Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6183

Search results for: cement replacement materials

6183 Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami, Parisa Hayati


One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.

Keywords: nanofabrication, cement replacement materials, activation, concrete

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6182 Using Recycled Wastes (Glass Powder) as Partially Replacement for Cement

Authors: Passant Youssef, Ahmed El-Tair, Amr El-Nemr


Lately, with the environmental changes, enthusiasts trigger to stop the contamination of environment. Thus, various efforts were exerted for innovating environmental friendly concrete to sustain as a ‘Green Building’ material. Green building materials consider the cement industry as one of the most sources of air pollutant with high rate of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Several methods were developed to extensively reduce the influence of cement industry on environment. These methods such as using supplementary cementitious material or improving the cement manufacturing process are still under investigation. However, with the presence of recycled wastes from construction and finishing materials, the use of supplementary cementitious materials seems to provide an economic solution. Furthermore, it improves the mechanical properties of cement paste, in addition to; it modulates the workability and durability of concrete. In this paper, the glass powder was considered to be used as partial replacement of cement. This study provided the mechanical influence for using the glass powder as partial replacement of cement. In addition, it examines the microstructure of cement mortar using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The cement in concrete is replaced by waste glass powder in steps of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of cement and its effects on compressive and flexure strength were determined after 7 and 28 days. It was found that the 5% glass powder replacement increased the 7 days compressive strength by 20.5%, however, there was no increase in compressive strength after 28 days; which means that the glass powder did not react in the cement mortar due to its amorphous nature on the long run, and it can act as fine aggregate better that cement replacement. As well as, the 5% and 10% glass powder replacement increased the 28 days flexural strength by 46.9%. SEM micrographs showed very dense matrix for the optimum specimen compared to control specimen as well; some glass particles were clearly observed. High counts of silica were optimized from XRD while amorphous materials such as calcium silicate cannot be directly detected.

Keywords: supplementary materials, glass powder, concrete, cementitious materials

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6181 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal


Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, partial replacement to fine aggregates and admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in each one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India, major number of thermal power plants are producing low calcium fly ash. Hence, in the present investigation, low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. Moreover the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces and beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: cementing efficiency, compressive strength, low calcium fly ash, workability

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6180 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay


In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

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6179 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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6178 Properties of Triadic Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash and Wood Waste Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam, Olukotun Nathaniel, Dunu Williams


Concrete is one of the most popular materials used in construction industry. However, one of the setbacks is that concrete can degrade with time upon exposure to an aggressive environment that leads to decrease in strength. Thus, research works and innovative ways are needed to enhance the strength and durability of concrete. This work tries to look into the potential use of rice husk ash (RHA) and wood waste ash (WWA) as cement replacement material. These are waste materials that may not only enhance the properties of concrete but also can serves as a viable method of disposal of waste for sustainability. In addition, a substantial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with these pozzolans will mean reduction in CO₂ emissions and high energy requirement associated with the production of OPC. This study is aimed at assessing the properties of triadic concrete produced using RHA and WWA as a partial replacement of cement. The effects of partial replacement of OPC with 10% RHA and 5% WWA on compressive and tensile strength of concrete among other properties were investigated. Concrete was produced with nominal mix of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water-cement ratio, prepared, cured and subjected to compressive and tensile strength test at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90days. The experimental data demonstrate that concrete containing RHA and WWA produced lighter weight in comparison with OPC sample. Results also show that combination of RHA and WWA help to prolong the initial and final setting time by about 10-30% compared to the control sample. Furthermore, compressive strength was increased by 15-30% with 10% RHA and 5% WWA replacement, respectively above the control, RHA and WWA samples. Tensile strength test at the ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days reveals that a replacement of 15% RHA and 5% WWA produced samples with the highest tensile capacity compared to the control samples. Thus, it can be concluded that RHA and WWA can be used as partial cement replacement materials in concrete.

Keywords: concrete, rice husk ash, wood waste ash, ordinary Portland cement, compressive strength, tensile strength

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6177 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu


This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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6176 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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6175 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra


The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

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6174 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan


This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

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6173 The Effect of Partially Replacing Cement with Metakaolin on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: Gashaw Abebaw


Concrete usage in Ethiopia is expanding at a faster rate than before. Cement is the most important and costly ingredient in this respect. The construction industry is currently challenged by cement scarcity and stock market inflation. Scholars' trays, on the other hand, will use natural pozzolan material to substitute cement. Apart from that, Metakaolin has pozzolanic characteristics. According to the industrial mineral occurrence map, Ethiopia kaolin may be found in abundance. Some of them include Debretabor, so it is good to utilize Metakaolin as cement replacement material. In this study, the capability of Ethiopian Metakaolin as a partial substitute for cement in C-25 concrete production with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% replacement of PPC by MA with 0.49 percent water to cement ratio is investigated. The study examines; the chemical properties of MA, Physical properties of cement paste, workability, compressive strength, water absorption, density and sulfate attack of concrete was investigated. The chemical composition of Metakaolin was examined and the summation of SiO₂, AlO₃, and FeO₃ is 86.25% and the ash was classified class N pozzolan. The normal consistency percent of water increases as the MA replacement amount increase and both initial and final setting time rang increase as the MA replacement amount increase. On the 28th day, the compressive strength of concrete with MA replacement of 5%, 10%, and 15% exceeds the goal mean strength (33.5Mpa) with compressive strength enhancements of 2.23 %, 4.05 %, and 2.23 %, respectively. Similarly, on the 56th day, 5 %, 10%, and 15% replacement enhance concrete strength by 2.06 %, 3.06 %, and 1.2 %, respectively. The MA mixed concrete has improved significantly in terms of water absorption and sulphate attack, with a 15% replacement level. MA content Metakaolin could possibly replace cement up to 15%, according to the studies. The study's findings will help to offset cement price increases while also boosting house affordability without significantly degrading.

Keywords: metakaolin, compressive strength, sulphate attack, water absorption, N pozzolan

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6172 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura


This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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6171 Characteristics of Different Volumes of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder-Cement Paste for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes


Cellular concrete powder (CCP) is not used widely as supplementary cementitious material, but in the literature, its efficiency is proved when it used as a replacement of cement in concrete mixtures. In this study, different amounts of raw CCP (CCP as a waste material without any industrial modification) will be used to investigate the characteristics of cement pastes and the effects of CCP on the properties of the cement pastes. It is an attempt to produce green binder paste, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. The fresh and hardened properties of a number of CCP blended cement paste will be tested in different life periods, and the optimized CCP volume will be reported with more significant investigations on durability properties. Different replacing of mass percentage (low and high) of the cement mass will be conducted (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). The consistency, flexural strength, and compressive strength will be the base indicator for the further properties' investigations. The CCP replacement until 50% have been tested until 7 days, and the initial results showed a linear relationship between strength and the percentage of the replacement; that is an optimistic indicator for further replacement percentages of waste CCP.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, supplementary cementitious material, sustainable construction, green concrete

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6170 Effect of Iron Ore Tailings on the Properties of Fly-ash Cement Concrete

Authors: Sikiru F. Oritola, Abd Latif Saleh, Abd Rahman Mohd Sam, Rozana Zakaria, Mushairry Mustaffar


The strength of concrete varies with the types of material used; the material used within concrete can also result in different strength due to improper selection of the component. Each material brings a different aspect to the concrete. This work studied the effect of using Iron ore Tailings (IOTs) as partial replacement for sand on some properties of concrete using Fly ash Cement as the binder. The sieve analysis and some other basic properties of the materials used in producing concrete samples were first determined. Two brands of Fly ash Cement were studied. For each brand of Fly ash Cement, five different types of concrete samples denoted as HCT0, HCT10, HCT20, HCT30 and HCT40, for the first brand and PCT0, PCT10, PCT20, PCT30 and PCT40, for the second brand were produced. The percentage of Tailings as partial replacement for sand in the sample was varied from 0% to 40% at 10% interval. For each concrete sample, the average of three cubes, three cylinders and three prism specimen results was used for the determination of the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and the flexural strength respectively. Water/cement ratio of 0.54 with fly-ash cement content of 463 Kg/m3 was used in preparing the fresh concrete. The slump values for the HCT brand concrete ranges from 152mm – 75mm while that of PCT brand ranges from 149mm to 70mm. The concrete sample PCT30 recorded the highest 28 days compressive strength of 28.12 N/mm2, the highest splitting tensile strength of 2.99 N/mm2 as well as the highest flexural strength of 4.99 N/mm2. The texture of the iron-ore tailings is rough and angular and was therefore able to improve the strength of the fly ash cement concrete. Also, due to the fineness of the IOTs more void in the concrete can be filled, but this reaches the optimum at 30% replacement level, hence the drop in strength at 40% replacement

Keywords: concrete strength, fine aggregate, fly ash cement, iron ore tailings

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6169 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Ceren Ince, Berkay Zafer Erdem, Shahram Derogar, Nabi Yuzer


Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper first of all investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as capillary absorption, sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total heat of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of capillary absorption and sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower permeability compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: diatomite, fibre, strength, supplementary cementing material

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6168 Characteristics of Cement Pastes Incorporating Different Amounts of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes


In this study different amounts of waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP) as replacement of cement have been investigated as an attempt to produce green binder, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. From zero to up to 60% of WCCP by mass replacement amounts of cement has been conducted. Consistency, compressive strength, bending strength and the activity index of WCCP through seven to ninety days old specimens have been examined, where the optimum WCCP replacement was up to 30%, depending on which the activity index still increased to the end of test period (90 days) and this could be an evidence for its continuity to increase for longer age. Also up to 30% of WCCP increased the bending strength to be higher than the control one. The main point in the present study that there is a possibility of replacing cement by 30% of WCCP, however, it is preferable to be less than this amount.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP), supplementary cementatious material, SCM, activity index, mechanical properties

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6167 Experimental Investigation of Cementitious Materials in Low Strength Range for Sustainability and Affordability

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Adisu Demmewoz


Due to the design versatility, availability, and cost-efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of concrete mix, is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economic and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO2 emission from cement production. This paper aims to document the effect on the strength property of concrete due to the use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash. The amount of cement content was below 250 kg/m3 and in all the mixes, the quantity powder (cement + fly ash) is almost kept at about 500 kg. According to this seven different cement content (250 kg/m3, 195 kg/m3, 150 kg/m3, 125 kg/m3, 100 kg/m3, 85 kg/m3, 70 kg/m3) with different amount of replacement of SCMs was conducted. The mix proportion was prepared by keeping the water content constant and varying the cement content, SCMs and water to binder ratio. Based on the different mix proportions of pozzolana (Fly ash), a range of mix designs was formulated. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m3 of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicate that strength is a function of w/b.

Keywords: efficiency factor, cement content, compressive strength, mix proportion, w/c ratio, water permeability, SCMs

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6166 Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement

Authors: Camila Parodi, Viviana Letelier, Giacomo Moriconi


The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: cement replacement, environmental impact, masonry residue, mechanical properties of recycled mortars

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6165 Partial Replacement for Cement and Coarse Aggregate in Concrete by Using Egg Shell Powder and Coconut Shell

Authors: A. K. Jain, M. C. Paliwal


The production of cement leads to the emission of large amounts of carbon-dioxide gas into the atmosphere which is a major contributor for the greenhouse effect and the global warming; hence it is mandatory either to quest for another material or partly replace it with some other material. According to the practical demonstrations and reports, Egg Shell Powder (ESP) can be used as a binding material for different field applications as it contains some of the properties of lime. It can partially replace the cement and further; it can be used in different proportion for enhancing the performance of cement. It can be used as a first-class alternative, for material reuse and waste recycling practices. Eggshell is calcium rich and analogous to limestone in chemical composition. Therefore, use of eggshell waste for partial replacement of cement in concrete is feasible. Different studies reveal that plasticity index of the soil can be improved by adding eggshell wastes in all the clay soil and it has wider application in construction projects including earth canals and earthen dams. The scarcity of aggregates is also increasing nowadays. Utilization of industrial waste or secondary materials is increasing in different construction applications. Coconut shell was successfully used in the construction industry for partial or full replacement for coarse aggregates. The use of coconut shell gives advantage of using waste material to partially replace the coarse aggregate. Studies carried on coconut shell indicate that it can partially replace the aggregate. It has good strength and modulus properties along with the advantage of high lignin content. It absorbs relatively low moisture due to its low cellulose content. In the paper, study carried out on eggshell powder and coconut shell will be discussed. Optimum proportions of these materials to be used for partial replacement of cement and aggregate will also be discussed.

Keywords: greenhouse, egg shell powder, binding material, aggregates, coconut shell, coarse aggregates

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6164 Evaluation of Heat of Hydration and Strength Development in Natural Pozzolan-Incorporated Cement from the Gulf Region

Authors: S. Al-Fadala, J. Chakkamalayath, S. Al-Bahar, A. Al-Aibani, S. Ahmed


Globally, the use of pozzolan in blended cement is gaining great interest due to the desirable effect of pozzolan from the environmental and energy conservation standpoint and the technical benefits they provide to the performance of cement. The deterioration of concrete structures in the marine environment and extreme climates demand the use of pozzolana cement in concrete construction in the Gulf region. Also, natural sources of cement clinker materials are limited in the Gulf region, and cement industry imports the raw materials for the production of Portland cement, resulting in an increase in the greenhouse gas effect due to the CO₂ emissions generated from transportation. Even though the Gulf region has vast deposits of natural pozzolana, it is not explored properly for the production of high performance concrete. Hence, an optimum use of regionally available natural pozzolana for the production of blended cement can result in sustainable construction. This paper investigates the effect of incorporating natural pozzolan sourced from the Gulf region on the performance of blended cement in terms of heat evolution and strength development. For this purpose, a locally produced Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and pozzolan-incorporated blended cements containing different amounts of natural pozzolan (volcanic ash) were prepared on laboratory scale. The strength development and heat evolution were measured and quantified. Promising results of strength development were obtained for blends with the percentages of Volcanic Ash (VA) replacement varying from 10 to 30%. Results showed that the heat of hydration decreased with increase in percentage of replacement of OPC with VA, indicating increased retardation in hydration due to the addition of VA. This property could be used in mass concreting in which a reduction in heat of hydration is required to reduce cracking in concrete, especially in hot weather concreting.

Keywords: blended cement, hot weather, hydration, volcanic ash

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6163 Reactivation of Hydrated Cement and Recycled Concrete Powder by Thermal Treatment for Partial Replacement of Virgin Cement

Authors: Gustave Semugaza, Anne Zora Gierth, Tommy Mielke, Marianela Escobar Castillo, Nat Doru C. Lupascu


The generation of Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) has globally increased enormously due to the enhanced need in construction, renovation, and demolition of construction structures. Several studies investigated the use of CDW materials in the production of new concrete and indicated the lower mechanical properties of the resulting concrete. Many other researchers considered the possibility of using the Hydrated Cement Powder (HCP) to replace a part of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), but only very few investigated the use of Recycled Concrete Powder (RCP) from CDW. The partial replacement of OPC for making new concrete intends to decrease the CO₂ emissions associated with OPC production. However, the RCP and HCP need treatment to produce the new concrete of required mechanical properties. The thermal treatment method has proven to improve HCP properties before their use. Previous research has stated that for using HCP in concrete, the optimum results are achievable by heating HCP between 400°C and 800°C. The optimum heating temperature depends on the type of cement used to make the Hydrated Cement Specimens (HCS), the crushing and heating method of HCP, and the curing method of the Rehydrated Cement Specimens (RCS). This research assessed the quality of recycled materials by using different techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). These recycled materials were thermally pretreated at different temperatures from 200°C to 1000°C. Additionally, the research investigated to what extent the thermally treated recycled cement could partially replace the OPC and if the new concrete produced would achieve the required mechanical properties. The mechanical properties were evaluated on the RCS, obtained by mixing the Dehydrated Cement Powder and Recycled Powder (DCP and DRP) with water (w/c = 0.6 and w/c = 0.45). The research used the compressive testing machine for compressive strength testing, and the three-point bending test was used to assess the flexural strength.

Keywords: hydrated cement powder, dehydrated cement powder, recycled concrete powder, thermal treatment, reactivation, mechanical performance

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6162 Experimental Studies on Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Steel Fibre

Authors: A. J. Shah, Neeraj Kumar Sahu


Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is high performance and high strength concrete which composes of very fine powdered materials like cement, sand, silica fume and quartz powder. It also constitutes steel fibre (optional) and super-plasticizer. The present study investigates the performance of reactive powder concrete with fly ash as a replacement of cement under hot water and normal water curing conditions. The replacement of cement with fly ash is done at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. To compare the results of cement replaced RPC and traditional RPC, the performance of various mixes is evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and durability. The results show that with increasing percentage of fly ash, improvement in durability is observed and a slight decrease in compressive strength and flexural strength is also observed. It is observed that specimen under hot water curing showed 15 to 20 % more strength than specimens under normal water curing.

Keywords: high strength concrete, the flexural strength of RPC, compressive strength of RPC, durability

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6161 Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Ravi Prasad Darapureddi


The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials, lime sludge, fly ash, strength properties

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6160 Physical and Mechanical Performance of Mortars with Ashes from Straw and Bagasse Sugarcane

Authors: Débora C. G. Oliveira, Julio D. Salles, Bruna A. Moriy, João A. Rossignolo, Holmer Savastano Jr.


The objective of this study was to identify the optimal level of partial replacement of Portland cement by the ashes originating from burning straw and bagasse from sugar cane (ASB). Order to this end, were made five series of flat plates and cylindrical bodies: control and others with the partial replacement in 20, 30, 40, and 50% of ASB in relation to the mass of the Ordinary Portland cement, and conducted a mechanical testing of simple axial compression (cylindrical bodies) and the four-point bending (flat plates) and determined water absorption (WA), bulk density (BD) and apparent void volume (AVV) on both types of specimens. Based on the data obtained, it may be noted that the control treatment containing only Portland cement, obtained the best results. However, the cylindrical bodies with 20% ashes showed better results compared to the other treatments. And in the formulations plates, the treatment which showed the best results was 30% cement replacement by ashes.

Keywords: modulus of rupture, simple axial compression, waste, bagasse sugarcane

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6159 Performance Study of Geopolymer Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Cement and Full Replacement of River Sand by Crushed Sand

Authors: Asis Kumar Khan, Rajeev Kumar Goel


Recent infrastructure growth all around the world lead to increase in demand for concrete day by day. Cement being binding material for concrete the usage of cement also gone up significantly. Cement manufacturing utilizes abundant natural resources and causes environment pollution by releasing a huge quantity of CO₂ into the atmosphere. So, it is high time to look for alternates to reduce the cement consumption in concrete. Geopolymer concrete is one such material which utilizes the industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and low-cost alkaline liquids such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to produce the concrete. On the other side, river sand is becoming very expensive due to its large-scale depletion at source and the high cost of transportation. In this view, river sand is replaced by crushed sand in this study. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the durability parameters of geopolymer concrete by partially replacing fly ash with cement. Fly ash is replaced by cement at various levels e.g., from 0 to 50%. Concrete cubes of 100x100x100mm were used for investigating different durability parameters. The various parameters studied includes compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance and chloride permeability. Highest compressive strength & highest split tensile strength is observed in 30% replacement level. Least drying is observed with 30% replacement level. Very good resistance for sulphuric acid & sodium sulphate is found with 30% replacement. However, it was not possible to find out the chloride permeability due to the high conductivity of geopolymer samples of all replacement levels.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, geopolymer concrete, split tensile strength, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance

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6158 The Use of Palm Kernel Shell and Ash for Concrete Production

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies


This work reports the potential of using Palm Kernel (PK) ash and shell as a partial substitute for Portland Cement (PC) and coarse aggregate in the development of mortar and concrete. PK ash and shell are agro-waste materials from palm oil mills, the disposal of PK ash and shell is an environmental problem of concern. The PK ash has pozzolanic properties that enables it as a partial replacement for cement and also plays an important role in the strength and durability of concrete, its use in concrete will alleviate the increasing challenges of scarcity and high cost of cement. In order to investigate the PC replacement potential of PK ash, three types of PK ash were produced at varying temperature (350-750 degrees) and they were used to replace up to 50% PC. The PK shell was used to replace up to 100% coarse aggregate in order to study its aggregate replacement potential. The testing programme included material characterisation, the determination of compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and chemical durability in aggressive sulfate-bearing exposure conditions. The 90 day compressive results showed a significant strength gain (up to 26.2 N/mm2). The Portland cement and conventional coarse aggregate has significantly higher influence in the strength gain compared to the equivalent PK ash and PK shell. The chemical durability results demonstrated that after a prolonged period of exposure, significant strength losses in all the concretes were observed. This phenomenon is explained, due to lower change in concrete morphology and inhibition of reaction species and the final disruption of the aggregate cement paste matrix.

Keywords: sustainability, concrete, mortar, palm kernel shell, compressive strength, consistency

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6157 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick


In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: cement replacement, concrete, environmental friendly, rice husk ash

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6156 Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete

Authors: Hasan Şahan Arel


In this study, literature related to the replacement of cement with waste marble and the use of waste marble as an aggregate in concrete production was examined. Workability of the concrete decreased when marble powder was used as a substitute for fine aggregate. Marble powder contributed to the compressive strength of concrete because of the CaCO3 and SiO2 present in the chemical structure of the marble. Additionally, the use of marble pieces in place of coarse aggregate revealed that this contributed to the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. When natural standard sand was replaced with marble dust at a ratio of 15% and 75%, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete increased by 20%-26% and 10%-15%, respectively. However, coarse marble aggregates exhibited the best performance at a 100% replacement ratio. Additionally, there was a greater improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete when waste marble was used in a coarse aggregate form when compared to that of when marble was used in a dust form. If the cement was replaced with marble powder in proportions of 20% or more, then adverse effects were observed on the compressive strength and workability of the concrete. This study indicated that marble dust at a cement-replacement ratio of 5%-10% affected the mechanical properties of concrete by decreasing the global annual CO2 emissions by 12% and also lowering the costs from US$40/m3 to US$33/m3.

Keywords: cement production, concrete, CO2 emission, marble, mechanical properties

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6155 Study of the Effect of Using Corn-Cob Ash on Mortar and Concrete Properties: Case Study of Sudan

Authors: Taghried I. M. Abdel-Magid, Gheida T. A. Al-Khelifa, Ahmed O. Adam, Esra G. A. Mohamed, Saeed M. S. Saeed


The use of pozzolanic materials in concrete industry is facing challenges due to unpredictable behavior of natural materials. Corncob ash (CCA) is considered to be one of the promising plant-based materials that possess cementitious properties. Corn is one of the major planted crops in Sudan. Corncob is considered as waste and normally thrown away or burnt. The main purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that CCA can sufficiently replace cement in a concrete mixture or a cement mortar. In this study, CCA was used to replace cement in mortar in three percentages: 0, 20, and 25%. The effect of this replacement was found to be positive in terms of long-term compressive strength, while not as such in short-term compressive strength. In the concrete mix, the introduction of CCA was found to have a positive impact on the slump test characteristics, whereas the early and late compressive strengths deteriorated by approximately 30%. More research is needed in this area to upgrade the efficient use of CCA in cement mortar and concrete properties.

Keywords: cementitious materials, compressive strength, corncob ash, pozzolanic materials

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6154 Development of Green Cement, Based on Partial Replacement of Clinker with Limestone Powder

Authors: Yaniv Knop, Alva Peled


Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the development of Portland Composite Cement, by partial replacement of the clinker with mineral additives. The motivations to reduce the clinker content are threefold: (1) Ecological - due to lower emission of CO2 to the atmosphere; (2) Economical - due to cost reduction; and (3) Scientific\Technology – improvement of performances. Among the mineral additives being used and investigated, limestone is one of the most attractive, as it is considered natural, available, and with low cost. The goal of the research is to develop green cement, by partial replacement of the clinker with limestone powder while improving the performances of the cement paste. This work studied blended cements with three limestone powder particle diameters: smaller than, larger than, and similarly sized to the clinker particle. Blended cement with limestone consisting of one particle size distribution and limestone consisting of a combination of several particle sizes were studied and compared in terms of hydration rate, hydration degree, and water demand to achieve normal consistency. The performances of these systems were also compared with that of the original cement (without added limestone). It was found that the ability to replace an active material with an inert additive, while achieving improved performances, can be obtained by increasing the packing density of the cement-based particles. This may be achieved by replacing the clinker with limestone powders having a combination of several different particle size distributions. Mathematical and physical models were developed to simulate the setting history from initial to final setting time and to predict the packing density of blended cement with limestone having different sizes and various contents. Besides the effect of limestone, as inert additive, on the packing density of the blended cement, the influence of the limestone particle size on three different chemical reactions were studied; hydration of the cement, carbonation of the calcium hydroxide and the reactivity of the limestone with the hydration reaction products. The main results and developments will be presented.

Keywords: packing density, hydration degree, limestone, blended cement

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