Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2015

Search results for: computer aided engineering

2015 A Highly Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Using Thermographic Analysis

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani


Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD systems can play crucial roles in diagnosing crucial diseases such as breast cancer at the earliest. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system for the diagnosis of breast cancer was introduced and evaluated. This CAD system was developed by using Spatio-temporal analysis of data on a set of consecutive thermographic images by employing wavelet transformation. By using this analysis, a very accurate machine learning model by using random forest was trained. The final results showed a promising accuracy of 91% in terms of the F1 measure indicator among 200 patients' sample data. The prediction model was further employed to obtain a detailed analysis of the effect of smaller sub-areas of each breast on the occurrence of cancer.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, thermographic analysis, Spatio-temporal analysis, image processing, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2014 The Use of Computer-Aided Design in Small Contractors in a Local Area of Korea

Authors: Myunghoun Jang


A survey of small-size contractors in Jeju was conducted to investigate college graduate's computer-aided design (CAD) competence. Most of small-size contractors use CAD software to review and update drawings submitted from an architect. This research analyzed the curriculum of the architectural engineering in several national universities. The CAD classes have 4 or 6 hours per week and use AutoCAD primarily. This paper proposes that a CAD class needs 6 hours per week, 2D drawing is the main theme in the curriculum, and exercises to make 3D models are also included in the CAD class. An improved method, for example Internet cafe and real time feedbacks using smartphones, to evaluate the reports and exercise results is necessary.

Keywords: CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAD education, education improvement, small-size contractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2013 Ethical Perspectives on Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli

Authors: Kelechi Ezeji


The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technologies has become pervasive in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion as an important part of the training module in the curriculum for Architecture Schools in Nigeria. This paper examines the ethical questions that arise in the implementation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Content of the curriculum for Architectural education. Using existing literature, it begins this scrutiny from the propriety of inclusion of CAD into the education of the architect and the obligations of the different stakeholders in the implementation process. It also examines the questions raised by the negative use of computing technologies as well as perceived negative influence of the use of CAD on design creativity. Survey methodology was employed to gather data from the Department of Architecture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, which has been used as a case study on how the issues raised are being addressed. The paper draws conclusions on what will make for successful ethical implementation.

Keywords: computer aided design, curriculum, education, ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2012 Computer Aided Assembly Attributes Retrieval Methods for Automated Assembly Sequence Generation

Authors: M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, B. B. V. L. Deepak


Achieving an appropriate assembly sequence needs deep verification for its physical feasibility. For this purpose, industrial engineers use several assembly predicates; namely, liaison, geometric feasibility, stability and mechanical feasibility. However, testing an assembly sequence for these predicates requires huge assembly information. Extracting such assembly information from an assembled product is a time consuming and highly skillful task with complex reasoning methods. In this paper, computer aided methods are proposed to extract all the necessary assembly information from computer aided design (CAD) environment in order to perform the assembly sequence planning efficiently. These methods use preliminary capabilities of three-dimensional solid modelling and assembly modelling methods used in CAD software considering equilibrium laws of physical bodies.

Keywords: assembly automation, assembly attributes, assembly, CAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2011 Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier

Authors: Atanu K Samanta, Asim Ali Khan


Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), tumor segmentation, level set method

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
2010 An Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Aortic Enlargement by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani


Aortic enlargement, also known as an aortic aneurysm, can occur when the walls of the aorta become weak. This disease can become deadly if overlooked and undiagnosed. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system was introduced to accurately diagnose Aortic enlargement from chest x-ray images. A novel approach by using an optimized Convolutional Neural Networks - CNN was employed. Three main areas, including the left lung, heart, and right lung were extracted from the original images. These three areas were then fed to a CNN. The accuracy of the system was evaluated on 1000 sample images by using 4-fold cross-validation. A promising accuracy of 84% was achieved in terms of the F-measure indicator. This encouraged the author to evaluate this method on a larger dataset and even on different CAD systems for further enhancement of this methodology.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, aortic enlargement, chest X-ray, image processing, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2009 A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Halleh Nejadriahi, Kamyar Arab


Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.

Keywords: architecture, architectural practice, computer aided design (CAD), design process

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
2008 Effects of Computer Aided Instructional Package on Performance and Retention of Genetic Concepts amongst Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad R. Bello, Mamman A. Wasagu, Yahya M. Kamar


The study investigated the effects of computer-aided instructional package (CAIP) on performance and retention of genetic concepts among secondary school students in Niger State. Quasi-experimental research design i.e. pre-test-post-test experimental and control groups were adopted for the study. The population of the study was all senior secondary school three (SS3) students’ offering biology. A sample of 223 students was randomly drawn from six purposively selected secondary schools. The researchers’ developed computer aided instructional package (CAIP) on genetic concepts was used as treatment instrument for the experimental group while the control group was exposed to the conventional lecture method (CLM). The instrument for data collection was a Genetic Performance Test (GEPET) that had 50 multiple-choice questions which were validated by science educators. A Reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained for GEPET using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 20 package for computation of Means, Standard deviation, t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The ANOVA analysis (Fcal (220) = 27.147, P < 0.05) shows that students who received instruction with CAIP outperformed the students who received instruction with CLM and also had higher retention. The findings also revealed no significant difference in performance and retention between male and female students (tcal (103) = -1.429, P > 0.05). It was recommended amongst others that teachers should use computer-aided instructional package in teaching genetic concepts in order to improve students’ performance and retention in biology subject. Keywords: Computer-aided Instructional Package, Performance, Retention and Genetic Concepts.

Keywords: computer aided instructional package, performance, retention, genetic concepts, senior secondary school students

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2007 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal


In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: computer aided teaching, open circuit test, short circuit test, simulink, transformer

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
2006 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V.K.Jain


Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Masses and microcalcifications, architectural distortions are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support Vector Machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and accuracy of 96% for the detection of abnormalities with mammogram images collected from Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) database.

Keywords: architecture distortion, mammograms, GLCM texture features, GLRLM texture features, support vector machine classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
2005 A Design System for Complex Profiles of Machine Members Using a Synthetic Curve

Authors: N. Sateesh, C. S. P. Rao, K. Satyanarayana, C. Rajashekar


This paper proposes a development of a CAD/CAM system for complex profiles of various machine members using a synthetic curve i.e. B-spline. Conventional methods in designing and manufacturing of complex profiles are tedious and time consuming. Even programming those on a computer numerical control (CNC) machine can be a difficult job because of the complexity of the profiles. The system developed provides graphical and numerical representation B-spline profile for any given input. In this paper, the system is applicable to represent a cam profile with B-spline and attempt is made to improve the follower motion.

Keywords: plate-cams, cam profile, b-spline, computer numerical control (CNC), computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), R-D-R-D (rise-dwell-return-dwell)

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2004 Computer-Aided Exudate Diagnosis for the Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Shu-Min Tsao, Chung-Ming Lo, Shao-Chun Chen


Most diabetes patients tend to suffer from its complication of retina diseases. Therefore, early detection and early treatment are important. In clinical examinations, using color fundus image was the most convenient and available examination method. According to the exudates appeared in the retinal image, the status of retina can be confirmed. However, the routine screening of diabetic retinopathy by color fundus images would bring time-consuming tasks to physicians. This study thus proposed a computer-aided exudate diagnosis for the screening of diabetic retinopathy. After removing vessels and optic disc in the retinal image, six quantitative features including region number, region area, and gray-scale values etc… were extracted from the remaining regions for classification. As results, all six features were evaluated to be statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). The accuracy of classifying the retinal images into normal and diabetic retinopathy achieved 82%. Based on this system, the clinical workload could be reduced. The examination procedure may also be improved to be more efficient.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy, exudate, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2003 Approximation of Intersection Curves of Two Parametric Surfaces

Authors: Misbah Irshad, Faiza Sarfraz


The problem of approximating surface to surface intersection is considered to be very important in computer aided geometric design and computer aided manufacturing. Although it is a complex problem to handle, its continuous need in the industry makes it an active topic in research. A technique for approximating intersection curves of two parametric surfaces is proposed, which extracts boundary points and turning points from a sequence of intersection points and interpolate them with the help of rational cubic spline functions. The proposed approach is demonstrated with the help of examples and analyzed by calculating error.

Keywords: approximation, parametric surface, spline function, surface intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2002 Application of Computer Aided Engineering Tools in Performance Prediction and Fault Detection of Mechanical Equipment of Mining Process Line

Authors: K. Jahani, J. Razavi


Nowadays, to decrease the number of downtimes in the industries such as metal mining, petroleum and chemical industries, predictive maintenance is crucial. In order to have efficient predictive maintenance, knowing the performance of critical equipment of production line such as pumps and hydro-cyclones under variable operating parameters, selecting best indicators of this equipment health situations, best locations for instrumentation, and also measuring of these indicators are very important. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) tools are implemented to study some important elements of copper process line, namely slurry pumps and cyclone to predict the performance of these components under different working conditions. These modeling and simulations can be used in predicting, for example, the damage tolerance of the main shaft of the slurry pump or wear rate and location of cyclone wall or pump case and impeller. Also, the simulations can suggest best-measuring parameters, measuring intervals, and their locations.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, predictive maintenance, fault detection, mining process line, slurry pump, hydrocyclone

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2001 Study the Effect of Tolerances for Press Tool Assembly: Computer Aided Tolerance Analysis

Authors: Subodh Kumar, Ramkisan Pawar, Gopal D. Belurkar


This paper describes a study for simple blanking tool. In blanking or piercing operation, punch and die should be concentric for proper cutting. In this study, tolerance analysis method is used to analyze the variation in the press tool assembly. Variation results into the eccentricity in between die and punch due to cumulative tolerance of parts used in assembly. 1D variation analysis were performed by CREO parametric computer aided design (CAD) Software Powered by CETOL 6σ computer aided tolerance analysis software. Use of CAD analysis software given the opportunity to find out the cause of variation in tool assembly. Accordingly, the new specification of tolerance and process setting for die set manufacturing has determined. Tolerance allocation and tolerance analysis method were performed iteratively to conclude that position tolerance as well as size tolerance of hole in top plate for bush and size tolerance of guide pillar were more responsible for eccentricity in punch and die. This work proposes optimum tolerance for press tool assembly parts to achieve 100 % yield for specified .015mm minimum tolerance zone.

Keywords: blanking, GD&T (Geometric Dimension and Tolerancing), DPMU (defects per million unit), press tool, stackup analysis, tolerance allocation, yield percentage

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2000 Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System

Authors: Nelson K. Lujara


The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.

Keywords: photovoltaic, water pumping, losses, induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1999 Computer Aided Diagnosis Bringing Changes in Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Devadrita Dey Sarkar


Regardless of the many technologic advances in the past decade, increased training and experience, and the obvious benefits of uniform standards, the false-negative rate in screening mammography remains unacceptably high .A computer aided neural network classification of regions of suspicion (ROS) on digitized mammograms is presented in this abstract which employs features extracted by a new technique based on independent component analysis. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and computers, whereas automated computer diagnosis is a concept based on computer algorithms only. With CAD, the performance by computers does not have to be comparable to or better than that by physicians, but needs to be complementary to that by physicians. In fact, a large number of CAD systems have been employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers on mammograms. A CAD scheme that makes use of lateral breast images has the potential to improve the overall performance in the detection of breast lumps. Because breast lumps can be detected reliably by computer on lateral breast mammographs, radiologists’ accuracy in the detection of breast lumps would be improved by the use of CAD, and thus early diagnosis of breast cancer would become possible. In the future, many CAD schemes could be assembled as packages and implemented as a part of PACS. For example, the package for breast CAD may include the computerized detection of breast nodules, as well as the computerized classification of benign and malignant nodules. In order to assist in the differential diagnosis, it would be possible to search for and retrieve images (or lesions) with these CAD systems, which would be reliable and useful method for quantifying the similarity of a pair of images for visual comparison by radiologists.

Keywords: CAD(computer-aided design), lesions, neural network, ROS(region of suspicion)

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1998 A Review of Deep Learning Methods in Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis Systems based on Whole Mammogram and Ultrasound Scan Classification

Authors: Ian Omung'a


Breast cancer remains to be one of the deadliest cancers for women worldwide, with the risk of developing tumors being as high as 50 percent in Sub-Saharan African countries like Kenya. With as many as 42 percent of these cases set to be diagnosed late when cancer has metastasized and or the prognosis has become terminal, Full Field Digital [FFD] Mammography remains an effective screening technique that leads to early detection where in most cases, successful interventions can be made to control or eliminate the tumors altogether. FFD Mammograms have been proven to multiply more effective when used together with Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis [CADe] systems, relying on algorithmic implementations of Deep Learning techniques in Computer Vision to carry out deep pattern recognition that is comparable to the level of a human radiologist and decipher whether specific areas of interest in the mammogram scan image portray abnormalities if any and whether these abnormalities are indicative of a benign or malignant tumor. Within this paper, we review emergent Deep Learning techniques that will prove relevant to the development of State-of-The-Art FFD Mammogram CADe systems. These techniques will span self-supervised learning for context-encoded occlusion, self-supervised learning for pre-processing and labeling automation, as well as the creation of a standardized large-scale mammography dataset as a benchmark for CADe systems' evaluation. Finally, comparisons are drawn between existing practices that pre-date these techniques and how the development of CADe systems that incorporate them will be different.

Keywords: breast cancer diagnosis, computer aided detection and diagnosis, deep learning, whole mammogram classfication, ultrasound classification, computer vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
1997 Computer-Aided Detection of Simultaneous Abdominal Organ CT Images by Iterative Watershed Transform

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


Interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver, spleen and kidneys is regarded as a major primary step in the computer-aided diagnosis of abdominal organ diseases. In this paper, a semi-automated method for medical image data is presented for the abdominal organ segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter, we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, simultaneous organ segmentation, the watershed algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
1996 Technology Computer Aided Design Simulation of Space Charge Limited Conduction in Polycrystalline Thin Films

Authors: Kunj Parikh, S. Bhattacharya, V. Natarajan


TCAD numerical simulation is one of the most tried and tested powerful tools for designing devices in semiconductor foundries worldwide. It has also been used to explain conduction in organic thin films where the processing temperature is often enough to make homogeneous samples (often imperfect, but homogeneously imperfect). In this report, we have presented the results of TCAD simulation in multi-grain thin films. The work has addressed the inhomogeneity in one dimension, but can easily be extended to two and three dimensions. The effect of grain boundaries has mainly been approximated as barriers located at the junction between two adjacent grains. The effect of the value of grain boundary barrier, the bulk traps, and the measurement temperature have been investigated.

Keywords: polycrystalline thin films, space charge limited conduction, Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulation, traps

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1995 Edge Detection and Morphological Image for Estimating Gestational Age Based on Fetus Length Automatically

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ahmad Chuzaeri, Yogi Ramadhani, A. Haris Budi Widodo


The use of ultrasonography in the medical world has been very popular including the diagnosis of pregnancy. In determining pregnancy, ultrasonography has many roles, such as to check the position of the fetus, abnormal pregnancy, fetal age and others. Unfortunately, all these things still need to analyze the role of the obstetrician in the sense of image raised by ultrasonography. One of the most striking is the determination of gestational age. Usually, it is done by measuring the length of the fetus manually by obstetricians. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis for the determination of gestational age by measuring the length of the fetus automatically using edge detection method and image morphology. Results showed that the system is sufficiently accurate in determining the gestational age based image processing.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, gestational age, and diameter of uterus, length of fetus, edge detection method, morphology image

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1994 A Computer-Aided System for Detection and Classification of Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Abdel Hadi N. Ebraheim, Eman Azomi, Nefisa A. Fahmy


This paper designs and implements a computer-aided system (CAS) to help detect and diagnose liver cirrhosis in patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. Our system reduces the required features (tests) the patient is asked to do to tests to their minimal best most informative subset of tests, with a diagnostic accuracy above 99%, and hence saving both time and costs. We use the Support Vector Machine (SVM) with cross-validation, a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), and a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) that employs a base of radial functions for functional approximation, as classifiers. Our system is tested on 199 subjects, of them 99 Chronic Hepatitis C.The subjects were selected from among the outpatient clinic in National Herpetology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI).

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, artificial neural network, support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron, classification, accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
1993 Liver and Liver Lesion Segmentation From Abdominal CT Scans

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer- aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver and liver lesion is regarded as a major primary step in computer aided diagnosis of liver diseases. Precise liver segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for the computer-aided diagnosis of liver pathology. In this papers, a semi- automated method for medical image data is presented for the liver and liver lesion segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to determine the region of interest by applying the morphological filters to extract the liver. The second step consists to detect the liver lesion. In this task; we proposed a new method developed for the semi-automatic segmentation of the liver and hepatic lesions. Our proposed method is based on the anatomical information and mathematical morphology tools used in the image processing field. At first, we try to improve the quality of the original image and image gradient by applying the spatial filter followed by the morphological filters. The second step consists to calculate the internal and external markers of the liver and hepatic lesions. Thereafter we proceed to the liver and hepatic lesions segmentation by the watershed transform controlled by markers. The validation of the developed algorithm is done using several images. Obtained results show the good performances of our proposed algorithm

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, hepatic lesion segmentation, Liver segmentation, morphological filter, the watershed algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
1992 Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Based on Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in the Classification of Brain Tumor

Authors: Chih Jou Hsiao, Chung Ming Lo, Li Chun Hsieh


Brain tumor is not the cancer having high incidence rate, but its high mortality rate and poor prognosis still make it as a big concern. On clinical examination, the grading of brain tumors depends on pathological features. However, there are some weak points of histopathological analysis which can cause misgrading. For example, the interpretations can be various without a well-known definition. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of malignant tumors is a challenge to extract meaningful tissues under surgical biopsy. With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor grading can be accomplished by a noninvasive procedure. To improve the diagnostic accuracy further, this study proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on MRI features to provide suggestions of tumor grading. Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors (about 70%). This study collected 34 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 73 lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) from The Cancer Imaging Archive. After defining the region-of-interests in MRI images, multiple quantitative morphological features such as region perimeter, region area, compactness, the mean and standard deviation of the normalized radial length, and moment features were extracted from the tumors for classification. As results, two of five morphological features and three of four image moment features achieved p values of <0.001, and the remaining moment feature had p value <0.05. Performance of the CAD system using the combination of all features achieved the accuracy of 83.18% in classifying the gliomas into LGG and GBM. The sensitivity is 70.59% and the specificity is 89.04%. The proposed system can become a second viewer on clinical examinations for radiologists.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnosis, gliomas, magnetic resonance imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1991 Significance of Personnel Recruitment in Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum of Architecture Schools

Authors: Kelechi E. Ezeji


The inclusion of relevant content in curricula of architecture schools is vital for attainment of Computer Aided Design (CAD) proficiency by graduates. Implementing this content involves, among other variables, the presence of competent tutors. Consequently, this study sought to investigate the importance of personnel recruitment for inclusion of content vital to the implementation of CAD in the curriculum for architecture education. This was with a view to developing a framework for appropriate implementation of CAD curriculum. It was focused on departments of architecture in universities in south-east Nigeria which have been accredited by National Universities Commission. Survey research design was employed. Data were obtained from sources within the study area using questionnaires, personal interviews, physical observation/enumeration and examination of institutional documents. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted. The first stage of stratification involved random sampling by balloting of the departments. The second stage involved obtaining respondents’ population from the number of staff and students of sample population. Chi Square analysis tool for nominal variables and Pearson’s product moment correlation test for interval variables were used for data analysis. With ρ < 0.5, the study found significant correlation between the number of CAD literate academic staff and use of CAD in design studio/assignments; that increase in the overall number of teaching staff significantly affected total CAD credit units in the curriculum of the department. The implications of these findings were that for successful implementation leading to attainment of CAD proficiency to occur, CAD-literacy should be a factor in the recruitment of staff and a policy of in-house training should be pursued.

Keywords: computer-aided design, education, personnel recruitment, curriculum

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1990 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan


Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
1989 Malignancy Assessment of Brain Tumors Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Chung-Ming Lo, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh


The central nervous system in the World Health Organization defines grade 2, 3, 4 gliomas according to the aggressiveness. For brain tumors, using image examination would have a lower risk than biopsy. Besides, it is a challenge to extract relevant tissues from biopsy operation. Observing the whole tumor structure and composition can provide a more objective assessment. This study further proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a convolutional neural network to quantitatively evaluate a tumor's malignancy from brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 30 grade 2, 43 grade 3, and 57 grade 4 gliomas were collected in the experiment. Transferred parameters from AlexNet were fine-tuned to classify the target brain tumors and achieved an accuracy of 98% and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) of 0.99. Without pre-trained features, only 61% of accuracy was obtained. The proposed convolutional neural network can accurately and efficiently classify grade 2, 3, and 4 gliomas. The promising accuracy can provide diagnostic suggestions to radiologists in the clinic.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, computer-aided diagnosis, glioblastoma, magnetic resonance imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
1988 Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease Using ANN

Authors: G. Anjan Babu, G. Sumana, M. Rajasekhar


Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multi-layered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinanalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Furthermore, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.

Keywords: dialysis, hereditary, transplantation, polycystic, pathogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1987 Computer-Aided Ship Design Approach for Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline Based Ship Hull Surface Geometry

Authors: Anu S. Nair, V. Anantha Subramanian


This paper presents a surface development and fairing technique combining the features of a modern computer-aided design tool namely the Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline (NURBS) with an algorithm to obtain a rapidly faired hull form. Some of the older series based designs give sectional area distribution such as in the Wageningen-Lap Series. Others such as the FORMDATA give more comprehensive offset data points. Nevertheless, this basic data still requires fairing to obtain an acceptable faired hull form. This method uses the input of sectional area distribution as an example and arrives at the faired form. Characteristic section shapes define any general ship hull form in the entrance, parallel mid-body and run regions. The method defines a minimum of control points at each section and using the Golden search method or the bisection method; the section shape converges to the one with the prescribed sectional area with a minimized error in the area fit. The section shapes combine into evolving the faired surface by NURBS and typically takes 20 iterations. The advantage of the method is that it is fast, robust and evolves the faired hull form through minimal iterations. The curvature criterion check for the hull lines shows the evolution of the smooth faired surface. The method is applicable to hull form from any parent series and the evolved form can be evaluated for hydrodynamic performance as is done in more modern design practice. The method can handle complex shape such as that of the bulbous bow. Surface patches developed fit together at their common boundaries with curvature continuity and fairness check. The development is coded in MATLAB and the example illustrates the development of the method. The most important advantage is quick time, the rapid iterative fairing of the hull form.

Keywords: computer-aided design, methodical series, NURBS, ship design

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1986 A Novel Breast Cancer Detection Algorithm Using Point Region Growing Segmentation and Pseudo-Zernike Moments

Authors: Aileen F. Wang


Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, mammography misses about 17% and up to 30% of breast cancers due to the subtle and unstable appearances of breast cancer in their early stages. Recent computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) technology using Zernike moments has improved detection accuracy. However, it has several drawbacks: it uses manual segmentation, Zernike moments are not robust, and it still has a relatively high false negative rate (FNR)–17.6%. This project will focus on the development of a novel breast cancer detection algorithm to automatically segment the breast mass and further reduce FNR. The algorithm consists of automatic segmentation of a single breast mass using Point Region Growing Segmentation, reconstruction of the segmented breast mass using Pseudo-Zernike moments, and classification of the breast mass using the root mean square (RMS). A comparative study among the various algorithms on the segmentation and reconstruction of breast masses was performed on randomly selected mammographic images. The results demonstrated that the newly developed algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy and cost effectiveness. More importantly, the new classifier RMS has the lowest FNR–6%.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, mammography, point region growing segmentation, pseudo-zernike moments, root mean square

Procedia PDF Downloads 374