Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: Pacific

144 Geopolitical Architecture: The Strategic Complex in Indo Pacific Region

Authors: Muzammil Dar

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The confluence of trans-national interests and divergent approaches followed by multiple actors has surrounded the Indo-Pacific region with myriad of strategic complexes- Geo-Political, Geo-economic, and security. This paper has thus made a humble attempt to understand the Indo-Pacific strategic predicament from Asia-Pacific perspective. The portmanteau of Indo-Pacific strategic gamble has multiple actors from global powers to regional actors. On the indo-pacific waters, not only flow trade relations, but the tides of conflicts and controversies are striking these actors against each other. The alliance formation and infrastructure building has built-in threat perceptions from rivals vice-versa. The assertiveness of China as a reality and India’s ideological doctrine of peace and friendship, as well as American rebalancing against China, could be seen as clear and bright on the Indo-Pacific strategic portmanteau. ASEAN and Japan, too, have oscillating posturing in the strategic dilemma. The aim and objective of the paper are to sketch out the prospectus and prejudices of Indo-pacific strategic complex.

Keywords: Indo Pacific, Asia Pacific, security and growth for all in the region, SAGAR, ASEAN China

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143 Potential Hydrocarbon Degraders Present in Oil from WWII Wrecks in the Pacific

Authors: Awei Bainivalu, Joachim Larsen, Logesh Panneerselvan, Toby Mills, Brett Neilan, Megharaj Mallavarapu

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World War II (WWII) shipwrecks harbour up to 20 million tonnes of oil. More than 3000 wrecks are in the Pacific Ocean; 300 are oil tankers. Compared to other oil removal methods, bioremediation is environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Oil's microbial community and hydrocarbon properties from the Pacific WWII wrecks were identified. Dominant phyla are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Native marine bacteria oil-degraders were isolated for bioremediation. Petroleum degradation data from the bacterial consortium will be analyzed over the next three months.

Keywords: oil bioremediation, marine bacteria, WWII shipwrecks, pacific

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142 Timing and Impacts of Megafloods in the North Pacific as Recorded by Freshwater Diatoms

Authors: Cristina Lopes, Alan C. Mix

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The timing and extension of large discharges from glacial lakes, known as megafloods, into the oceans have been of key importance. This type of events can influence the oceanic/land interactions and even be related with climate changes. While the impact of such floods has been fairly studied in the North Atlantic, the impact of analog floods in the North Pacific remains debatable and relatively unknown. Here we will show records of the Missoula floods that have carved the Northwest landscape and have entered the North Pacific through the Columbia River. These records are given by the presence of high (more than 40%) percentages of freshwater diatoms in marine sediments. A regression equation using these percentages allows to estimate by how much the salinities decreased. The timing and impact of North Pacific megafloods recorded in three marine cores of Oregon and California for the past 25000 years (B.P.) will be presented. These records show that the volume of freshwater that entered the North Pacific reached as far as 600 Km south of the Columbia River Mouth, decreasing the salinities by as much as 4 units.

Keywords: diatoms, megafloods, Missoula, North Pacific

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141 Role of Climatic Conditions on Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis Stock Structure

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Naoki Suzuki, Kalla Alok, Nath Paras

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Bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) tuna is one of the most economically valuable tuna species in the world. In recent years the stock has been observed to decline. It is suspected that the stock-recruitment relationship and population structure is influenced by environmental and climatic variables. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the trajectory of the different life stages of the North Pacific bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis was performed for the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the bluefin tuna cohorts (age-0, 1, 2,…,9, 10+). General Additive Modeling (GAM) was used to reconstruct the recruitment (R) trajectory. The spatial movement of the SST was also monitored from 1953 to 2012 in the distribution area of the bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis showed significance influence of the North Pacific Sea Surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the age-0 group. Other age group (1, 2,…,9, 10+) time series did not exhibit any significant correlations. PDO showed most significant relationship in the months of October to December. Although the stock-recruitment relationship is of biological significance, the recruits (age-0) showed poor correlation with the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). Indeed the most significant model incorporated the SSB, SST and PDO. The results show that the stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific bluefin tuna is multi-dimensional and cannot be adequately explained by the SSB alone. SST and PDO forcing of the population structure is of significant importance and needs to be accounted for when making harvesting plans for bluefin tuna in the North Pacific.

Keywords: pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, cohorts, recruitment, spawning stock biomass, sea surface temperature, pacific decadal oscillation, general additive model

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140 Evolving Maritime Geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific

Authors: Pragya Pandey

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A major discussion in the 21st -century international affairs has been around the shifting economic and political center of gravity to Asia. In the maritime realm, it translates into a shift in focus from the Atlantic to the Pacific-Indian Ocean region or what is now popularly called the Indo-Pacific region. The Indo-Pacific is rapidly eclipsing once dominant Asia-Pacific as center of trade, investment, competition and cooperation. The growing inter-connectivity between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean is bringing forth the ‘confluence of the two seas’. Therefore, the Indo-Pacific strategic arc is acquiring greater salience in consonance with the changing realities of the time. The region is undergoing unprecedented transformation in its security outlook. At present, the region is at an interesting historic epoch- witnessing the simultaneous rise India and China, their economic growth, naval modernization and power projection capabilities, alongside the continued presence of the United States, particularly with its rebalancing strategy. Besides the interplay among the three major stakeholders, other regional players like Japan, Australia, and Indonesia, would play a crucial role in the geopolitical re-arrangement of the Indo-Pacific region. The region will be the future theater of activities to determine the shifts and distribution of sea power, by the virtue of its strategic location, intrinsic value of the energy resources and significant maritime trade routes of the region. Therefore, the central theme of the paper would be to scrutinize the maritime security environment of the region against the backdrop of the tricky geopolitical landscape, contributing to the change in the regional and global balance of power.

Keywords: China, geopolitics, India, United States

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139 Potential of the Bri and the Indo-Pacific in South Asia: A Comparative Case Study

Authors: Nahian Salsabeel, Faria Leera

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—“Whoever controls the Indian Ocean, dominates Asia. This ocean is the key to the seven seas. In the 21st century, the destiny of the world will be decided on its waters” -Alfred Mahan South Asia is increasingly becoming a hub for international politics. Numerous ventures are taking place in the strategic region. Of them, the most prominent is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Originating from the concept of ancient Silk Route, the Chinese Xi Jin Ping regime looks to reestablish the vast connectivity project to connect the world through infrastructure and trade. On the other hand, the US, teamed up with India, Australia and Japan, thereby forming the Quad, have launched their own foreign policy, the Indo-Pacific Strategy. The ambitious 21st century initiative for the development of maritime trade, security and governance focuses critical importance to the Indo-Pacific region, especially to South Asia. Against the backdrop of contemporary political scenario, both the Quad and China airs to establish their own footprint across the region through respective mega projects, the Indo-Pacific Strategy and the BRI. This research employs a comparative case study research method, using a secondary research design. The paper looks at the variety of opportunities and challenges posed by the BRI and the Indo Pacific, and gives the comparative study on both ends.

Keywords: BRI, Foreign Policy, Indo-Pacific, South Asia

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138 Sea Surface Temperature and Climatic Variables as Drivers of North Pacific Albacore Tuna Thunnus Alalunga Time Series

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Naoki Suzuki, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Swastika Roshni, Paras Nath, Alok Kalla

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Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is one of the commercially important species of tuna in the North Pacific region. Despite the long history of albacore fisheries in the Pacific, its ecological characteristics are not sufficiently understood. The effects of changing climate on numerous commercially and ecologically important fish species including albacore tuna have been documented over the past decades. The objective of this study was to explore and elucidate the relationship of environmental variables with the stock parameters of albacore tuna. The relationship of the North Pacific albacore tuna recruitment (R), spawning stock biomass (SSB) and recruits per spawning biomass (RPS) from 1970 to 2012 with the environmental factors of sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific warm pool index (PWI) was construed. SST and PDO were used as independent variables with SSB to construct stock reproduction models for R and RPS as they showed most significant relationship with the dependent variables. ENSO and PWI were excluded due to collinearity effects with SST and PDO. Model selections were based on R2 values, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and significant parameter estimates at p<0.05. Models with single independent variables of SST, PDO, ENSO and PWI were also constructed to illuminate their individual effect on albacore R and RPS. From the results it can be said that SST and PDO resulted in the most significant models for reproducing North Pacific albacore tuna R and RPS time series. SST has the highest impact on albacore R and RPS when comparing models with single environmental variables. It is important for fishery managers and decision makers to incorporate the findings into their albacore tuna management plans for the North Pacific Oceanic region.

Keywords: Albacore tuna, El Niño southern oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, sea surface temperature

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137 Subtropical Potential Vorticity Intrusion Drives Increasing Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Central Pacific

Authors: Debashis Nath

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Drawn from multiple reanalysis datasets, an increasing trend and westward shift in the number of Potential Vorticity (PV) intrusion events over the Pacific are evident. The increased frequency can be linked to a long-term trend in upper tropospheric (UT, 200 hPa) equatorial westerly wind and subtropical jets (STJ) during boreal winter to spring. These may be resulting from anomalous warming and cooling over the western Pacific warm pool and the tropical eastern Pacific, respectively. The intrusions brought dry and ozone rich air of stratospheric origin deep into the tropics. In the tropical UT, interannual ozone variability is mainly related to convection associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Zonal mean stratospheric overturning circulation organizes the transport of ozone rich air poleward and downward to the high and midlatitudes leading there to higher ozone concentration. In addition to these well described mechanisms, we observe a long-term increasing trend in ozone flux over the northern hemispheric outer tropical (10–25°N) central Pacific that results from equatorward transport and downward mixing from the midlatitude UT and lower stratosphere (LS) during PV intrusions. This increase in tropospheric ozone flux over the Pacific Ocean may affect the radiative processes and changes the budget of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals. The results demonstrate a long-term increase in outer tropical Pacific PV intrusions linked with the strengthening of the upper tropospheric equatorial westerlies and weakening of the STJ. Zonal variation in SST, characterized by gradual warming in the western Pacific–warm pool and cooling in the central–eastern Pacific, is associated with the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation. In the Western Pacific enhanced convective activity leads to precipitation, and the latent heat released in the process strengthens the Pacific Walker circulation. However, it is linked with the trend in global mean temperature, which is related to the emerging anthropogenic greenhouse signal and negative phase of PDO. On the other hand, the central-eastern Pacific cooling trend is linked to the weakening of the central–eastern Pacific Hadley circulation. It suppresses the convective activity due to sinking air motion and imports less angular momentum to the STJ leading to a weakened STJ. While, more PV intrusions result from this weaker STJ on its equatorward side; significantly increase the stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes on the longer timescale. This plays an important role in determining the atmospheric composition, particularly of tropospheric ozone, in the northern outer tropical central Pacific. It may lead to more ozone of stratospheric origin in the LT and even in the marine boundary, which may act as harmful pollutants and affect the radiative processes by changing the global budgets of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals.

Keywords: PV intrusion, westerly duct, ozone, Central Pacific

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136 Uncertainty in Near-Term Global Surface Warming Linked to Pacific Trade Wind Variability

Authors: M. Hadi Bordbar, Matthew England, Alex Sen Gupta, Agus Santoso, Andrea Taschetto, Thomas Martin, Wonsun Park, Mojib Latif

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Climate models generally simulate long-term reductions in the Pacific Walker Circulation with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. However, over two recent decades (1992-2011) there was a strong intensification of the Pacific Trade Winds that is linked with a slowdown in global surface warming. Using large ensembles of multiple climate models forced by increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and starting from different ocean and/or atmospheric initial conditions, we reveal very diverse 20-year trends in the tropical Pacific climate associated with a considerable uncertainty in the globally averaged surface air temperature (SAT) in each model ensemble. This result suggests low confidence in our ability to accurately predict SAT trends over 20-year timescale only from external forcing. We show, however, that the uncertainty can be reduced when the initial oceanic state is adequately known and well represented in the model. Our analyses suggest that internal variability in the Pacific trade winds can mask the anthropogenic signal over a 20-year time frame, and drive transitions between periods of accelerated global warming and temporary slowdown periods.

Keywords: trade winds, walker circulation, hiatus in the global surface warming, internal climate variability

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135 Exploring Key Elements of Successful Distance Learning Programs: A Case Study in Palau

Authors: Maiya Smith, Tyler Thorne

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Background: The Pacific faces multiple healthcare crises, including high rates of noncommunicable diseases, infectious disease outbreaks, and susceptibility to natural disasters. These issues are expected to worsen in the coming decades, increasing the burden on an already understaffed healthcare system. Telehealth is not new to the Pacific, but improvements in technology and accessibility have increased its utility and have already proven to reduce costs and increase access to care in remote areas. Telehealth includes distance learning; a form of education that can help alleviate many healthcare issues by providing continuing education to healthcare professionals and upskilling staff, while decreasing costs. This study examined distance learning programs at the Ministry of Health in the Pacific nation of Palau and identified key elements to their successful distance learning programs. Methods: Staff at the Belau National Hospital in Koror, Palau as well as private practitioners were interviewed to assess distance learning programs utilized. This included physicians, IT personnel, public health members, and department managers of allied health. In total, 36 people were interviewed. Standardized questions and surveys were conducted in person throughout the month of July 2019. Results: Two examples of successful distance learning programs were identified. Looking at the factors that made these programs successful, as well as consulting with staff who undertook other distance learning programs, four factors for success were determined: having a cohort, having a facilitator, dedicated study time off from work, and motivation. Discussion: In countries as geographically isolated as the Pacific, with poor access to specialists and resources, telehealth has the potential to radically change how healthcare is delivered. Palau shares similar resources and issues as other countries in the Pacific and the lessons learned from their successful programs can be adapted to help other Pacific nations develop their own distance learning programs.

Keywords: distance learning, Pacific, Palau, telehealth

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134 The Mitigation of Human Trafficking through Agricultural Development: A Proactive International Approach

Authors: Brianna Douglas

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A literary Meta-Analysis was conducted in order to form a proactive solution to the systematic issue of international human trafficking stemming from the Asia-Pacific region. This approach seeks to resolve the low economic prospect for women in the region, along with other identified drivers, to mitigate human trafficking before it begins. Through the reallocation of aid in agriculture, implementation of an education-for-education model, and provision of access to market information to the women in rural regions, the retraction of both the supply and international demand curves of trafficked humans is possible; resulting in the shutdown of the market as a whole. This report provides a basic and adaptable proposal to mitigation the selling of Asia Pacific women within international trafficking schemes with byproduct effects of increasing food, sustainability and decreasing government spending.

Keywords: human trafficking, agricultural development, Asia Pacific, women's empowerment

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133 Physical Activity in Pacific Adolescent Girls with a Physical Disability

Authors: Caroline Dickson

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While adolescence can be a challenging time, it may also be a time of opportunity. Whereas adolescents with a physical disability negotiate the adolescent developmental stage with similar issues to able-bodied adolescents, they additionally may encounter developmental problems which may impede their adulthood. In part due to the restricted opportunities disabled adolescents experience, they may experience difficulty with mastering this developmental stage. As is well documented, health and wellbeing are positively associated with participating in physical activity. However, the little research available suggested that Pacific adolescents generally are participating in less physical activity than adolescents of other ethnic groups. Objective/Study: The main aim of the study (from a larger mixed method study), was to explore physical activity participation in Pacific adolescent girls with a physical disability in relation to their physiological and psychological wellbeing. The qualitative descriptive study comprised of seven interviews with Pacific adolescent girls and their mothers in a family setting and also included the providers of services to Pacific girls with a physical disability. Including the providers of disability services allowed the researchers to identity a further understanding into challenges of participation for the Pacific adolescent girls and their families while the girls were attempting to participate in physical activity. The purpose of the talanoa (face-to-face interviews that were deemed informal) was to identify partaking and factors influencing participation in physical activity, whilst listening to the voices of the participants. The stories revealed the multitude of factors that influenced physical activity for the Pacific girls with a physical disability. Results: Findings from the qualitative descriptive study found that through physical activity, the Pacific adolescent girls with a physical disability experienced benefits from participation. The findings suggested that these girls wanted to participate in physical activity and clearly indicated the physical activities they preferred. Amongst the physiological and psychological benefits of the Pacific adolescents engaging in physical activity, the adolescents were able to develop positive social relationships, experience autonomy, and generally, their self-worth improved while building confidence. Nevertheless, the adolescents experienced a multitude of factors impeding their engagement in physical activity including cultural stigmas. Their participation was influenced by the interplay of a range of gender, cultural, age-related (adolescence) and socio-economic factors alongside policy and structurally related constraints. Conclusion: Physical activity has the potential to improve the general physiological and psychological health of all adolescents. It should be prioritised particularly in vulnerable populations where they may have limited access. As the Pacific adolescents with a physical activity are dependent on their families for physical activity participation, it is imperative the family be included and consulted. To increase participation, and reduce sedentary behaviours, factors influencing both participation and non-participation need to be considered.

Keywords: Pacific adolescent girls, physical activity, physical disability, qualitative descriptive study

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132 Climate Related Variability and Stock-Recruitment Relationship of the North Pacific Albacore Tuna

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Naoki Suzuki, Kazumi Sakuramoto,

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The North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is a temperate tuna species distributed in the North Pacific which is of significant economic importance to the Pacific Island Nations and Territories. Despite its importance, the stock dynamics and ecological characteristics of albacore still, have gaps in knowledge. The stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific stock of albacore tuna was investigated for different density-dependent effects and a regime shift in the stock characteristics in response to changes in environmental and climatic conditions. Linear regression analysis for recruit per spawning biomass (RPS) and recruitment (R) against the female spawning stock biomass (SSB) were significant for the presence of different density-dependent effects and positive for a regime shift in the stock time series. Application of Deming regression to RPS against SSB with the assumption for the presence of observation and process errors in both the dependent and independent variables confirmed the results of simple regression. However, R against SSB results disagreed given variance level of < 3 and agreed with linear regression results given the assumption of variance ≥ 3. Assuming the presence of different density-dependent effects in the albacore tuna time series, environmental and climatic condition variables were compared with R, RPS, and SSB. The significant relationship of R, RPS and SSB were determined with the sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with SST being the principal variable exhibiting significantly similar trend with R and RPS. Recruitment is significantly influenced by the dynamics of the SSB as well as environmental conditions which demonstrates that the stock-recruitment relationship is multidimensional. Further investigation of the North Pacific albacore tuna age-class and structure is necessary for further support the results presented here. It is important for fishery managers and decision makers to be vigilant of regime shifts in environmental conditions relating to albacore tuna as it may possibly cause regime shifts in the albacore R and RPS which should be taken into account to effectively and sustainability formulate harvesting plans and management of the species in the North Pacific oceanic region.

Keywords: Albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, recruitment, spawning stock biomass, recruits per spawning biomass, sea surface temperature, pacific decadal oscillation, El Niño southern oscillation, density-dependent effects, regime shift

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131 The Effectiveness of National Fiscal Rules in the Asia-Pacific Countries

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang, Yuan-Hong Ho

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This study utilizes the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Fiscal Rules Dataset focusing on four specific fiscal rules such as expenditure rule, revenue rule, budget balance rule, and debt rule and five main characteristics of each fiscal rule those are monitoring, enforcement, coverage, legal basis, and escape clause to construct the Fiscal Rule Index for nine countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 1996 to 2015. After constructing the fiscal rule index for each country, we utilize the Panel Generalized Method of Moments (Panel GMM) by using the constructed fiscal rule index to examine the effectiveness of fiscal rules in reducing procyclicality. Empirical results show that national fiscal rules have a significantly negative impact on procyclicality of government expenditure. Additionally, stricter fiscal rules combined with high government effectiveness are effective in reducing procyclicality of government expenditure. Results of this study indicate that for nine Asia-Pacific countries, policymakers’ use of fiscal rules and government effectiveness to reducing procyclicality of fiscal policy are effective.

Keywords: counter-cyclical policy, fiscal rules, government efficiency, procyclical policy

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130 Simulation of Climatic Change Effects on the Potential Fishing Zones of Dorado Fish (Coryphaena hippurus L.) in the Colombian Pacific under Scenarios RCP Using CMIP5 Model

Authors: Adriana Martínez-Arias, John Josephraj Selvaraj, Luis Octavio González-Salcedo

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In the Colombian Pacific, Dorado fish (Coryphaena hippurus L.) fisheries is of great commercial interest. However, its habitat and fisheries may be affected by climatic change especially by the actual increase in sea surface temperature. Hence, it is of interest to study the dynamics of these species fishing zones. In this study, we developed Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models to predict Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) as an indicator of species abundance. The model was based on four oceanographic variables (Chlorophyll a, Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level Anomaly and Bathymetry) derived from satellite data. CPUE datasets for model training and cross-validation were obtained from logbooks of commercial fishing vessel. Sea surface Temperature for Colombian Pacific were projected under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and CPUE maps were created. Our results indicated that an increase in sea surface temperature reduces the potential fishing zones of this species in the Colombian Pacific. We conclude that ANN is a reliable tool for simulation of climate change effects on the potential fishing zones. This research opens a future agenda for other species that have been affected by climate change.

Keywords: climatic change, artificial neural networks, dorado fish, CPUE

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129 Human Development Strengthening against Terrorism in ASEAN East Asia and Pacific: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Tismazammi Mustafa, Jaharudin Padli

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The frequency of terrorism is increasing throughout years that is resulting in loss of life, damaging people’s property, and destructing the environment. The incident of terrorism is not stationed in one particular country but has spread and scattered in other countries hence causing an increase in the number of terrorism cases. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the factors of human development upon the terrorism in East Asia and Pacific countries. This study used a panel ARDL model, in which it enables to capture the long run and the short run relationship among the variables of interest. Logit Model for Binary data is also used, in which to representing an attributes of dependent variables. This study focuses on several human development variables namely GDP per capita, population, human capital, land area, and technologies. The empirical finding revealed that the GDP per capita, population, human capital, land area, and technologies are positively and statistically significant in influencing the terrorism. Thus, the finding in this study will present as grounds to preserve human rights and develop public awareness and will offer guidelines to policy makers, emergency managers, first responders, public health workers, physicians, and other researchers.

Keywords: terrorism, East Asia and Pacific, human development, econometric analysis

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128 Prediction of Malawi Rainfall from Global Sea Surface Temperature Using a Simple Multiple Regression Model

Authors: Chisomo Patrick Kumbuyo, Katsuyuki Shimizu, Hiroshi Yasuda, Yoshinobu Kitamura

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This study deals with a way of predicting Malawi rainfall from global sea surface temperature (SST) using a simple multiple regression model. Monthly rainfall data from nine stations in Malawi grouped into two zones on the basis of inter-station rainfall correlations were used in the study. Zone 1 consisted of Karonga and Nkhatabay stations, located in northern Malawi; and Zone 2 consisted of Bolero, located in northern Malawi; Kasungu, Dedza, Salima, located in central Malawi; Mangochi, Makoka and Ngabu stations located in southern Malawi. Links between Malawi rainfall and SST based on statistical correlations were evaluated and significant results selected as predictors for the regression models. The predictors for Zone 1 model were identified from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans while those for Zone 2 were identified from the Pacific Ocean. The correlation between the fit of predicted and observed rainfall values of the models were satisfactory with r=0.81 and 0.54 for Zone 1 and 2 respectively (significant at less than 99.99%). The results of the models are in agreement with other findings that suggest that SST anomalies in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans have an influence on the rainfall patterns of Southern Africa.

Keywords: Malawi rainfall, forecast model, predictors, SST

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127 Study on the Situation between France and the South China Sea from the Perspective of Balance of Power Theory

Authors: Zhenyi Chen

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With the rise of China and the escalation of tension between China and the United States, European countries led by Great Britain, France, and Germany pay increasing attention to the regional situation in the Asia-Pacific (now known as "Indo-Pacific"). Among them, the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the main areas disputed by China, the United States, Southeast Asian countries and some European countries. Western countries are worried that the rise of China's military power will break the stability of the situation in SCS and alter the balance of power among major powers. Therefore, they tried to balance China's rise through alliance. In France's Indo-Pacific strategy, France aims to build a regional order with the alliance of France, India and Australia as the core, and regularly carry out military exercises targeting SCS with the United States, Japan and Southeast Asian countries. For China, the instability of the situation in SCS could also threaten the security of the southeast coastal areas and Taiwan, affect China's peaceful development process, and pose a threat to China's territorial sovereignty. This paper aims to study the activities and motivation of France in the South China Sea, and put the situation in SCS under the perspective of Balance of Power Theory, focusing on China, America and France. To be more specific, this paper will first briefly introduce Balance of Power Theory, then describe the new trends of France in recent years, followed with the analysis on the motivation of the increasing trend of France's involvement in SCS, and finally analyze the situation in SCS from the perspective of "balance of power" theory. It will be argued that great powers are carefully maintaining the balance of military power in SCS, and it is highly possible that this trend would still last in the middle and long term, particularly via military deployment and strategic alliances.

Keywords: South China Sea, France, China, balance of power theory, Indo-Pacific

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126 Radical Islam and Transnational Security: West Africa and the Asia Pacific in View

Authors: Olumide A. Fafore, Khondlo Mtshali

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The beginning of the 21st century saw the emergence of new and global threats to national and transnational security in West Africa and the Asia Pacific regions as a result of the spread of jihadist terrorism across borders, a manifestation of the rise of radical Islam. Extremist and armed Islamic movements influenced by Salafism, the Jihad in Afghanistan and the Muslim Brotherhood are prevalent in Northern Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Mali, Chad, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India. Carrying out attacks across borders, including assassinations, murders, armed robberies, and kidnapping, assisted by open and porous borders and large flow of illegal immigrants across borders. This paper examines the effect of Radical Islam on Transnational security through a review of past literature and the social and security consequences on the people of the regions. Our findings indicate that the activities of armed Islamic movements such as Boko Haram, Ansaru and Al-Qaeda are having a negative impact on the economy, development, and security of the states and people of West Africa and the Asia Pacific. It stresses the importance of regional, transnational and international cooperation, as these threats to national and transnational security can no longer be solved in a national or regional framework.

Keywords: Islamic movements, jihadist terrorism, radical Islam, transnational security

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125 Impact of Pan Pacific's Training Program to Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Practicum Trainees

Authors: Bandojo Paula Maria Noella, Bernardo Bea Samantha B., Del Rosario Hanassa Mae S., Gomez Marian Louise D., Gomez Rome Voltaire M., Reyes Alessa Anne Therese A.

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The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the training program of Pan Pacific Hotel to other Five Star Hotels in terms of the technical, professional and personal competencies before and after their training. The theoretical framework of this study is the practicum manual of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Hotel and Restaurant Management Program Practicum Manual. This study was conducted using survey questionnaires that were distributed to 50 respondents. The results showed that there is a significant difference with the level of competencies of the practicum trainee before and after the training regardless if the training is structured or unstructured. Results also showed that the structured training program of Pan Pacific Hotel significantly improved the Technical Competencies in the different departments of the hotel industry. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there is no difference between the structured and unstructured training program in terms of Professional Competencies and Personal Competencies. The proponents concluded the study by providing recommendations to the partner hotels of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management that there should be a structured training program for the practicum trainees.

Keywords: structured and structured training program, practicum trainees, competencies, tourism

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124 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

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With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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123 International Entrepreneurial Orientation and Institutionalism: The Effect on International Performance for Latin American SMEs

Authors: William Castillo, Hugo Viza, Arturo Vargas

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The Pacific Alliance is a trade bloc that is composed of four emerging economies: Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico. These economies have gained macroeconomic stability in the past decade and as a consequence present future economic progress. Under this positive scenario, international business firms have flourished. However, the literature in this region has been widely unexamined. Therefore, it is critical to fill this theoretical gap, especially considering that Latin America is starting to become a global player and it possesses a different institutional context than developed markets. This paper analyzes the effect of international entrepreneurial orientation and institutionalism on international performance, for the Pacific Alliance small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs). The literature considers international entrepreneurial orientation to be a powerful managerial capability – along the resource based view- that firms can leverage to obtain a satisfactory international performance. Thereby, obtaining a competitive advantage through the correct allocation of key resources to exploit the capabilities here involved. Entrepreneurial Orientation is defined around five factors: innovation, proactiveness, risk-taking, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy. Nevertheless, the institutional environment – both local and foreign, adversely affects International Performance; this is especially the case for emerging markets with uncertain scenarios. In this way, the study analyzes an Entrepreneurial Orientation, key endogenous variable of international performance, and Institutionalism, an exogenous variable. The survey data consists of Pacific Alliance SMEs that have foreign operations in at least another country in the trade bloc. Findings are still in an ongoing research process. Later, the study will undertake a structural equation modeling (SEM) using the variance-based partial least square estimation procedure. The software that is going to be used is the SmartPLS. This research contributes to the theoretical discussion of a largely postponed topic: SMEs in Latin America, that has had limited academic research. Also, it has practical implication for decision-makers and policy-makers, providing insights into what is behind international performance.

Keywords: institutional theory, international entrepreneurial orientation, international performance, SMEs, Pacific Alliance

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122 Genomic Identification of Anisakis Simplex Larvae by PCR-RAPD

Authors: Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto

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Anisakiasis is a disease caused by infection with an anisakid larvae, mostly Anisakis simplex. The larvae commonly infect in marine fish and the disease is frequently reported in areas of the world where fish is consumed raw, lightly pickled or salted. In Japan, people have the habit of eating raw fish such as ‘sushi’ or ‘sashimi’, so they have more chance of infection with larvae of anisakid nematodes. There are three sibling species in A. simplex larvae, namely, A. simplex sensu stricto (Asss), A. pegreffii (Ap) and A. simplex C. It was revealed that Ap is dominant among the larvae from fish (Scomber japonics) in the Japan Sea side and Asss is dominant among those of the Pacific Ocean side conversely. Although anisakiasis has happened in Japan among both the Japan Sea side area and the Pacific Ocean side area. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variations between the siblings (Asss and Ap) and within the same sibling species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. In order to investigate the genetic difference among the each A. simplex larvae, we used RAPD technique to differentiate individuals of A. simplex obtained from Scomber japonics fish those were caught in the Japan sea (Goto Islands in Nagasaki Prefecture) and the cost of Pacific Ocean (Kanagawa Prefecture). The RAPD patterns of the control DNA (Genus Raphidascaris) were markedly different from those of the A. simplex. There were differences in amplification patterns between Asss and Ap. The RAPD patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same sea were somewhat different and variations were detected even among larvae from the same fish. These results suggest the considerable high genetic variability between Asss and Ap and the possible existence of genetic variation within the sibling species.

Keywords: Anisakiasis in Japan, Anisakis simplex, genomic identification, PCR-RAPD

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121 Optimization of Our Eyes Cooperation as the Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Association of South East Asian Nations

Authors: Chastiti Mediafira Wulolo

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Our Eyes is a cooperation pact in the field of intelligence information exchanges initiated by the Indonesian Ministry of Defense, which has been signed by Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand, and Singapore. This cooperation mostly engages the military acts as a central role, but this pact still requires the involvement of various parties such as police and other linear institution. This paper will use a qualitative content analysis method by doing some deep analyzing the pattern of cooperation itself. As the implementation of translantic counter-terrorism cooperation, this research will address how the role of Our Eyes can be optimized as a form of government’s response towards the contemporary threat in the Dynamics of Strategic Environmental Security in the Asia Pacific Region. Optimizing the role of this cooperation will also acquire from the previous counter-terrorism cooperation in ASEAN region, so it expects that Our Eyes collaboration can be the most effective cooperation in overcoming terrorism issues in ASEAN, eventually in Asia Pacific.

Keywords: our eyes, Defense Ministry of Indonesia, ASEAN, counter-terrorism

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120 Understanding Factors that May Affect Survival and Productivity of Pacific Salmonids

Authors: Julia B. Kischkat, Charlie D. Waters

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This research aims to understand the factors that may affect the survival and productivity of Pacific salmonids through two components. The first component is lab-based and aims to improve high-performance liquid chromatography to better quantify vitamin deficiencies such as thiamine. The lab work is conducted at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute in Juneau, Alaska. Deficiencies in thiamine have been shown to reduce the survival of salmonids at early life stages. The second component involves the analysis of a 22-year data set of migration timing of juvenile Coho Salmon, Dolly Varden, Steelhead, and returning adult Steelhead at Little Port Walter, Alaska. The statistical analysis quantifies their migration fluctuations and whether they correlate to various environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity, and precipitation.

Keywords: climate change, smolt timing, phenology, migration timing, salmon, time series analysis, ecology, chemistry, fisheries science

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119 Integrated Care on Chronic Diseases in Asia-Pacific Countries

Authors: Chang Liu, Hanwen Zhang, Vikash Sharma, Don Eliseo Lucerno-Prisno III, Emmanuel Yujuico, Maulik Chokshi, Prashanthi Krishnakumar, Bach Xuan Tran, Giang Thu Vu, Kamilla Anna Pinter, Shenglan Tang

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Background and Aims: Globally, many health systems focus on hospital-based healthcare models targeting acute care and disease treatment, which are not effective in addressing the challenges of ageing populations, chronic conditions, multi-morbidities, and increasingly unhealthy lifestyles. Recently, integrated care programs on chronic diseases have been developed, piloted, and implemented to meet such challenges. However, integrated care programs in the Asia-Pacific region vary in the levels of integration from linkage to coordination to full integration. This study aims to identify and analyze existing cases of integrated care in the Asia-Pacific region and identify the facilitators and barriers in order to improve existing cases and inform future cases. Methods: The study is a comparative study, with a combination approach of desk-based research and key informant interviews. The selected countries included in this study represent a good mix of lower-middle income countries (the Philippines, India, Vietnam, and Fiji), upper-middle income country (China), and high-income country (Singapore) in the Asia-Pacific region. Existing integrated care programs were identified through the scoping review approach. Trigger, history, general design, beneficiaries, and objectors were summarized with barriers and facilitators of integrated care based on key informant interviews. Representative case(s) in each country were selected and comprehensively analyzed through deep-dive case studies. Results: A total of 87 existing integrated care programs on chronic diseases were found in all countries, with 44 in China, 21 in Singapore, 12 in India, 5 in Vietnam, 4 in the Philippines, and 1 in Fiji. 9 representative cases of integrated care were selected for in-depth description and analysis, with 2 in China, the Philippines, and Vietnam, and 1 in Singapore, India, and Fiji. Population aging and the rising chronic disease burden have been identified as key drivers for almost all the six countries. Among the six countries, Singapore has the longest history of integrated care, followed by Fiji, the Philippines, and China, while India and Vietnam have a shorter history of integrated care. Incentives, technologies, education, and performance evaluation would be crucial for developing strategies for implementing future programs and improve already existing programs. Conclusion: Integrated care is important for addressing challenges surrounding the delivery of long-term care. To date, there is an increasing trend of integrated care programs on chronic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region, and all six countries in our study set integrated care as a direction for their health systems transformation.

Keywords: integrated healthcare, integrated care delivery, chronic diseases, Asia-Pacific region

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118 Integrating Molecular Approaches to Understand Diatom Assemblages in Marine Environment

Authors: Shruti Malviya, Chris Bowler

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Environmental processes acting at multiple spatial scales control marine diatom community structure. However, the contribution of local factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, etc.) in these highly complex systems is poorly understood. We, therefore, investigated the diatom community organization as a function of environmental predictors and determined the relative contribution of various environmental factors on the structure of marine diatoms assemblages in the world’s ocean. The dataset for this study was derived from the Tara Oceans expedition, constituting 46 sampling stations from diverse oceanic provinces. The V9 hypervariable region of 18s rDNA was organized into assemblages based on their distributional co-occurrence. Using Ward’s hierarchical clustering, nine clusters were defined. The number of ribotypes and reads varied within each cluster-three clusters (II, VIII and IX) contained only a few reads whereas two of them (I and IV) were highly abundant. Of the nine clusters, seven can be divided into two categories defined by a positive correlation with phosphate and nitrate and a negative correlation with longitude and, the other by a negative correlation with salinity, temperature, latitude and positive correlation with Lyapunov exponent. All the clusters were found to be remarkably dominant in South Pacific Ocean and can be placed into three classes, namely Southern Ocean-South Pacific Ocean clusters (I, II, V, VIII, IX), South Pacific Ocean clusters (IV and VII), and cosmopolitan clusters (III and VI). Our findings showed that co-occurring ribotypes can be significantly associated into recognizable clusters which exhibit a distinct response to environmental variables. This study, thus, demonstrated distinct behavior of each recognized assemblage displaying a taxonomic and environmental signature.

Keywords: assemblage, diatoms, hierarchical clustering, Tara Oceans

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117 Blue Whale Body Condition from Photographs Taken over a 14-Year Period in the North East Pacific: Annual Variations and Connection to Measures of Ocean Productivity

Authors: Rachel Wachtendonk, John Calambokidis, Kiirsten Flynn

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Large marine mammals can serve as an indicator of the overall state of the environment due to their long lifespan and apex position in marine food webs. Reductions in prey, driven by changes in environmental conditions can have resounding impacts on the trophic system as a whole; this can manifest in reduced fat stores that are visible on large whales. Poor health can lead to reduced survivorship and fitness, both of which can be detrimental to a recovering population. A non-invasive technique was used for monitoring blue whale health and for seeing if it changes with ocean conditions. Digital photographs of blue whales taken in the NE Pacific by Cascadia Research and collaborators from 2005-2018 (n=3,545) were scored for overall body condition based on visible vertebrae and body shape on a scale of 0-3 where a score of 0 indicated best body condition and a score of 3 indicated poorest. The data was analyzed to determine if there were patterns in the health of whales across years and whether overall poor health was related to oceanographic conditions and predictors of prey abundance on the California coast. The year was a highly significant factor in body condition (Chi-Square, p<0.001). The proportion of whales showing poor body condition (scores 2 & 3) overall was 33% but by year varied widely from a low of 18% (2008) to a high of 55% (2015). The only two years where >50% of animals had poor body condition were 2015 and 2017 (no other year was above 45%). The 2015 maximum proportion of whales in poor body condition coincide with the marine heat wave that affected the NE Pacific 2014-16 and impacted other whale populations. This indicates that the scoring method was an effective way to evaluate blue whale health and how they respond to a changing ocean.

Keywords: blue whale, body condition, environmental variability, photo-identification

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116 Predictability of Kiremt Rainfall Variability over the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia on Dekadal and Monthly Time Scales Using Global Sea Surface Temperature

Authors: Kibrom Hadush

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Countries like Ethiopia, whose economy is mainly rain-fed dependent agriculture, are highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes. Sub-seasonal (monthly) and dekadal forecasts are hence critical for crop production and water resource management. Therefore, this paper was conducted to study the predictability and variability of Kiremt rainfall over the northern half of Ethiopia on monthly and dekadal time scales in association with global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) at different lag time. Trends in rainfall have been analyzed on annual, seasonal (Kiremt), monthly, and dekadal (June–September) time scales based on rainfall records of 36 meteorological stations distributed across four homogenous zones of the northern half of Ethiopia for the period 1992–2017. The results from the progressive Mann–Kendall trend test and the Sen’s slope method shows that there is no significant trend in the annual, Kiremt, monthly and dekadal rainfall total at most of the station's studies. Moreover, the rainfall in the study area varies spatially and temporally, and the distribution of the rainfall pattern increases from the northeast rift valley to northwest highlands. Methods of analysis include graphical correlation and multiple linear regression model are employed to investigate the association between the global SSTs and Kiremt rainfall over the homogeneous rainfall zones and to predict monthly and dekadal (June-September) rainfall using SST predictors. The results of this study show that in general, SST in the equatorial Pacific Ocean is the main source of the predictive skill of the Kiremt rainfall variability over the northern half of Ethiopia. The regional SSTs in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean as well contribute to the Kiremt rainfall variability over the study area. Moreover, the result of the correlation analysis showed that the decline of monthly and dekadal Kiremt rainfall over most of the homogeneous zones of the study area are caused by the corresponding persistent warming of the SST in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the period 1992 - 2017. It is also found that the monthly and dekadal Kiremt rainfall over the northern, northwestern highlands and northeastern lowlands of Ethiopia are positively correlated with the SST in the western equatorial Pacific, eastern and tropical northern the Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, the SSTs in the western equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans are positively correlated to the Kiremt season rainfall in the northeastern highlands. Overall, the results showed that the prediction models using combined SSTs at various ocean regions (equatorial and tropical) performed reasonably well in the prediction (With R2 ranging from 30% to 65%) of monthly and dekadal rainfall and recommends it can be used for efficient prediction of Kiremt rainfall over the study area to aid with systematic and informed decision making within the agricultural sector.

Keywords: dekadal, Kiremt rainfall, monthly, Northern Ethiopia, sea surface temperature

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115 Toxic Chemicals from Industries into Pacific Biota. Investigation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dioxins (PCDD), Furans (PCDF) and Polybrominated Diphenyls (PBDE No. 47) in Tuna and Shellfish in Kiribati, Solomon Islands and the Fiji Islands

Authors: Waisea Votadroka, Bert Van Bavel

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The most commonly consumed shellfish species produced in the Pacific, shellfish and tuna fish, were investigated for the occurrence of a range of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in order to establish current levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in the muscle of tuna species Katsuwonis pelamis, yellow fin tuna, and shellfish species from the Fiji Islands. The investigation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), furans (PCDFs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE No.47) in tuna and shellfish in Kiribati, Solomon Islands and Fiji is necessary due to the lack of research data in the Pacific region. The health risks involved in the consumption of marine foods laced with toxic organo-chlorinated and brominated compounds makes in the analyses of these compounds in marine foods important particularly when Pacific communities rely on these resources as their main diet. The samples were homogenized in a motor with anhydrous sodium sulphate in the ratio of 1:3 (muscle) and 1:4-1:5 (roe and butter). The tuna and shellfish samples were homogenized and freeze dried at the sampling location at the Institute of Applied Science, Fiji. All samples were stored in amber glss jars at -18 ° C until extraction at Orebro University. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and pesticides were all analysed using an Autospec Ultina HRGC/HRMS operating at 10,000 resolutions with EI ionization at 35 eV. All the measurements were performed in the selective ion recording mode (SIR), monitoring the two most abundant ions of the molecular cluster (PCDD/Fs and PCBs). Results indicated that the Fiji Composite sample for Batissa violacea range 0.7-238.6 pg/g lipid; Fiji sample composite Anadara antiquate range 1.6 – 808.6 pg/g lipid; Solomon Islands Katsuwonis Pelamis 7.5-3770.7 pg/g lipid; Solomon Islands Yellow Fin tuna 2.1 -778.4 pg/g lipid; Kiribati Katsuwonis Pelamis 4.8-1410 pg/g lipids. The study has demonstrated that these species are good bio-indicators of the presence of these toxic organic pollutants in edible marine foods. Our results suggest that for pesticides levels, p,p-DDE is the most dominant for all the groups and seems to be highest at 565.48 pg/g lipid in composite Batissa violacea from Fiji. For PBDE no.47 in comparing all samples, the composite Batissa violacea from Fiji had the highest level of 118.20 pg/g lipid. Based upon this study, the contamination levels found in the study species were quite lower compared with levels reported in impacted ecosystems around the world

Keywords: polychlorinated biphenyl, polybrominated diphenylethers, pesticides, organoclorinated pesticides, PBDEs

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