Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Marjan Fayyazi

26 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati

Abstract:

Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: Assurance, Experience, reputation, expertise, audit quality, capability, independence, responsiveness, auditor’s rotation

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25 The Effect of Human Capital and Oil Revenue on Income Distribution in Real Sample

Authors: Marjan Majdi, MohammadAli Moradi, Elham Samarikhalaj

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Income distribution is one of the most topics in macro economic theories. There are many categories in economy such as income distribution that have the most influenced by economic policies. Human capital has an impact on economic growth and it has significant effect on income distributions. The results of this study confirm that the effects of oil revenue and human capital on income distribution are negative and significant but the value of the estimated coefficient is too small in a real sample in period time (1969-2006).

Keywords: Human Capital, Income Distribution, gini coefficient, oil revenue

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24 Selection the Most Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Muscle of Iran's Canned Tuna by Comparison of Different DNA Extraction Methods

Authors: Marjan Heidarzadeh

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High quality and purity of DNA isolated from canned tuna is essential for species identification. In this study, the efficiency of five different methods for DNA extraction was compared. Method of national standard in Iran, the CTAB precipitation method, Wizard DNA Clean Up system, Nucleospin and GenomicPrep were employed. DNA was extracted from two different canned tuna in brine and oil of the same tuna species. Three samples of each type of product were analyzed with the different methods. The quantity and quality of DNA extracted was evaluated using the 260 nm absorbance and ratio A260/A280 by spectrophotometer picodrop. Results showed that the DNA extraction from canned tuna preserved in different liquid media could be optimized by employing a specific DNA extraction method in each case. Best results were obtained with CTAB method for canned tuna in oil and with Wizard method for canned tuna in brine.

Keywords: Dna, Species Identification, canned tuna PCR, DNA extraction methods

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23 Customers’ Priority to Implement SSTs Using AHP Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Jafariahangari, Marjan Habibi, Miresmaeil Mirnabibaboli, Mirza Hassan Hosseini

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Self-service technologies (SSTs) make an important contribution to the daily life of people nowadays. However, the introduction of SST does not lead to its usage. Thereby, this paper was an attempt on discovery of the most preferred SST in the customers’ point of view. To fulfill this aim, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied based on Saaty’s questionnaire which was administered to the customers of e-banking services located in Golestan providence, north of Iran. This study used qualitative factors in association with the intention of consumers’ usage of SSTs to rank three SSTs: ATM, mobile banking, and internet banking. The results showed that mobile banking get the highest weight in consumers’ point of view. This research can be useful both for managers and service providers and also for customers who intend to use e-banking.

Keywords: Decision-making, E-banking, Iran, analytical hierarchy process, self-service technologies

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22 Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Sajed Yaghoubnezhad, Mina Karimi, Seyede Marjan Modirkhazeni

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The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).

Keywords: Depression, Social Support, codependency, mothers of children with ID

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21 A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects

Authors: Setareh Shekarsaraei, Marjan Moridi, Nasser L. Hadipour

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In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also, we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results have shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR, and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.

Keywords: hydrogen bonding, density functional theory (DFT), natural bond orbitals (NBO), cooperativity effect

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20 Application of Dissolved Air Flotation for Removal of Oil from Wastewater

Authors: Zahra Akbari, Talat Ghomashchi, Shirin Malekpour, Marjan Alimirzaee

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Mixing the waste water of industries with natural water has caused environmental pollution. So researcher try to obtain methods and optimum conditions for waste water treatment. One of important stage in waste water treatment is dissolved air flotation. DAF is used for the removal of suspended solids and oils from waste water. In this paper, the effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency with Cationic polyacrylamide as flocculant, was examined, namely, (a) concentration of cationic flocculants, (b) pH (c) fast mixing time, (d) fast mixing speed,(e) slow mixing time,(f) retention time and temperature. After design of experiment, in each trial turbidity of waste water was measured by spectrophotometer. Results show that contribution of pH and concentration of flocculant on flotation efficiency are 75% and 9% respectively. Cationic polyacrylamide led to a significant increase in the settling speed and effect of temperature is negligible. In the optimum condition, the outcome of the DAF unit is increased and amount of suspended solid and oil in waste water is decreased effectively.

Keywords: treatment, Waste water, Dissolved Air Flotation, oil Industry

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19 Prey-Stage Preference, Functional Response, and Mutual Interference of Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-Henriot on Frankliniella occidentalis Priesner

Authors: Marjan Heidarian Dehkordi, Hossein Allahyari, Bruce Parker, Reza Talaee-Hassanlouei

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The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a significant pest of many economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses, prey-stage preferences and mutual interference of Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) with F. occidentalis as the host under laboratory conditions. The predator species showed no prey stage preference for either prey 1st or 2nd instar. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional response for the predator species. Consequently, the per capita searching efficiency decreased significantly from 1.2425 to -7.4987 as predator densities increased from 2 to 8. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of F. occidentalis and other pests in vegetable production.

Keywords: Biological Control, functional responses, mutual interference, prey-stage preferences

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18 Effects of Vitexin on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats

Authors: Mehdi Sheikhi, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Esmail Abbasi, Mahsa Shafiee

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Various synthetic derivatives of natural flavonoids are known to have neuroactive properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitexin (5, 7, 4-trihydroxyflavone-8-glucoside), a flavonoid found in such plants as tartary buckwheat sprouts, wheat leaves phenolome, Mimosa pudica Linn and Passiflora spp, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. To achieve this goal, we assessed the effects of vitexin on memory retrieval in the presence or absence of scopolamine using a step-through passive avoidance trial. In the first part of the study, vitexin (25, 50, and 100 μM) was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) before acquisition trials. In the second part, vitexin, at the same doses, was administered before scopolamine (10 μg, i.c.v.) and before the acquisition trials. During retention tests, vitexin (100 μM) in the absence of scopolamine significantly increased the stepthrough latencies compared to scopolamine. In addition, vitexin (100 μM) significantly reversed the shorter step-through latencies induced by scopolamine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that vitexin has a potential role in enhancing memory retrieval. A possible mechanism is modulation of cholinergic receptors; however, other mechanisms may be involved in its effects in acute exposure.

Keywords: Memory Retrieval, flavonoid, passive avoidance, scopolamine, vitexin

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17 Effectiveness of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Improving Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rehabilitation

Authors: Marjan GhaziSaeedi, Azadeh Bashiri

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Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in early childhood that in addition to its main symptoms provide significant deficits in the areas of educational, social and individual relationship. Considering the importance of rehabilitation in ADHD patients to control these problems, this study investigated the advantages of computer-based cognitive training in these patients. Methods: This review article has been conducted by searching articles since 2005 in scientific databases and e-Journals and by using keywords including computerized cognitive rehabilitation, computer-based training and ADHD. Results: Since drugs have short term effects and also they have many side effects in the rehabilitation of ADHD patients, using supplementary methods such as computer-based cognitive training is one of the best solutions. This approach has quick feedback and also has no side effects. So, it provides promising results in cognitive rehabilitation of ADHD especially on the working memory and attention. Conclusion: Considering different cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD patients, application of the computerized cognitive training has the potential to improve cognitive functions and consequently social, academic and behavioral performances in patients with this disorder.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, ADHD, Cognitive Functions, computer-based cognitive training

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16 Safety Approach Highway Alignment Optimization

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Marjan Naderan Tahan, Arman Kadkhodai

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An efficient optimization approach, called feasible gate (FG), is developed to enhance the computation efficiency and solution quality of the previously developed highway alignment optimization (HAO) model. This approach seeks to realistically represent various user preferences and environmentally sensitive areas and consider them along with geometric design constraints in the optimization process. This is done by avoiding the generation of infeasible solutions that violate various constraints and thus focusing the search on the feasible solutions. The proposed method is simple, but improves significantly the model’s computation time and solution quality. On the other, highway alignment optimization through Feasible Gates, eventuates only economic model by considering minimum design constrains includes minimum reduce of circular curves, minimum length of vertical curves and road maximum gradient. This modelling can reduce passenger comfort and road safety. In most of highway optimization models, by adding penalty function for each constraint, final result handles to satisfy minimum constraint. In this paper, we want to propose a safety-function solution by introducing gift function.

Keywords: Optimization, Safety, alignment, highway geometry

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15 Methaheuristic Bat Algorithm in Training of Feed-Forward Neural Network for Stock Price Prediction

Authors: Marjan Golmaryami, Marzieh Behzadi

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Recent developments in stock exchange highlight the need for an efficient and accurate method that helps stockholders make better decision. Since stock markets have lots of fluctuations during the time and different effective parameters, it is difficult to make good decisions. The purpose of this study is to employ artificial neural network (ANN) which can deal with time series data and nonlinear relation among variables to forecast next day stock price. Unlike other evolutionary algorithms which were utilized in stock exchange prediction, we trained our proposed neural network with metaheuristic bat algorithm, with fast and powerful convergence and applied it in stock price prediction for the first time. In order to prove the performance of the proposed method, this research selected a 7 year dataset from Parsian Bank stocks and after imposing data preprocessing, used 3 types of ANN (back propagation-ANN, particle swarm optimization-ANN and bat-ANN) to predict the closed price of stocks. Afterwards, this study engaged MATLAB to simulate 3 types of ANN, with the scoring target of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The results may be adapted to other companies stocks too.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), bat algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), stock exchange

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14 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama on Anxiety Enhancement in Adolescent Boys

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Marjan Pooee

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Background - Psychodrama, as a form of art therapy, helps people to enact and use role-plays for a specific problem, rather than just talking about it, in an effort to review the problem, gain feedback from group members, find appropriate solutions, and practice them for their life. This paper evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama on enhancing anxiety of young adolescent boys. Methodology - This is aquasi-experimental research study, using a pre-post testing plan with control group. From four secondary schools in Kermanshah - Iran, 210 adolescent boys (aged 13 and 14 years) were asked to complete Koper Smith's self-esteem measure scale. Given the low self-esteem scores (less than the cut-off of 23), a number of 20 individuals were selected and randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a twelve-session psychodrama therapy plan for 6 weeks, while the control group received no intervention. Data analysis was carried out by the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results - The results of ANCOVA analysis showed an increase in the post-test scores for anxiety, and such increase was statistically significant. Conclusion - The findings indicated the effectiveness of psychodrama on anxiety enhancement of young boys. During psychodrama sessions, the adolescents learned to take the initiative, communicate with others in an excited state, and improve their anxiety with positive and constructive experiences.

Keywords: Anxiety, psychodrama, art therapy, young adolescents

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13 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi

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Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, north of Iran

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12 Obstacles to Accessible Tourism for People with Mental, Physical and Mobility Disability: A Case Study of North Cyprus

Authors: Marjan Kamyabi

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Attending tourism in the current century is one of the key factors in the success of the tourism industry and, consequently, the prosperity of the economies of the countries. In this regard, accessible tourism can play a major role in the development of tourism, taking into account the attractions, facilities and capabilities of the development of tourism in Northern Cyprus, and given that the satisfaction of tourists from the product and destination of tourism has an undeniable role in attracting tourists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental barriers and accessibility of the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. Another goal of this study is to introduce this consumer group to the tourism community. In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, a questionnaire was designed and provided to three tourism professionals to assess the reliability, and then, among the 200 people with physical and mental disabilities who travelled to Cyprus, The data analysis was used as a confirmatory factor analysis method. The environmental barrier for tourists with disabilities is classified in three sections of transport, attractions and accommodation, each section being separately identified separately. In general, observance of the principles and standards of proper fitting in the main sectors of the tourism industry of Northern Cyprus in the situation The facilities and transportation were identified as the first problem and obstacle for the development of tourism for people with physical and mental disabilities and, finally, suggestions and solutions for the development of tourism for people with physical and physical disabilities were presented.

Keywords: Tourism, Accessibility, Accessible Tourism, people with disability, environmental barriers

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11 Rheology and Structural Arrest of Dense Dairy Suspensions: A Soft Matter Approach

Authors: Marjan Javanmard

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The rheological properties of dairy products critically depend on the underlying organisation of proteins at multiple length scales. When heated and acidified, milk proteins form particle gel that is viscoelastic, solvent rich, ‘soft’ material. In this work recent developments on the rheology of soft particles suspensions were used to interpret and potentially define the properties of dairy gel structures. It is discovered that at volume fractions below random close packing (RCP), the Maron-Pierce-Quemada (MPQ) model accurately predicts the viscosity of the dairy gel suspensions without fitting parameters; the MPQ model has been shown previously to provide reasonable predictions of the viscosity of hard sphere suspensions from the volume fraction, solvent viscosity and RCP. This surprising finding demonstrates that up to RCP, the dairy gel system behaves as a hard sphere suspension and that the structural aggregates behave as discrete particulates akin to what is observed for microgel suspensions. At effective phase volumes well above RCP, the system is a soft solid. In this region, it is discovered that the storage modulus of the sheared AMG scales with the storage modulus of the set gel. The storage modulus in this regime is reasonably well described as a function of effective phase volume by the Evans and Lips model. Findings of this work has potential to aid in rational design and control of dairy food structure-properties.

Keywords: dairy suspensions, rheology-structure, Maron-Pierce-Quemada Model, Evans and Lips Model

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10 Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahbobeh Gholipour

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Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.

Keywords: Hypertension, weight, dietary intake, north of Iran

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9 The Immunosuppressive Effects of Silymarin with Rapamaycin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of T Cell

Authors: Nahid Eskandari, Marjan Ghagozolo, Ehsan Almasi

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Introduction: Silymarin, as a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is known to have antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiviral effects. The goal of this study was to determine immunosuppressive effect of Silymarin on proliferation and apoptosis of human T cells in comparison with Rapamycin and FK506. Methods: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals were activated with Con A (5µg/ml) and then treated with Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 in various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10,100 and 200M) for 5 days. PBMCs were examined for proliferation using CFSE assay and the concentration that inhibited 50% of the cell proliferation (IC50) was determined for each treatment. For apoptosis assay using flow cytometry, PBMCs were activated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 for 5 days, then cell apoptosis was analysed by FITC-annexin V/PI staining and flow cytometry. The effects of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 on the activation of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) pathway in PBMCs stimulated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of drugs for 5 days evaluated using the PathScan cleaved PARP sandwich ELISA kit. Results: This study showed that Silymarin had the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, our results indicated that 100 μM (P < 0.001) and 200 μM (P < 0.001) of Silymarin has more inhibitory effect on T cells proliferation than FK506 and Rapamycin. Our data showed that the effective doses (IC50) of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin were 3×10-5 µM, 10-8 µM and 10-6 µM respectively. Data showed that the inhibitory effect of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin on T cell proliferation was not due to cytotoxicity and none of these drugs at IC50 concentration had not affected the level of cleaved PARP. Conclusion: Silymarin could be a good candidate for immunosuppressive therapy for certain medical conditions with superior efficacy and lesser toxicity in comparison with other immunosuppressive drugs.

Keywords: Immunology, Silymarin, immunosuppressive effect, rapamycin

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8 Evaluation of Classification Algorithms for Diagnosis of Asthma in Iranian Patients

Authors: Peyman Rezaei Hachesu, Taha SamadSoltani, Marjan GhaziSaeedi, Maryam Zolnoori

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Introduction: Data mining defined as a process to find patterns and relationships along data in the database to build predictive models. Application of data mining extended in vast sectors such as the healthcare services. Medical data mining aims to solve real-world problems in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This method applies various techniques and algorithms which have different accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to apply knowledge discovery and data mining techniques for the diagnosis of asthma based on patient symptoms and history. Method: Data mining includes several steps and decisions should be made by the user which starts by creation of an understanding of the scope and application of previous knowledge in this area and identifying KD process from the point of view of the stakeholders and finished by acting on discovered knowledge using knowledge conducting, integrating knowledge with other systems and knowledge documenting and reporting.in this study a stepwise methodology followed to achieve a logical outcome. Results: Sensitivity, Specifity and Accuracy of KNN, SVM, Naïve bayes, NN, Classification tree and CN2 algorithms and related similar studies was evaluated and ROC curves were plotted to show the performance of the system. Conclusion: The results show that we can accurately diagnose asthma, approximately ninety percent, based on the demographical and clinical data. The study also showed that the methods based on pattern discovery and data mining have a higher sensitivity compared to expert and knowledge-based systems. On the other hand, medical guidelines and evidence-based medicine should be base of diagnostics methods, therefore recommended to machine learning algorithms used in combination with knowledge-based algorithms.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Asthma, Datamining, classification

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7 Community Development and Empowerment

Authors: Shahin Marjan Nanaje

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The present century is the time that social worker faced complicated issues in the area of their work. All the focus are on bringing change in the life of those that they live in margin or live in poverty became the cause that we have forgotten to look at ourselves and start to bring change in the way we address issues. It seems that there is new area of needs that social worker should response to that. In need of dialogue and collaboration, to address the issues and needs of community both individually and as a group we need to have new method of dialogue as tools to reach to collaboration. The social worker as link between community, organization and government play multiple roles. They need to focus in the area of communication with new ability, to transfer all the narration of the community to those organization and government and vice versa. It is not relate only in language but it is about changing dialogue. Migration for survival by job seeker to the big cities created its own issues and difficulty and therefore created new need. Collaboration is not only requiring between government sector and non-government sectors but also it could be in new way between government, non-government and communities. To reach to this collaboration we need healthy, productive and meaningful dialogue. In this new collaboration there will not be any hierarchy between members. The methodology that selected by researcher were focusing on observation at the first place, and used questionnaire in the second place. Duration of the research was three months and included home visits, group discussion and using communal narrations which helped to bring enough evidence to understand real need of community. The sample selected randomly was included 70 immigrant families which work as sweepers in the slum community in Bangalore, Karnataka. The result reveals that there is a gap between what a community is and what organizations, government and members of society apart from this community think about them. Consequently, it is learnt that to supply any service or bring any change to slum community, we need to apply new skill to have dialogue and understand each other before providing any services. Also to bring change in the life of those marginal groups at large we need to have collaboration as their challenges are collective and need to address by different group and collaboration will be necessary. The outcome of research helped researcher to see the area of need for new method of dialogue and collaboration as well as a framework for collaboration and dialogue that were main focus of the paper. The researcher used observation experience out of ten NGO’s and their activities to create framework for dialogue and collaboration.

Keywords: Collaboration, Dialogue, Community Development, Empowerment

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6 Investigation p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Breast Cancer

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

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Aim: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting the morbidity and mortality of Iranian women. This disease is a result of collective alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of several cancers; therefore, a research was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 archival breast cancer samples from khatam hospital and 40 healthy samples were collected. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Then, DNA extracted from all samples by standard methods and p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes were analyzed using multiplex PCR. The tubules, mitotic activity, necrosis, polymorphism and grade of breast cancer were staged by Nottingham histological grading and immunohistochemical staining of the sections from the paraffin wax embedded tissues for the expression of ER, PR and p53 was carried out using a standard method. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in the study population. In this study, we established that tumors of p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype exhibited higher mitotic activity, higher polymorphism, lower necrosis, lower tubules, higher ER- and PR-negatives and lower TP53-positives than the other genotypes. Conclusion: The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype may effect breast cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with clinical parameters can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of breast cancers.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, genotypes, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 codon 72 polymorphism

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5 Study of Relation between P53 and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

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Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Polymorphism, P53, miR-146a, rs2910164

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4 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and miR-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Breast Cancer

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Aim: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting the morbidity and mortality of Iranian women. This disease is a result of collective alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism (G>C) and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism (G>C) on the risk of several cancers; therefore, a research was performed to estimate the association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 archival breast cancer samples from Khatam hospital and 40 healthy samples were collected. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Then, DNA extracted from all samples by standard methods and p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes were analyzed using multiplex PCR. The tubules, mitotic activity, necrosis, polymorphism and grade of breast cancer were staged by Nottingham histological grading and immunohistochemical staining of the sections from the paraffin wax embedded tissues for the expression of ER, PR and p53 was carried out using a standard method. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in the study population. In this study, we established that tumors of p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype exhibited higher mitotic activity, higher polymorphism, lower necrosis, lower tubules, higher ER- and PR-negatives and lower TP53-positives than the other genotypes. Conclusion: The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype may effect breast cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with clinical parameters can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of breast cancers.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Tumors, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, pathology reports

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3 Investigation p53 and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33, and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, neoplasia, HPV, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 polymorphism, intraepithelial

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2 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, HPV18

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1 Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 L1 Virus-Like Particles in Methylotropic Yeast, Pichia Pastoris

Authors: Marjan Moradi fard, Hossein Rassi, Samaneh Niko

Abstract:

Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 are closely associated with the development of human cervical carcinoma, which is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. At present, HPV type 18 accounts for about 34 % of all HPV infections in Iran and the most promising vaccine against HPV infection is based on the L1 major capsid protein. The L1 protein of HPV18 has the capacity to self-assemble into capsomers or virus-like particles (VLPs) that are non-infectious, highly immunogenic and allowing their use in vaccine production. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an efficient and inexpensive expression system used to produce high levels of heterologous proteins. In this study we expressed HPV18 L1 VLPs in P. pastoris. The gene encoding the major capsid protein L1 of the high-risk HPV type 18 was isolated from Iranian patient by PCR and inserted into pTG19-T vector to obtain the recombinant expression vector pTG19-HPV18-L1. Then, the pTG19-HPV18-L1 was transformed into E. coli strain DH5α and the recombinant protein HPV18 L1 was expressed under IPTG induction in soluble form. The HPV18 L1 gene was excised from recombinant plasmid with XhoI and EcoRI enzymes and ligated into the yeast expression vector pPICZα linearized with the same enzymes, and transformed into P. pastoris. Induction and expression of HPV18 L1 protein was demonstrated by BMGY/BMMY and RT PCR. The parameters for induced cultivation for strain in P. pastoris KM71 with HPV16L1 were investigated in shaking flask cultures. After induced cultivation BMMY (pH 7.0) medium supplemented with methanol to a final concentration of 1.0% every 24 h at 37 degrees C for 96 h, the recombinant produced 78.6 mg/L of L1 protein. This work offers the possibility for the production of prophylactic vaccine for cervical carcinoma by P. pastoris for HPV-18 L1 gene. The VLP-based HPV vaccines can prevent persistent HPV18 infections and cervical cancer in Iran. The HPV-18 L1 gene was expressed successfully in E.coli, which provides necessary basis for preparing HPV-18 L1 vaccine in human. Also, HPV type 6 L1 proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris will facilitate the HPV vaccine development and structure-function study.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Pichia pastoris, L1 virus-like particles, human papillomavirus type 18

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