Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Gregory E. Maes

44 Modification Encryption Time and Permutation in Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Authors: Dalal N. Hammod, Ekhlas K. Gbashi

Abstract:

Today, cryptography is used in many applications to achieve high security in data transmission and in real-time communications. AES has long gained global acceptance and is used for securing sensitive data in various industries but has suffered from slow processing and take a large time to transfer data. This paper suggests a method to enhance Advance Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on time and permutation. The suggested method (MAES) is based on modifying the SubByte and ShiftRrows in the encryption part and modification the InvSubByte and InvShiftRows in the decryption part. After the implementation of the proposal and testing the results, the Modified AES achieved good results in accomplishing the communication with high performance criteria in terms of randomness, encryption time, storage space, and avalanche effects. The proposed method has good randomness to ciphertext because this method passed NIST statistical tests against attacks; also, (MAES) reduced the encryption time by (10 %) than the time of the original AES; therefore, the modified AES is faster than the original AES. Also, the proposed method showed good results in memory utilization where the value is (54.36) for the MAES, but the value for the original AES is (66.23). Also, the avalanche effects used for calculating diffusion property are (52.08%) for the modified AES and (51.82%) percentage for the original AES.

Keywords: modified AES, randomness test, encryption time, avalanche effects

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43 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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42 Radiographic Predictors of Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Difficulties under General Anaesthetic

Authors: Carolyn Whyte, Tina Halai, Sonita Koshal

Abstract:

Aim: There are many methods available to assess the potential difficulty of third molar surgery. This study investigated various factors to assess whether they had a bearing on the difficulties encountered. Study design: A retrospective study was completed of 62 single mandibular third molar teeth removed under day case general anaesthesia between May 2016 and August 2016 by 3 consultant oral surgeons. Method: Data collection was by examining the OPG radiographs of each tooth and recording the necessary data. This was depth of impaction, angulation, bony impaction, point of application in relation to second molar, root morphology, Pell and Gregory classification and Winters Lines. This was completed by one assessor and verified by another. Information on medical history, anxiety, ethnicity and age were recorded. Case notes and surgical entries were examined for any difficulties encountered. Results: There were 5 cases which encountered surgical difficulties which included fracture of root apices (3) which were left in situ, prolonged bleeding (1) and post-operative numbness >6 months(1). Four of the 5 cases had Pell and Gregory classification as (B) where the occlusal plane of the impacted tooth is between the occlusal plane and the cervical line of the adjacent tooth. 80% of cases had the point of application as either coronal or apical one third (1/3) in relation to the second molar. However, there was variability in all other aspects of assessment in predicting difficulty of removal. Conclusions: Of the cases which encountered difficulties they all had at least one predictor of potential complexity but these varied case by case.

Keywords: impaction, mandibular third molar, radiographic assessment, surgical removal

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41 Theory of Apokatástasis - „in This Way, While Paying Attention to Their Knowledge and Wisdom, Nonetheless, They Did Not Ask God about These Matters, as to Whether or Not They Are True...“

Authors: Pikria Vardosanidze

Abstract:

The term Apokatástasis (Greek: Apokatástasis) is Greek and means "re-establishment", the universal resurrection. The term dates back to ancient times, in Stoic thought denoting the end of a constantly evolving cycle of the universe and the beginning of a new beginning, established in Christendom by the Eastern Fathers and Origen as the return of the entire created world to a state of goodness. "Universal resurrection" means the resurrection of mankind after the second coming of Jesus Christ. The first thing the Savior will do immediately upon His glorious coming will be that "the dead will be raised up first by Christ." God's animal action will apply to all the dead, but not with the same result. The action of God also applies to the living, which is accomplished by changing their bodies. The degree of glorification of the resurrected body will be commensurate with the spiritual life. An unclean body will not be glorified, and the soul will not be happy. He, as a resurrected body, will be unbelieving, strong, and spiritual, but because of the action of the passions, all this will only bring suffering to the body. The court judges both the soul and the flesh. At the same time, St. The letter nowhere says that at the last 4trial, someone will be able to change their own position. In connection with this dogmatic teaching, one of the greatest fathers of the Church, Sts. Gregory Nossell had a different view. He points out that the miracle of the resurrection is so glorious and sublime that it exceeds our faith. There are two important circumstances: one is the reality of the resurrection itself, and the other is the face of its fulfillment. The first is founded by Gregory Nossell on the Uado authority, Sts. In the letter: Jesus Christ preached about the resurrection of Christ and also foretold many other events, all of which were later fulfilled. Gregory Nossell clarifies the issues of the substantiality of good and evil and the relationship between them and notes that only good has an inherent dependence on nothing because it originated from nothing and exists eternally in God. As for evil, it has no self-sustaining substance and, therefore, no existence. It appears only through the free will of man from time to time. As St., The Father says that God is the supreme goodness that gives beings the power to exist in existence , all others who are without Him are non-existent. St. The above-mentioned opinion of the father about the universal apocatastasis comes from the thought of Origen. This teaching was introduced by the resolution of the Fifth World Ecclesiastical Assembly. Finally, it was unanimously stated by ecclesiastical figures that the doctrine of universal salvation is not valid. For if the resurrection takes place in this way, that is, all beings, including the evil spirit, are resurrected, then the worldly controversy between good and evil, the future common denominator, the eternal torment - all that Christian dogma acknowledges.

Keywords: apolatastasisi ortodox, orthodox doctrine, gregogory of nusse, eschatology

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40 Large-Scale Electroencephalogram Biometrics through Contrastive Learning

Authors: Mostafa ‘Neo’ Mohsenvand, Mohammad Rasool Izadi, Pattie Maes

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EEG-based biometrics (user identification) has been explored on small datasets of no more than 157 subjects. Here we show that the accuracy of modern supervised methods falls rapidly as the number of users increases to a few thousand. Moreover, supervised methods require a large amount of labeled data for training which limits their applications in real-world scenarios where acquiring data for training should not take more than a few minutes. We show that using contrastive learning for pre-training, it is possible to maintain high accuracy on a dataset of 2130 subjects while only using a fraction of labels. We compare 5 different self-supervised tasks for pre-training of the encoder where our proposed method achieves the accuracy of 96.4%, improving the baseline supervised models by 22.75% and the competing self-supervised model by 3.93%. We also study the effects of the length of the signal and the number of channels on the accuracy of the user-identification models. Our results reveal that signals from temporal and frontal channels contain more identifying features compared to other channels.

Keywords: brainprint, contrastive learning, electroencephalo-gram, self-supervised learning, user identification

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39 Effect of Noise Reducing Headphones on the Short-Term Memory Recall of College Students

Authors: Gregory W. Smith, Paul J. Riccomini

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The goal of this empirical inquiry is to explore the effect of noise reducing headphones on the short-term memory recall of college students. Immediately following the presentation (via PowerPoint) of 12 unrelated and randomly selected one- and two-syllable words, students were asked to recall as many words as possible. Using a linear model with conditions marked with binary indicators, we examined the frequency and accuracy of words that were recalled. The findings indicate that for some students, a reduction of noise has a significant positive impact on their ability to recall information. As classrooms become more aurally distracting due to the implementation of cooperative learning activities, these findings highlight the need for a quiet learning environment for some learners.

Keywords: auditory distraction, education, instruction, noise, working memory

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38 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, converting and storing solar energy as heat. In this paper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transfer behavior of salinity gradient solar pond. Matlab codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: finite difference method, salt-gradient solar-pond, solar energy, transient heat and mass transfer

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37 Patient-Specific Modeling Algorithm for Medical Data Based on AUC

Authors: Guilherme Ribeiro, Alexandre Oliveira, Antonio Ferreira, Shyam Visweswaran, Gregory Cooper

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Patient-specific models are instance-based learning algorithms that take advantage of the particular features of the patient case at hand to predict an outcome. We introduce two patient-specific algorithms based on decision tree paradigm that use AUC as a metric to select an attribute. We apply the patient specific algorithms to predict outcomes in several datasets, including medical datasets. Compared to the patient-specific decision path (PSDP) entropy-based and CART methods, the AUC-based patient-specific decision path models performed equivalently on area under the ROC curve (AUC). Our results provide support for patient-specific methods being a promising approach for making clinical predictions.

Keywords: approach instance-based, area under the ROC curve, patient-specific decision path, clinical predictions

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36 Autopoietic Socio-technical Systems: A New Lens for Understanding Anticipation

Authors: Gregory Vigneaux

Abstract:

The capacity to anticipate future events across varying time scales is integral to the effective operation of both emergency management and emergency services organizations. This paper provides fresh insight into anticipation by first offering a novel conceptualization of organizations in both fields by twisting together socio-technical systems and autopoietic theory. The result of this intertwining of theory is a view of emergency management and emergency services organizations as self-reproducing systems driven by socio-technical processes contingent upon both inflows and outflows across a boundary produced by the system’s own activity. Flowing from this perspective is an approach to anticipation that extends from a system’s intent of continuing to reproduce its identity over a dynamic landscape. This discussion takes a pragmatic turn through Maturana and Verden-Zöller’s domains of structural change, classifying anticipated events and connecting them with types of responses involving inflows, outflows, and socio-technical processes.

Keywords: risk, anticipation, organizations, planning, transformation, identity

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35 Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact of Major Adverse Events Following Paediatric Cardiac Surgery

Authors: Sandipika Gupta

Abstract:

Objective: Due to admirably low 30-day mortality rates for paediatric cardiac surgery, it is now pertinent to turn towards more intermediate-length outcomes such as morbidities closely associated with these surgeries. One such morbidity, major adverse events (MAE) comprises a group of adverse outcomes associated with paediatric cardiac surgery (e.g. cardiac arrest, major haemorrhage). Methods: This is a retrospective study that analysed the incidence and impact of MAE which was the primary outcome in the UK population. The data was collected in 5 centres between October 2015 and June 2017, amassing 3090 surgical episodes. The incidence and risk factors for MAE, were assessed through descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression. The secondary outcomes of life status at 6 months and the length of hospital stay were also evaluated to understand the impact of MAE on patients. Results: Out of 3090 episodes, 134 (4.3%) had a postoperative MAE. The majority of the episodes were in: neonates (47%, P<0.001), high-risk cardiac diagnosis groups (20.1%, P<0.001), episodes with longer 5mes on the bypass (72.4%, P<0.001) and urgent surgeries (57.9%, P<0.001). Episodes reporting MAE also reported longer lengths of stay in hospital (29 days vs 9 days, P<0.001). Furthermore, patients experiencing MAE were at a higher risk of mortality at the 6-month life status check (mortality rates: 29.2% vs 2%, P<0.001).Conclusions: Key risk factors were identified. An important negative impact of MAE was found for patients. The identified risk factors could be used to profile and flag at-risk patients. Monitoring of MAE rates and closer investigation into the care pathway before and after individual MAEs in children’s heart units may lead to a reduction in these terrible events.

Keywords:

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34 Competing Risk Analyses in Survival Trials During COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Ping Xu, Gregory T. Golm, Guanghan (Frank) Liu

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In the presence of competing events, traditional survival analysis may not be appropriate and can result in biased estimates, as it assumes independence between competing events and the event of interest. Instead, competing risk analysis should be considered to correctly estimate the survival probability of the event of interest and the hazard ratio between treatment groups. The COVID-19 pandemic has provided a potential source of competing risks in clinical trials, as participants in trials may experienceCOVID-related competing events before the occurrence of the event of interest, for instance, death due to COVID-19, which can affect the incidence rate of the event of interest. We have performed simulation studies to compare multiple competing risk analysis models, including the cumulative incidence function, the sub-distribution hazard function, and the cause-specific hazard function, to the traditional survival analysis model under various scenarios. We also provide a general recommendation on conducting competing risk analysis in randomized clinical trials during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic based on the extensive simulation results.

Keywords: competing risk, survival analysis, simulations, randomized clinical trial, COVID-19 pandemic

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33 The Effect of Colloidal Environments on Ultrasound-Induced Inactivation of Soy Trypsin Inhibitors: Separation, Inactivation Kinetics and Conformational Characteristics

Authors: Yue Wu, Wu Li, Enrico Colombo, Gregory J. O. Martin, Muthupandinan Ashokkumar

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In this study, the impact of colloidal environments on low-frequency (20 kHz) and high-frequency (355 kHz) ultrasound-induced trypsin inhibitor (TI) inactivation was investigated. It was found that both low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound could partly reduce the native Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). Compared to high-frequency ultrasound, low-frequency ultrasound showed better performance on the inactivation of trypsin inhibitors at higher initial concentrations (> 500 mg/L). Therefore, low-frequency ultrasound was selected for further study on the effect of power density and pH. It was observed that the trypsin inhibitor reduction was increased and then plateaued with an increase in power density. In addition, lower pH improved the low-frequency ultrasound-induced inactivation by promoting the aggregation of trypsin inhibitors. Overall, the colloidal environment was shown to affect Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitor inactivation via influencing the degree of protein conformational changes and aggregation induced by low-frequency ultrasound and protein conformational changes and oxidation of methionine induced by high-frequency ultrasound.

Keywords: soy trypsin inhibitor, ultrasound, inactivation, initial concentration, PH

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32 Optimizing Cellulase Production from Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Following a Solid State Fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

Authors: Jwan J. Abdullah, Greetham Darren, Gregory A, Tucker, Chenyu Du

Abstract:

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is an alternative to liquid fermentations for the production of commercially important products such as antibiotics, single cell proteins, enzymes, organic acids, or biofuels from lignocellulosic material. This paper describes the optimisation of SSF on municipal solid waste (MSW) for the production of cellulase enzyme. Production of cellulase enzymes was optimised by Trichoderma reesei or Aspergillus niger for temperature, moisture content, inoculation, and period of incubation. Also, presence of minerals, and alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Optimisation revealed that production of cellulolytic enzymes was optimal when using Trichoderma spp at 30°C with an incubation period of 168 hours with a 60% moisture content. Crude enzymes produced from MSW, by Trichoderma were evaluated for the saccharification of MSW and compared with activity of a commercially available enzyme, results demonstrated that MSW can be used as inexpensive lignocellulosic material for the production of cellulase enzymes using Trichoderma reesei.

Keywords: SSF, enzyme hydrolysis, municipal solid waste (MSW), optimizing conditions, enzyme hydrolysis

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31 The X-Ray Response Team: Building a National Health Pre-Hospital Service

Authors: Julian Donovan, Jessica Brealey, Matthew Bowker, Marianne Feghali, Gregory Smith, Lee Thompson, Deborah Henderson

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This article details the development of the X-ray response team (XRT), a service that utilises innovative technology to safely deliver acute and elective imaging and medical assessment service in the pre-hospital and community setting. This involves a partnership between Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust’s Radiology and Emergency Medicine departments and the North East Ambulance Service to create a multidisciplinary prehospital team. The team committed to the delivery of a two-day acute service every week, alongside elective referrals, starting in November 2020. The service was originally made available to a 15-mile radius surrounding the Northumbria Hospital. Due to demand, this was expanded to include the North Tyneside and Northumberland regions. The target population was specified as frail and vulnerable patients, as well as those deemed to benefit from staying in their own environment. Within the first two months, thirty-six percent of patients assessed were able to stay at home due to the provision of off-site imaging. In the future, this service aims to allow patient transfer directly to an appropriate ward or clinic, bypassing the emergency department to improve the patient journey and reduce emergency care pressures.

Keywords: frailty, imaging, pre-hospital, X-ray

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30 Evaluation of Biogas Potential from Livestock in Malawi

Authors: Regina Kulugomba, Richard Blanchard, Harold Mapoma, Gregory Gamula, Stanley Mlatho

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Malawi is a country with low energy access with only 10% of people having access to electricity and 97% of people relying on charcoal and fuel wood. The over dependence on the traditional biomass has brought in a number of negative consequences on people’s health and the environment. To curb the situation, the Government of Malawi (GoM), through its national policy of 2018 and charcoal strategies of 2007, identified biogas as a suitable alternative energy source for cooking. The GoM intends to construct tubular digesters across the country and one of the most crucial factors is the availability of livestock manure. The study was conducted to assess biogas potential from livestock manure by using Quantum Geographic information system (QGIS) software. Potential methane was calculated based on the population of livestock, amount of manure produced per capita and year, total solids, biogas yield and availability coefficient. The results of the study estimated biogas potential at 687 million m3 /year. Districts identified with highest biogas potential were Lilongwe, Ntcheu, Mangochi, Neno, Mwanza, Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje. The information will help investors and the Government of Malawi to locate potential sites for biogas plants installation.

Keywords: biogas, energy, feedstock, livestock

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29 Resilient Machine Learning in the Nuclear Industry: Crack Detection as a Case Study

Authors: Anita Khadka, Gregory Epiphaniou, Carsten Maple

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There is a dramatic surge in the adoption of machine learning (ML) techniques in many areas, including the nuclear industry (such as fault diagnosis and fuel management in nuclear power plants), autonomous systems (including self-driving vehicles), space systems (space debris recovery, for example), medical surgery, network intrusion detection, malware detection, to name a few. With the application of learning methods in such diverse domains, artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday modern human life. To date, the predominant focus has been on developing underpinning ML algorithms that can improve accuracy, while factors such as resiliency and robustness of algorithms have been largely overlooked. If an adversarial attack is able to compromise the learning method or data, the consequences can be fatal, especially but not exclusively in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of five adversarial attacks and three defence methods on a crack detection ML model. Our analysis shows that it can be dangerous to adopt machine learning techniques in security-critical areas such as the nuclear industry without rigorous testing since they may be vulnerable to adversarial attacks. While common defence methods can effectively defend against different attacks, none of the three considered can provide protection against all five adversarial attacks analysed.

Keywords: adversarial machine learning, attacks, defences, nuclear industry, crack detection

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28 Adoption and Diffusion of Valuation Standards in the Forensic Accounting Community and in Courts: Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors

Authors: Matteo Manera, Mariateresa Torchia, Gregory Moscato

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Forensic accounting is a hot subject of research in accounting. Valuation remains one of the major topics for practitioners. Valuation standards are a powerful instrument that can contribute to a fair process: their use aims at reducing subjectivity and arbitrary decisions in courts. In most jurisdictions, valuation standards are not the law: forensic accountants are not obliged to use valuation standards when they perform valuation works for judges. To date, as far as we know, no literature work has investigated adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in the forensic accounting space. In this paper, we analyze the spread of valuation standards through the lenses of isomorphism and -as corollaries- of Agency Theory and Signaling Theory. Because of lack of research in the particular area of valuation standards adoption, the present work relies on qualitative, exploratory research, based on semi-structured interviews conducted (up to saturation) with expert forensic accountants. Our work digs into motivations behind adoption and diffusion, as well into perceptions of forensic accountants around benefits of valuation standards and into barriers to their diffusion: the result is that, while the vast majority of forensic accountants praise the great work of the standards setters in introducing valuation standards, it might be that less than 50% of forensic accountants actually use valuation standards, in courts. Our preliminary findings, to be supported or refuted by future research, lead us to address a “trilogy” of recommendations to the stakeholders involved in the process of adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in courts.

Keywords: forensic accounting, valuation standards, adoption of standards, motivations, benefits, barriers, Isomorphism

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27 Novel Method of In-Situ Tracking of Mechanical Changes in Composite Electrodes during Charging-Discharging by QCM-D

Authors: M. D. Levi, Netanel Shpigel, Sergey Sigalov, Gregory Salitra, Leonid Daikhin, Doron Aurbach

Abstract:

We have developed an in-situ method for tracking ions adsorption into composite nanoporous carbon electrodes based on quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). In these first papers QCM was used as a simple gravimetric probe of compositional changes in carbon porous composite electrodes during their charging since variation of the electrode potential did not change significantly width of the resonance. In contrast, when we passed from nanoporous carbons to a composite Li-ion battery material such as LiFePO4 olivine, the change in the resonance width was comparable with change of the resonance frequency (polymeric binder PVdF was shown to be completely rigid when used in aqueous solutions). We have provided a quantitative hydrodynamic admittance model of ion-insertion processes into electrode host accompanied by intercalation-induced dimensional changes of electrode particles, and hence the entire electrode coating. The change in electrode deformation and the related porosity modify hydrodynamic solid-liquid interactions tracked by QCM with dissipation monitoring. Using admittance modeling, we are able to evaluate the changes of effective thickness and permeability/porosity of composite electrode caused by applied potential and as a function of cycle number. This unique non-destructive technique may have great advantage in early diagnostics of cycling life durability of batteries and supercapacitors.

Keywords: Li-ion batteries, particles deformations, QCM-D, viscoelasticity

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26 Recommendations for Data Quality Filtering of Opportunistic Species Occurrence Data

Authors: Camille Van Eupen, Dirk Maes, Marc Herremans, Kristijn R. R. Swinnen, Ben Somers, Stijn Luca

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In ecology, species distribution models are commonly implemented to study species-environment relationships. These models increasingly rely on opportunistic citizen science data when high-quality species records collected through standardized recording protocols are unavailable. While these opportunistic data are abundant, uncertainty is usually high, e.g., due to observer effects or a lack of metadata. Data quality filtering is often used to reduce these types of uncertainty in an attempt to increase the value of studies relying on opportunistic data. However, filtering should not be performed blindly. In this study, recommendations are built for data quality filtering of opportunistic species occurrence data that are used as input for species distribution models. Using an extensive database of 5.7 million citizen science records from 255 species in Flanders, the impact on model performance was quantified by applying three data quality filters, and these results were linked to species traits. More specifically, presence records were filtered based on record attributes that provide information on the observation process or post-entry data validation, and changes in the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed using the Maxent algorithm with and without filtering. Controlling for sample size enabled us to study the combined impact of data quality filtering, i.e., the simultaneous impact of an increase in data quality and a decrease in sample size. Further, the variation among species in their response to data quality filtering was explored by clustering species based on four traits often related to data quality: commonness, popularity, difficulty, and body size. Findings show that model performance is affected by i) the quality of the filtered data, ii) the proportional reduction in sample size caused by filtering and the remaining absolute sample size, and iii) a species ‘quality profile’, resulting from a species classification based on the four traits related to data quality. The findings resulted in recommendations on when and how to filter volunteer generated and opportunistically collected data. This study confirms that correctly processed citizen science data can make a valuable contribution to ecological research and species conservation.

Keywords: citizen science, data quality filtering, species distribution models, trait profiles

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25 Genomic Characterisation of Equine Sarcoid-derived Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 and 2 Using Nanopore-Based Sequencing

Authors: Lien Gysens, Bert Vanmechelen, Maarten Haspeslagh, Piet Maes, Ann Martens

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Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 play a central role in the etiology of the most common neoplasm in horses, the equine sarcoid. The unknown mechanism behind the unique variety in a clinical presentation on the one hand and the host-dependent clinical outcome of BPV-1 infection, on the other hand, indicate the involvement of additional factors. Earlier studies have reported the potential functional significance of intratypic sequence variants, along with the existence of sarcoid-sourced BPV variants. Therefore, intratypic sequence variation seems to be an important emerging viral factor. This study aimed to give a broad insight in sarcoid-sourced BPV variation and explore its potential association with disease presentation. In order to do this, a nanopore sequencing approach was successfully optimized for screening a wide spectrum of clinical samples. Specimens of each tumour were initially screened for BPV-1/-2 by quantitative real-time PCR. A custom-designed primer set was used on BPV-positive samples to amplify the complete viral genome in two multiplex PCR reactions, resulting in a set of overlapping amplicons. For phylogenetic analysis, separate alignments were made of all available complete genome sequences for BPV-1/-2. The resulting alignments were used to infer Bayesian phylogenetic trees. We found substantial genetic variation among sarcoid-derived BPV-1, although this variation could not be linked to disease severity. Several of the BPV-1 genomes had multiple major deletions. Remarkably, the majority of the cluster within the region coding for late viral genes. Together with the extensiveness (up to 603 nucleotides) of the described deletions, this suggests an altered function of L1/L2 in disease pathogenesis. By generating a significant amount of complete-length BPV genomes, we succeeded in introducing next-generation sequencing into veterinary research focusing on the equine sarcoid, thus facilitating the first report of both nanopore-based sequencing of complete sarcoid-sourced BPV-1/-2 and the simultaneous nanopore sequencing of multiple complete genomes originating from a single clinical sample.

Keywords: Bovine papillomavirus, equine sarcoid, horse, nanopore sequencing, phylogenetic analysis

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24 Developing Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves

Authors: Gregory Kelly, Gary Chai, Sittampalam Manoharan, Deborah Delaney

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A Structural Number (SN) can be calculated for a road pavement from the properties and thicknesses of the surface, base course, sub-base, and subgrade. Historically, the cost of collecting structural data has been very high. Data were initially collected using Benkelman Beams and now by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The structural strength of pavements weakens over time due to environmental and traffic loading factors, but due to a lack of data, no structural deterioration curve for pavements has been implemented in a Pavement Management System (PMS). International Roughness Index (IRI) is a measure of the road longitudinal profile and has been used as a proxy for a pavement’s structural integrity. This paper offers two conceptual methods to develop Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves (PSDC). Firstly, structural data are grouped in sets by design Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA). An ‘Initial’ SN (ISN), Intermediate SN’s (SNI) and a Terminal SN (TSN), are used to develop the curves. Using FWD data, the ISN is the SN after the pavement is rehabilitated (Financial Accounting ‘Modern Equivalent’). Intermediate SNIs, are SNs other than the ISN and TSN. The TSN was defined as the SN of the pavement when it was approved for pavement rehabilitation. The second method is to use Traffic Speed Deflectometer data (TSD). The road network already divided into road blocks, is grouped by traffic loading. For each traffic loading group, road blocks that have had a recent pavement rehabilitation, are used to calculate the ISN and those planned for pavement rehabilitation to calculate the TSN. The remaining SNs are used to complete the age-based or if available, historical traffic loading-based SNI’s.

Keywords: conceptual, pavement structural number, pavement structural deterioration curve, pavement management system

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23 Twitter Ego Networks and the Capital Markets: A Social Network Analysis Perspective of Market Reactions to Earnings Announcement Events

Authors: Gregory D. Saxton

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Networks are everywhere: lunch ties among co-workers, golfing partnerships among employees, interlocking board-of-director connections, Facebook friendship ties, etc. Each network varies in terms of its structure -its size, how inter-connected network members are, and the prevalence of sub-groups and cliques. At the same time, within any given network, some network members will have a more important, more central position on account of their greater number of connections or their capacity as “bridges” connecting members of different network cliques. The logic of network structure and position is at the heart of what is known as social network analysis, and this paper applies this logic to the study of the stock market. Using an array of data analytics and machine learning tools, this study will examine 17 million Twitter messages discussing the stocks of the firms in the S&P 1,500 index in 2018. Each of these 1,500 stocks has a distinct Twitter discussion network that varies in terms of core network characteristics such as size, density, influence, norms and values, level of activity, and embedded resources. The study’s core proposition is that the ultimate effect of any market-relevant information is contingent on the characteristics of the network through which it flows. To test this proposition, this study operationalizes each of the core network characteristics and examines their influence on market reactions to 2018 quarterly earnings announcement events.

Keywords: data analytics, investor-to-investor communication, social network analysis, Twitter

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22 Controlling Fear: Jordanian Women’s Perceptions of the Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Rana F. Obeidat, Suzanne S. Dickerson, Gregory G. Homish, Nesreen M. Alqaissi, Robin M. Lally

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Background: Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. Objective: To gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Results: Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women’s stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer. Women’s experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their pre-existing fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various health care institutions, and sociodemographic factors (e.g., education, age). Conclusions: Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the health care system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors, and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Implications for practice: Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

Keywords: breast cancer, early stage, Jordanian, experience, phenomenology

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21 The Effects of Kinesio Tape® and No Tape for Muscle Facilitation and Inhibition, for Collegiate Athletes with Self-Reported Shoulder Pain

Authors: Gregory Chown, Benjamin Infantolino, Christopher Wise, Rachel Holmes, Samantha O'Donnell, Katelyn Pfeiffer, Victoria Ward

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Background: There is a lack of understanding of how Kinesio Tape® physiologically works. Furthermore, few studies compare Kinesio Tape® to other forms of taping. The research question is: Does Kinesio Tape® cause a difference in muscle facilitation, inhibition, and pain, between Kinesio Tape® and no tape for collegiate athletes with self-reported shoulder pain? Method: This quantitative non-randomized design used a convenience sampling method. There were eleven participants with self-reported shoulder pain who were athletes on the men’s and women’s lacrosse and tennis teams. Participants attended one 30-45 minute session for data collection. Each participant received all three taping conditions and performed four repetitions of 120 degrees of active shoulder flexion for the three separate trials (no tape, Kinesio Tape® inhibition, and Kinesio Tape® facilitation). Surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes were placed on the anterior deltoid, supraspinatus, and lower trapezius to measure muscle facilitation and inhibition. Each participant completed the visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after each trial to measure pain. Results: No statistical significance was found for pain scores on the VAS between the taping methods of facilitation, inhibition, and no tape (p = .118). No statistical significance was found for the percentage of change in muscle function for each taping method; Anterior deltoid (p = .993), supraspinatus (p = .997) and lower trapezius (p = .922). Conclusion: Based on the results, Kinesio Tape® appears to not have an effect on muscle function or pain when utilizing the facilitation or inhibition taping method when compared to no tape.

Keywords: Kinesio tape, muscle facilitation, muscle inhibition, pain

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20 The Influence of Training and Competition on Cortisol Levels and Sleep in Elite Female Athletes

Authors: Shannon O’Donnell, Matthew Driller, Gregory Jacobson, Steve Bird

Abstract:

Stress hormone levels in a competition vs. training setting are yet to be evaluated in elite female athletes. The effect that these levels of stress have on subsequent sleep quality and quantity is also yet to be investigated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate different psychophysiological stress markers in competition and training environments and the subsequent effect on sleep indices in an elite female athlete population. The study involved 10 elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yrs) providing multiple salivary hormone measures and having their sleep monitored on two occasions; a match day, and a training day. The training and match were performed at the same time of day and were matched for intensity and duration. Saliva samples were collected immediately pre (5:00 pm) and post session (7:15 pm), and at 10:00 pm and were analysed for cortisol concentrations. Sleep monitoring was performed using wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%) and sleep latency (SL). Cortisol levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) immediately post the match vs post training (mean ± SD; 0.925 ± 0.341 μg/dL and 0.239 ± 0.284 μg/dL, respectively) and at 10:00pm (0.143 ± 0.085 μg/dL and 0.072 ± 0.064 μg/dL, respectively, p < 0.01). The difference between trials was associated with a very large effect (ES: 2.23) immediately post (7:15 pm) and a large effect (ES: 1.02) at 10:00 pm. There was a significant reduction in TST (mean ± SD; -117.9 ± 111.9 minutes, p < 0.01, ES: -1.89) and SE% (-7.7 ± 8.5%, p < 0.02, ES: -0.79) on the night following the netball match compared to the training session. Although not significant (p > 0.05), there was an increase in SL following the netball match v the training session (67.0 ± 51.9 minutes and 38.5 ± 29.3 minutes, respectively), which was associated with a moderate effect (ES: 0.80). The current study reports that cortisol levels are significantly higher and subsequent sleep quantity and quality is significantly reduced in elite female athletes following a match compared to a training session.

Keywords: cortisol, netball, performance, recovery

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19 Physical Activity, Exercise and Physical Fitness in Different Generation

Authors: Carl J. Caspersen, Kenneth E. Powell, Gregory M. Christenson, Kirupa V. Patel

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‘Physical activity’, ‘exercise’, and ‘physical fitness’ are terms that describe different concepts. However, they are often confused with one another, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This paper proposes definitions to distinguish them. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, Conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical fitness is a set of attributes that are either health- or skill-related. The degree to which people have these attributes can be measured with specific tests. These definitions are offered as an interpretational framework for comparing studies that relate physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness to health. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Regular moderate intensity physical activity – such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports – has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity will decrease the risk of a hip or vertebral fracture and help control weight. Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. In these guidelines, physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.

Keywords: physical activity, exercise, physical fitness, sports

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18 A Secreted Protein Can Attenuate High Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

Authors: Abdul Soofi, Katherine Wolf, Egon Ranghini, Gregory Dressler

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Obesity and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissues differentiation. The Kielin/Chordin-like Protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and Activin signals while enhancing the Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, the effects of KCP on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models. Thus, we examined the effects of KCP loss or gain of function in mice that were maintained on either a regular or a high fat diet. Loss of KCP sensitized mice to obesity and associated complications such as hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In contrast, transgenic mice that expressed KCP in the kidney, liver and adipose tissues were resistant to developing high fat diet induced obesity and had significantly reduced white adipose tissue. KCP over-expression was able to shift the pattern of Smad signaling in vivo, to increase the levels of P-Smad1 and decrease P-Smad3, resulting in resistance to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In aging mice, loss of KCP promoted liver pathology even when mice were fed a normal diet. The data demonstrate that shifting the TGF-β superfamily signaling with a secreted inhibitor or enhancer can alter the physiology of adipose tissue to reduce obesity and can inhibit the initiation and progression of hepatic steatosis to significantly reduce the effects of high fat diet induced metabolic disease.

Keywords: adipose tissue, KCP, obesity, TGF-β, BMP, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome

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17 NLRP3-Inflammassome Participates in the Inflammatory Response Induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Authors: Eduardo Kanagushiku Pereira, Frank Gregory Cavalcante da Silva, Barbara Soares Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Bergamasco Galastri, Ronei Luciano Mamoni

Abstract:

The inflammatory response initiates after the recognition of pathogens by receptors expressed by innate immune cells. Among these receptors, the NLRP3 was associated with the recognition of pathogenic fungi in experimental models. NLRP3 operates forming a multiproteic complex called inflammasome, which actives caspase-1, responsible for the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. In this study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of NLRP3 in the inflammatory response elicited in macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the etiologic agent of PCM. Macrophages were differentiated from THP-1 cells by treatment with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Following differentiation, macrophages were stimulated by Pb yeast cells for 24 hours, after previous treatment with specific NLRP3 (3,4-methylenedioxy-beta-nitrostyrene) and/or caspase-1 (VX-765) inhibitors, or specific inhibitors of pathways involved in NLRP3 activation such as: Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS) production (N-Acetyl-L-cysteine), K+ efflux (Glibenclamide) or phagossome acidification (Bafilomycin). Quantification of IL-1beta and IL-18 in supernatants was performed by ELISA. Our results showed that the production of IL-1beta and IL-18 by THP-1-derived-macrophages stimulated with Pb yeast cells was dependent on NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation, once the presence of their specific inhibitors diminished the production of these cytokines. Furthermore, we found that the major pathways involved in NLRP3 activation, after Pb recognition, were dependent on ROS production and K+ efflux. In conclusion, our results showed that NLRP3 participates in the recognition of Pb yeast cells by macrophages, leading to the activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome and production of IL-1beta and IL-18. Together, these cytokines can induce an inflammatory response against P. brasiliensis, essential for the establishment of the initial inflammatory response and for the development of the subsequent acquired immune response.

Keywords: inflammation, IL-1beta, IL-18, NLRP3, Paracoccidioidomycosis

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16 Multiscale Process Modeling Analysis for the Prediction of Composite Strength Allowables

Authors: Marianna Maiaru, Gregory M. Odegard

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During the processing of high-performance thermoset polymer matrix composites, chemical reactions occur during elevated pressure and temperature cycles, causing the constituent monomers to crosslink and form a molecular network that gradually can sustain stress. As the crosslinking process progresses, the material naturally experiences a gradual shrinkage due to the increase in covalent bonds in the network. Once the cured composite completes the cure cycle and is brought to room temperature, the thermal expansion mismatch of the fibers and matrix cause additional residual stresses to form. These compounded residual stresses can compromise the reliability of the composite material and affect the composite strength. Composite process modeling is greatly complicated by the multiscale nature of the composite architecture. At the molecular level, the degree of cure controls the local shrinkage and thermal-mechanical properties of the thermoset. At the microscopic level, the local fiber architecture and packing affect the magnitudes and locations of residual stress concentrations. At the macroscopic level, the layup sequence controls the nature of crack initiation and propagation due to residual stresses. The goal of this research is use molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the residual stresses in composite laminates and the corresponding effect on composite failure. MD is used to predict the polymer shrinkage and thermomechanical properties as a function of degree of cure. This information is used as input into FEA to predict the residual stresses on the microscopic level resulting from the complete cure process. Virtual testing is subsequently conducted to predict strength allowables. Experimental characterization is used to validate the modeling.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, finite element analysis, processing modeling, multiscale modeling

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15 The Impact of Urbanisation on Sediment Concentration of Ginzo River in Katsina City, Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed A. Lugard, Mohammed A. Aliyu

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This paper studied the influence of urban development and its accompanied land surface transformation on sediment concentration of a natural flowing Ginzo river across the city of Katsina. An opposite twin river known as Tille river, which is less urbanized, was used to compare the result of the sediment concentration of the Ginzo River in order to ascertain the consequences of the urban area on impacting the sediment concentration. An instrument called USP 61 point integrating cable way sampler described by Gregory and walling (1973), was used to collect the suspended sediment samples in the wet season months of June, July, August and September. The result obtained in the study shows that only the sample collected at the peripheral site of the city, which is mostly farmland areas resembles the results in the four sites of Tille river, which is the reference stream in the study. It was found to be only + 10% different from one another, while at the other three sites of the Ginzo which are highly urbanized the disparity ranges from 35-45% less than what are obtained at the four sites of Tille River. In the generalized assessment, the t-distribution result applied to the two set of data shows that there is a significant difference between the sediment concentration of urbanized River Ginzo and that of less urbanized River Tille. The study further discovered that the less sediment concentration found in urbanized River Ginzo is attributed to concretization of surfaced, tarred roads, concretized channeling of segments of the river including the river bed and reserved open grassland areas, all within the catchments. The study therefore concludes that urbanization affect not only the hydrology of an urbanized river basin, but also the sediment concentration which is a significant aspect of its geomorphology. This world certainly affects the flood plain of the basin at a certain point which might be a suitable land for cultivation. It is recommended here that further studies on the impact of urbanization on River Basins should focus on all elements of geomorphology as it has been on hydrology. This would make the work rather complete as the two disciplines are inseparable from each other. The authorities concern should also trigger a more proper environmental and land use management policies to arrest the menace of land degradation and related episodic events.

Keywords: environment, infiltration, river, urbanization

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