradiol among these derivatives, the organometallic derivatives. By dividing the dataset into a training set of 24 compounds and a test set of 6 compounds. The DFT method was used to calculate quantum chemical descriptors and physicochemical descriptors (MR and MLOGP) were performed using E-Dragon. All the validations indicated that the QSAR model built was robust and satisfactory (R2 = 90.12, Q2LOO = 86.61, RMSE = 0.272, F = 60.6473, Q2ext =86.07). We have therefore apply this model to predict the RBA, for two isomers β and α wherein Mn(CO)3 complex with the aromatic ring of estradiol, and the two isomers show little appreciation for the estrogenic receptor (RBAβ = 1.812 and RBAα = 1.741).

Keywords: DFT, estradiol, haptotropic rearrangement, QSAR, relative binding affinity

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38 Citrullinated Myelin Basic Protein Mediated Inflammation in Astrocytes

Authors: Lali Shanshiashvili, Marika Chikviladze, Nino Mamulashvili, Maia Sepashvili, Nana Narmania, David Mikeladze

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Purpose: During demyelinating inflammatory diseases and after the damage of the myelin sheet, myelin-derived proteins, including myelin basic protein (MBP), are secreted into the extracellular space. MBP shows extensive post-translational modifications, including the deimination of arginine residues. Deiminated MBP is structurally less ordered, susceptible to proteolytic attack, and more immunogenic than the unmodified one. It is hypothesized that MBP could change the inflammatory response in astrocytes. Methods: MBP was isolated and purified from bovine brain white matter. Primary astrocyte cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. For evaluation of glutamate uptake/release in astrocytes following treatment of cells with MBP charge isomers, Glutamate Assay Kit was used. The expression of EAAT-2 (excitatory amino acid transporters), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR- γ), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (IkB), and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in astrocytes were assayed by Western Blot analysis. Results: This study investigated the action of deiminated isomer (C8) on the cultured primary astrocytes and compared its effects with the effects of unmodified C1 isomers. The study found that C8 and C1 MBP differently act on the uptake and release of glutamate in astrocytes: nonmodified C1 MBP increases the uptake of glutamate and does not change the release, whereas C8 decreases the release of glutamate but does not alter the uptake. Nevertheless, both isomers increased the expression of PPAR-γ and EAAT2 in the same intensity. However, immunostaining and Western Blots of cell lysates showed a decrease of IkB and increased expression of HMGB1 after the treatment of astrocytes by C8. Moreover, in the presence of C8, astrocytes release more nitric oxide than unmodified C1 isomers. Conclusion: These data suggest that the deiminated isomer of MBP evokes an inflammatory response and enhances the ability of astrocytes to release proinflammatory mediators through activation of NF-kB after the breakdown of myelin sheets. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, glutamate, deimination, astrocytes, inflammation

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37 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Carbazole Schiff Bases (OLED)

Authors: Baki Cicek, Umit Calisir

Abstract:

Carbazoles have been replaced lots of studies from 1960's to present and also still continues. In 1987, the first diode device had been developed. Thanks to that study, light emitting devices have been investigated and developed and also have been used on commercial applications. Nowadays, OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) technology is using on lots of electronic screen such as (mobile phone, computer monitors, televisions, etc.) Carbazoles were subject a lot of study as a semiconductor material. Although this technology is used commen and widely, it is still development stage. Metal complexes of these compounds are using at pigment dyes because of colored substances, polymer technology, medicine industry, agriculture area, preparing rocket fuel-oil, determine some of biological events, etc. Becides all of these to preparing of schiff base synthesis is going on intensely. In this study, some of novel carbazole schiff bases were synthesized starting from carbazole. For that purpose, firstly, carbazole was alkylated. After purification of N-substituted-carbazole was nitrated to sythesized 3-nitro-N-substituted and 3,6-dinitro-N-substituted carbazoles. At next step, nitro group/groups were reduced to amines. Purified with using a type of silica gel-column chromatography. At the last step of our study, with sythesized 3,6-diamino-N-substituted carbazoles and 3-amino-N-substituted carbazoles were reacted with aldehydes to condensation reactions. 3-(imino-p-hydroxybenzyl)-N-isobutyl -carbazole, 3-(imino-2,3,4-trimethoxybenzene)-N-butylcarbazole, 3-(imino-3,4-dihydroxybenzene)-N-octylcarbazole, 3-(imino-2,3-dihydroxybenzene)-N-octylkarbazole and 3,6-di(α-imino-β-naphthol) -N-hexylcarbazole compounds were synthesized. All of synthesized compounds were characterized with FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC-MS.

Keywords: carbazole, carbazol schiff base, condensation reactions, OLED

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36 Synthesis and Gas Transport Properties of Polynorbornene Dicarboximides Bearing Trifluoromethyl Isomer Moieties

Authors: Jorge A. Cruz-Morales, Joel Vargas, Arlette A. Santiago, Mikhail A. Tlenkopatchev

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In industrial processes such as oil extraction and refining, products are handled or generated in the gas phase, which represents a challenge in terms of treatment and purification. During the past three decades, new scientific findings and technological advances in separation based on the use of membranes have led to simpler and more efficient gas separation processes, optimizing the use of energy and generating less pollution. This work reports the synthesis and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of new structural isomers based on norbornene dicarboximides bearing trifluoromethyl moieties, specifically N-2-trifluoromethylphenyl-exo,endo-norbornene-5,6-dicarboximide (2a) and N-3-trifluoromethylphenyl-exo,endo-norbornene-5,6-dicarboximide (2b), using tricyclohexylphosphine [1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene][benzylidene] ruthenium dichloride (I), bis(tricyclohexylphosphine) benzylidene ruthenium (IV) dichloride (II), and bis(tricyclohexylphosphine) p-fluorophenylvinylidene ruthenium (II) dichloride (III). It was observed that the -CF3 moiety attached at the ortho position of the aromatic ring increases thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, whereas meta substitution has the opposite effect. A comparative study of gas transportation in membranes, based on these fluorinated polynorbornenes, showed that -CF3 ortho substitution increases permeability of the polymer membrane as a consequence of the increase in both gas solubility and gas diffusion. In contrast, gas permeability coefficients of the meta-substituted polymer membrane are rather similar to those of that which is non-fluorinated; this can be attributed to a lower fractional free volume. The meta-substituted polymer membrane, besides showing the largest permselectivity coefficients of all the isomers studied here, was also found to have one of the largest permselectivity coefficients for separating H2/C3H6 into glassy polynorbornene dicarboximides.

Keywords: gas transport membranes, polynorbornene dicarboximide, ROMP, structural isomers

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35 The Effects of Myelin Basic Protein Charge Isomers on the Methyl Cycle Metabolites in Glial Cells

Authors: Elene Zhuravliova, Tamar Barbakadze, Irina Kalandadze, Elnari Zaalishvili, Lali Shanshiashvili, David Mikeladze

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Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by demyelination and autoimmune response to myelin proteins. Among post-translational modifications, which mediate the modulation of inflammatory pathways during MS, methylation is the main one. The methylation of DNA, also amino acids lysine and arginine, occurs in the cell. It was found that decreased trans-methylation is associated with neuroinflammatory diseases. Therefore, abnormal regulation of the methyl cycle could induce demyelination through the action on PAD (peptidyl-arginine-deiminase) gene promoter. PAD takes part in protein citrullination and targets myelin basic protein (MBP), which is affected during demyelination. To determine whether MBP charge isomers are changing the methyl cycle, we have estimated the concentrations of methyl cycle metabolites in MBP-activated primary astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. For this purpose, the action of the citrullinated MBP- C8 and the most cationic MBP-C1 isomers on the primary cells were investigated. Methods: Primary oligodendrocyte and astrocyte cell cultures were prepared from whole brains of 2-day-old Wistar rats. The methyl cycle metabolites, including homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), were estimated by HPLC analysis using fluorescence detection and prior derivatization. Results: We found that the action of MBP-C8 and MBP-C1 induces a decrease in the concentration of both methyl cycle metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), in astrocytes compared to the control cells. As for oligodendrocytes, the concentration of SAM was increased by the addition of MBP-C1, while MBP-C8 has no significant effect. As for SAH, its concentration was increased compared to the control cells by the action of both MBP-C1 and MBP-C8. A significant increase in homocysteine concentration was observed by the action of the MBP-C8 isomer in both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Conclusion: These data suggest that MBP charge isomers change the concentration of methyl cycle metabolites. MBP-C8 citrullinated isomer causes elevation of homocysteine in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which may be the reason for decreased astrocyte proliferation and increased oligodendrocyte cell death which takes place in neurodegenerative processes. Elevated homocysteine levels and subsequent abnormal regulation of methyl cycles in oligodendrocytes possibly change the methylation of DNA that activates PAD gene promoter and induces the synthesis of PAD, which in turn provokes the process of citrullination, which is the accompanying process of demyelination. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the SRNSF Georgia RF17_534 grant.

Keywords: myelin basic protein, astrocytes, methyl cycle metabolites, homocysteine, oligodendrocytes

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34 Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipid Metabolism and Increased Fat around the Muscle Durability by Reducing the Oxidation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand

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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid. Despite the fact that 28 different isomers of CLA have already been identified, but the main isomer found in natural diets more than ninety percent CLA on intake of food constitutes demonstrates. CLA is known to be a substance that readily available by rumen microorganisms in some ruminants such as cattle and sheep would likely be made. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of CLA on lipid metabolism and enhanced fat around the muscle durability by reducing the process of oxidation. In order to implement this research, 80 female mice of the Balb/C, with 55 days of age were employed in the experiment. Treatments include various levels of CLA. Over the course of this study blood samples was also taken from the tail vein of the studied mice. Some other relevant parameters such as serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and liver enzymes were also determined. The oxidative stability of fats TBARS technique was investigated at different intervals. The findings of the research were analyzed by statistical software of SAS 98. The results, CLA had no significant effect on liver enzymes (P > 0.05). However, it showed a statistically significant impact on triglycerides and total cholesterol. Ratio of LDL to HDL declined remarkably. Histological studies demonstrated reduced accumulation of fat in the tissues surrounding muscles.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, fat metabolism, fat retention, oxidation process

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33 Glycan Analyzer: Software to Annotate Glycan Structures from Exoglycosidase Experiments

Authors: Ian Walsh, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Christopher H. Taron, Pauline M. Rudd

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Glycoproteins and their covalently bonded glycans play critical roles in the immune system, cell communication, disease and disease prognosis. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry is conventionally used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise glycan structures in a given sample. Exoglycosidases are enzymes that catalyze sequential removal of monosaccharides from the non-reducing end of glycans. They naturally have specificity for a particular type of sugar, its stereochemistry (α or β anomer) and its position of attachment to an adjacent sugar on the glycan. Thus, monitoring the peak movements (both in the UPLC and MS1) after application of exoglycosidases provides a unique and effective way to annotate sugars with high detail - i.e. differentiating positional and linkage isomers. Manual annotation of an exoglycosidase experiment is difficult and time consuming. As such, with increasing sample complexity and the number of exoglycosidases, the analysis could result in manually interpreting hundreds of peak movements. Recently, we have implemented pattern recognition software for automated interpretation of UPLC-MS1 exoglycosidase digestions. In this work, we explain the software, indicate how much time it will save and provide example usage showing the annotation of positional and linkage isomers in Immunoglobulin G, apolipoprotein J, and simple glycan standards.

Keywords: bioinformatics, automated glycan assignment, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry

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32 Quality by Design in the Optimization of a Fast HPLC Method for Quantification of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Fabiana L. A. Santos, Pablo A. Ferreira, Ricardo T. L. Maia-Jr., Magaly A. M. Lyra, Danilo A F. Fonte, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim

Abstract:

Initially developed as an antimalarial agent, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) sulfate is often used as a slow-acting antirheumatic drug in the treatment of disorders of connective tissue. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 37 provides a reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of HCQ. However, this method was not reproducible, producing asymmetric peaks in a long analysis time. The asymmetry of the peak may cause an incorrect calculation of the concentration of the sample. Furthermore, the analysis time is unacceptable, especially regarding the routine of a pharmaceutical industry. The aiming of this study was to develop a fast, easy and efficient method for quantification of HCQ sulfate by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based on the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology. This method was optimized in terms of peak symmetry using the surface area graphic as the Design of Experiments (DoE) and the tailing factor (TF) as an indicator to the Design Space (DS). The reference method used was that described at USP 37 to the quantification of the drug. For the optimized method, was proposed a 33 factorial design, based on the QbD concepts. The DS was created with the TF (in a range between 0.98 and 1.2) in order to demonstrate the ideal analytical conditions. Changes were made in the composition of the USP mobile-phase (USP-MP): USP-MP: Methanol (90:10 v/v, 80:20 v/v and 70:30 v/v), in the flow (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 mL) and in the oven temperature (30, 35, and 40ºC). The USP method allowed the quantification of drug in a long time (40-50 minutes). In addition, the method uses a high flow rate (1,5 mL.min-1) which increases the consumption of expensive solvents HPLC grade. The main problem observed was the TF value (1,8) that would be accepted if the drug was not a racemic mixture, since the co-elution of the isomers can become an unreliable peak integration. Therefore, the optimization was suggested in order to reduce the analysis time, aiming a better peak resolution and TF. For the optimization method, by the analysis of the surface-response plot it was possible to confirm the ideal setting analytical condition: 45 °C, 0,8 mL.min-1 and 80:20 USP-MP: Methanol. The optimized HPLC method enabled the quantification of HCQ sulfate, with a peak of high resolution, showing a TF value of 1,17. This promotes good co-elution of isomers of the HCQ, ensuring an accurate quantification of the raw material as racemic mixture. This method also proved to be 18 times faster, approximately, compared to the reference method, using a lower flow rate, reducing even more the consumption of the solvents and, consequently, the analysis cost. Thus, an analytical method for the quantification of HCQ sulfate was optimized using QbD methodology. This method proved to be faster and more efficient than the USP method, regarding the retention time and, especially, the peak resolution. The higher resolution in the chromatogram peaks supports the implementation of the method for quantification of the drug as racemic mixture, not requiring the separation of isomers.

Keywords: analytical method, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, quality by design, surface area graphic

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31 Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone by Square Wave Voltammetry Using a Zn Layered Hydroxide-Ferulate Modified Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrode

Authors: Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Illyas M. Isa

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In this paper, a multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) paste electrode modified by a Zn layered hydroxide-ferulate (ZLH-F) was used for detection of hydroquinone (HQ). The morphology and characteristic of the ZLH-F/MWCNT were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Under optimal conditions, the SWV response showed linear plot for HQ concentration in the range of 1.0×10⁻⁵ M – 1.0×10⁻³ M. The detection limit was found to be 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and correlation coefficient of 0.9957. The glucose, fructose, sucrose, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, lysine, NO₃⁻, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ did not interfere the HQ response. This modified electrode can be used to determine HQ content in wastewater and cosmetic cream with range of recovery 97.8% - 103.0%.

Keywords: 1, 4-dihydroxybenzene, hydroquinone, multiwall carbon nanotubes, square wave voltammetry

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30 Determination of Pesticides Residues in Tissue of Two Freshwater Fish Species by Modified QuEChERS Method

Authors: Iwona Cieślik, Władysław Migdał, Kinga Topolska, Ewa Cieślik

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The consumption of fish is recommended as a means of preventing serious diseases, especially cardiovascular problems. Fish is known to be a valuable source of protein (rich in essential amino acids), unsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, macro- and microelements. However, it can also contain several contaminants (e.g. pesticides, heavy metals) that may pose considerable risks for humans. Among others, pesticide are of special concern. Their widespread use has resulted in the contamination of environmental compartments, including water. The occurrence of pesticides in the environment is a serious problem, due to their potential toxicity. Therefore, a systematic monitoring is needed. The aim of the study was to determine the organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in fish muscle tissues of the pike (Esox lucius, L.) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykkis, Walbaum) by a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, using Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS), working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The analysis of α-HCH, β-HCH, lindane, diazinon, disulfoton, δ-HCH, methyl parathion, heptachlor, malathion, aldrin, parathion, heptachlor epoxide, γ-chlordane, endosulfan, α-chlordane, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, 4,4'-DDD, ethion, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan sulfate, 4,4'-DDT, and metoxychlor was performed in the samples collected in the Carp Valley (Malopolska region, Poland). The age of the pike (n=6) was 3 years and its weight was 2-3 kg, while the age of the rainbow trout (n=6) was 0.5 year and its weight was 0.5-1.0 kg. Detectable pesticide (HCH isomers, endosulfan isomers, DDT and its metabolites as well as metoxychlor) residues were present in fish samples. However, all these compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). The other examined pesticide residues were below the limit of detection (LOD). Therefore, the levels of contamination were - in all cases - below the default Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs), established by Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The monitoring of pesticide residues content in fish is required to minimize potential adverse effects on the environment and human exposure to these contaminants.

Keywords: contaminants, fish, pesticides residues, QuEChERS method

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29 Anticancer Activity of Milk Fat Rich in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells in Female Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Diea Gamal Abo El-Hassan, Salwa Ahmed Aly, Abdelrahman Mahmoud Abdelgwad

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The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have anticancer effect, especially breast cancer cells, inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Also, CLA has several health benefits in vivo, including antiatherogenesis, antiobesity, and modulation of immune function. The present study aimed to assess the safety and anticancer effects of milk fat CLA against in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in female Swiss albino mice. This was based on acute toxicity study, detection of the tumor growth, life span of EAC bearing hosts, and simultaneous alterations in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty adult female mice were equally divided into five groups. Groups (1-2) were normal controls, and Groups (3-5) were tumor transplanted mice (TTM) inoculated intraperitoneally with EAC cells (2×106 /0.2 mL). Group (3) was (TTM positive control). Group (4) TTM fed orally on balanced diet supplemented with milk fat CLA (40 mg CLA/kg body weight). Group (5) TTM fed orally on balanced diet supplemented with the same level of CLA 28 days before tumor cells inoculation. Blood samples and specimens from liver and kidney were collected from each group. The effect of milk fat CLA on the growth of tumor, life span of TTM, and simultaneous alterations in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles were examined. Results: For CLA treated TTM, significant decrease in tumor weight, ascetic volume, viable Ehrlich cells accompanied with increase in life span were observed. Hematological and biochemical profiles reverted to more or less normal levels and histopathology showed minimal effects. Conclusion: The present study proved the safety and anticancer efficiency of milk fat CLA and provides a scientific basis for its medicinal use as anticancer attributable to the additive or synergistic effects of its isomers.

Keywords: anticancer activity, conjugated linoleic acid, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, % increase in life span, mean survival time, tumor transplanted mice.

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28 Multimetallic and Multiferocenyl Assemblies of Ferocenyl-Based Dithiophospohonate and Their Electrochemical Properties

Authors: J. Tomilla Ajayi, Werner E. Van Zyl

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This work presents an overview of the reaction of 2, 4-diferrocenyl-1, 3-dithiadiphosphetane-2, 4-disulfide (Ferrocenyl Lawesson’s reagent) with water to produce the non-symmetric, ferocenyl dithiophosphonic acid respectively in high yields. These acids were readily deprotonated by anhydrous Ammonia to yield the corresponding ammonium salt NH4S2PFcOH. These were complex to Ni (II) in molar ratio 1:1 and 1:2. The resulting complex from the reaction formed same compound with different isomers (Cis and Trans) and also compound with multimetallic coordination. Quality X-ray crystals were formed from THF/Ether. The compounds were characterized by 1H, 31P NMR, and FTIR. Bulk purity were confirmed by either ESI-MS or elemental analysis and The XRD images were obtained using single crystal X-ray crystallographic studies. The electrochemical investigation of the Compounds were carried out using cyclic voltammetry.

Keywords: ferrocenyl, dithiophosphonate, isomer, coordination

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27 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

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The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp. soil, organochlorine pesticide

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26 Estimation of Enantioresolution of Multiple Stereogenic Drugs Using Mobilized and/or Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based HPLC Chiral Stationary Phases

Authors: Mohamed Hefnawy, Abdulrahman Al-Majed, Aymen Al-Suwailem

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Enantioseparation of drugs with multiple stereogenic centers is challenging. This study objectives to evaluate the efficiency of different mobilized and/or immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases to separate enantiomers of some drugs containing multiple stereogenic centers namely indenolol, nadolol, labetalol. The critical mobile phase variables (composition of organic solvents, acid/base ratios) were carefully studied to compare the retention time and elution order of all isomers. Different chromatographic parameters such as capacity factor (k), selectivity (α) and resolution (Rs) were calculated. Experimental conditions and the possible chiral recognition mechanisms have been discussed.

Keywords: HPLC, polysaccharide columns, enantio-resolution, indenolol, nadolol, labetalol

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25 Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues by Various Physiological Groups of Population in Andhra Pradesh, South India

Authors: Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda

Abstract:

Dietary exposure assessment of fifteen pesticide residues was done in Andhra Pradesh. Twelve commonly consumed foods including water, which were representative of the diet, were collected, processed as table ready and analysed for the presence of various Organochlorines, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. All the samples were contaminated with one or more of the 15 pesticide residues and all of them were within the MRLs. DDT and its isomers, Chlorpyriphos and Cypermethrin were frequently detected in many of the food samples. The mean concentration of the pesticide residues ranged from 0.02 μg kg-1 to 5.1 μg kg-1 (fresh weight) in the analysed foods. When exposure assessments was carried out for different age, sex and physiological groups it was found that the estimates of daily dietary intakes of the analysed pesticide residues in the present study are much lower than the violative levels in all age groups that were computed.

Keywords: table ready foods, pesticide residues, dietary intake, physiological groups, risk

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24 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon, Feng Wang

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, NMR, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis, Fukui function

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23 Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős

Abstract:

An assessment of the air quality of Győr (Hungary) was performed by determining the ambient concentrations of PM10-bound carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in different seasons. A high volume sampler was used for the collection of ambient aerosol particles, and the associated cPAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, indeno[123-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[ah]anthracene) were analyzed by a gas chromatographic method. Higher mean concentrations of total cPAHs were detected in samples collected in winter (9.62 ng/m3) and autumn (2.69 ng/m3) compared to spring (1.05 ng/m3) and summer (0.21 ng/m3). The calculated BaP toxic equivalent concentrations have also reflected that the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. Moreover, the concentration levels of cPAHs determined in this study were compared to other Hungarian urban sites.

Keywords: air, carcinogenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PM10

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22 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA) on Some Reproductive Hormones in Ram

Authors: Behnaz Mahdavi, Hamidreza Khodaei, Leila Karshenas

Abstract:

Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2) and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group) didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 gr and the third group received 1 gram of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 ml syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05). Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

Keywords: CLA, ram, testosterone, DHT, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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21 Free and Encapsulated (TiO2)2 Dimers into Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: S. Dargouthi, S. Boughdiri, B. Tangour

Abstract:

This work invoked two complementary parts. In the first, we performed a theoretical study of various dimers of molecular of titanium dioxide. Five structures were examined. Three among them, the (T), (C) and (T/P) isomers, may be considered as stable compounds because they represent absolute minima on their potential energy surfaces. (T) and (C) may coexist because they are separted by only 6.5 kcal mol-1 but (T/P) dimer is in a metastable state from an energetic point of view. Non bonded dimer (P) transforms into its homologue (O) which has been considered as transitory specie with low lifetime which evolves to (T) structure. In the second part, we highlight the possible stabilization of (T), (C) and (P) dimers by encapsulation in carbon nanotubes. This indicates the probable role that plays this transitory specie the polymerization process of molecular TiO2. Confinement is suitable to control the fast evolution process and could towards the synthesis of new titanium dioxide nanostructured materials. An alternative description of TiO2 polymorphs (Rutie, anatase et Brookite) is proposed from (T), (C) and (T/P) dimmers motifs.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, carbon nanotube, confinement. encapsulation, transitory specie

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20 Mechanistic Analysis of an L-2-Haloacid Dehalogenase (DehL) from Rhizobium Sp. RC1: Computational Approach

Authors: Aliyu Adamu, Fahrul Huyop, Roswanira Abdul Wahab, Mohd Shahir Shamsir

Abstract:

Halogenated organic compounds occur in huge amount in biosphere. This is attributable to the diverse use of halogen-based compounds in the synthesis of various industrially important products. Halogenated compound is toxic and may persist in the environment, thereby causing serious health and environmental pollution problems. L-2-haloacid dehalogenases (EC 3.8.1.2) catalyse the specific cleavage of carbon-halogen bond in L-isomers of halogenated compounds, which consequently reverse the effects of environmental halogen-associated pollution. To enhance the efficiency and utility of these enzymes, this study investigates the catalytic amino acid residues and the molecular functional mechanism of DehL, by classical molecular dynamic simulations, MM-PBSA and ab initio fragments molecular orbital (FMO) calculations. The results of the study will serve as the basis for the molecular engineering of the enzyme.

Keywords: DehL, Functional mechanism, Catalytic residues, L-2-haloacid dehalogenase

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19 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Reproductive Axis of Ram

Authors: Behnaz Mahdavi, Hamidreza Khodaei, Alireza Banitaba

Abstract:

Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2) and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group) did not receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 gr and the third group received 1 gram of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 ml syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05). Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also, the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

Keywords: CLA, ram, testosterone, conjugated linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
18 Raman and FTIR Studies of Azobenzene: Experimental and Theoretical Approach

Authors: Gomti Devi

Abstract:

Photoisomerization has been attracting to researchers due to its wide range of applications in optical switches, polymeric chains, liquid-crystalline systems and bilayer membranes etc. Azobenzene is a photochromic molecule which exhibits a reversible isomerisation process between its trans and cis isomers of different stability. An investigation has been conducted of the effects of temperature on intensity and position of Raman band of N=N, C-N stretching modes of Azobenzene (AZBN). It was found that the N=N stretching mode of Raman band shape shifts to lower frequency region with the increase in temperature. The Raman intensity was also decreased with the increase of temperature. The change in bandwidth with the increase in temperature has been studied. The FTIR spectrum of the molecule is recorded so as to complement the Raman spectra. In order to investigate the possibility of undergoing dimerization and trimerization as well as the stability of this molecule, ab initio calculation for geometry optimization and vibrational wavenumber calculation have been performed. Theoretically calculated values are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: azobenzene, temperature, ab-initio, frequency

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17 Libyan Crude Oil Composition Analysis and Prediction

Authors: Omar Hussein El Ayadi, EmadY. El-Mansouri, Mohamed B. Dozan

Abstract:

Production oil process require specific details i.e. oil composition. Generally, types of oil or differentiation between reservoir fluids depend specifically on composition. The main purpose of this study is to correlate and predict the Libyan oil (reservoir fluid and residual) composition utilizing tri-angle-coordinate plots discovered and tasked with Excel. The reservoir fluid data (61 old + 47 new), the residual oil data (33 new) collected from most of Libyan reservoirs were correlated with each others. Moreover, find a relation between stock tank molecular weight and stock tank oil gravity (oAPI), the molecular weight oh (C7+) versus residual oil gravity (oAPI). The average value of every oil composition was estimated including non-hydrocarbon (H2S, CO2, and N2). Nevertheless, the isomers (i-…) and normal (n-…) structure of (C4) and (C5) were also obtained. The summary of the conclusion is; utilizing excel Microsoft office to draw triangle coordinates to find two unknown component if only one is known. However, it is recommended to use the obtained oil composition plots and equations for any oil composition dependents i.e. optimum separator pressure.

Keywords: PVT, phase behavior, petroleum, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
16 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev

Abstract:

Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: molecular switches, NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes, quantum chemical calculations

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15 Synthesis of 2-Aminoisocoumarinoselenazoles via Transition Metal-Free Alkylation and Ru(II)-Catalyzed [4+2] Alkyne Annulation

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Sandip Dhole, Deepak Salunke, Chung-ming Sun

Abstract:

Heterocycles bearing nitrogen, oxygen, and selenium are present in innumerable biologically active compounds. For instance, coumarin containing dicoumarol acts as naturally occurring anticoagulant. 2-Acylamido selenazole works as Store-Operated Calcium (SOC) channel regulator. Therefore, due to biologically significance of selenazole and coumarin and our quest to develop efficient methodologies for the synthesis of complex heterocycles, the trisubstituted angular isocoumarinoselenazole synthesis was proposed and achieved by starting from nitrobenzoic acid derivative, available commercially. Synthetic procedure involves three steps: i) the construction of 2-aminobenzoselenazoles, ii) their regioselective N-alkylation at position-2 and iii) alkyne insertion via Ru catalyzed C-H activation. Transition metal free synthesis of benzoselenazoles was successfully brought about by the addition/elimination reaction via intramolecular C-Se bond formation. In the next step, N-alkylation of selenazole furnished two regioisomers. Both the isomers exhibited different reactivity towards [4+2] alkyne annulation reaction. The fusion of α-pyrone ring on the benzo[1,3-d]selenazole skeleton was achieved via Ru(II)-catalyzed C-H activation and alkyne insertion. As evident from mechanism, the selenazole 'N' plays an important role for the experiential selectivity.

Keywords: alkylation, alkyne insertion, coumarin, selenazole

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14 Spectrophotometric Determination of Photohydroxylated Products of Humic Acid in the Presence of Salicylate Probe

Authors: Julide Hizal Yucesoy, Batuhan Yardimci, Aysem Arda, Resat Apak

Abstract:

Humic substances produce reactive oxygene species such as hydroxyl, phenoxy and superoxide radicals by oxidizing in a wide pH and reduction potential range. Hydroxyl radicals, produced by reducing agents such as antioxidants and/or peroxides, attack on salicylate probe, and form 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate species. These species are quantitatively determined by using HPLC Method. Humic substances undergo photodegradation by UV radiation. As a result of their antioxidant properties, they produce hydroxyl radicals. In the presence of salicylate probe, these hydroxyl radicals react with salicylate molecules to form hydroxylated products (dihidroxybenzoate isomers). In this study, humic acid was photodegraded in a photoreactor at 254 nm (400W), formed hydroxyl radicals were caught by salicylate probe. The total concentration of hydroxylated salicylate species was measured by using spectrophotometric CUPRAC Method. And also, using results of time dependent experiments, kinetic of photohydroxylation was determined at different pHs. This method has been applied for the first time to measure the concentration of hydroxylated products. It allows to achieve the results easier than HPLC Method.

Keywords: CUPRAC method, humic acid, photohydroxylation, salicylate probe

Procedia PDF Downloads 136