Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Del Rosario Hanassa Mae S.

34 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

Abstract:

Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: motherhood, women, poetry, Mexico

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33 Impact of Pan Pacific's Training Program to Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Practicum Trainees

Authors: Bandojo Paula Maria Noella, Bernardo Bea Samantha B., Del Rosario Hanassa Mae S., Gomez Marian Louise D., Gomez Rome Voltaire M., Reyes Alessa Anne Therese A.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the training program of Pan Pacific Hotel to other Five Star Hotels in terms of the technical, professional and personal competencies before and after their training. The theoretical framework of this study is the practicum manual of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Hotel and Restaurant Management Program Practicum Manual. This study was conducted using survey questionnaires that were distributed to 50 respondents. The results showed that there is a significant difference with the level of competencies of the practicum trainee before and after the training regardless if the training is structured or unstructured. Results also showed that the structured training program of Pan Pacific Hotel significantly improved the Technical Competencies in the different departments of the hotel industry. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there is no difference between the structured and unstructured training program in terms of Professional Competencies and Personal Competencies. The proponents concluded the study by providing recommendations to the partner hotels of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management that there should be a structured training program for the practicum trainees.

Keywords: structured and structured training program, practicum trainees, competencies, tourism

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32 Comparison of MODIS-Based Rice Extent Map and Landsat-Based Rice Classification Map in Determining Biomass Energy Potential of Rice Hull in Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Klathea Sevilla, Marjorie Remolador, Bryan Baltazar, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion Ang

Abstract:

The underutilization of biomass resources in the Philippines, combined with its growing population and the rise in fossil fuel prices confirms demand for alternative energy sources. The goal of this paper is to provide a comparison of MODIS-based and Landsat-based agricultural land cover maps when used in the estimation of rice hull’s available energy potential. Biomass resource assessment was done using mathematical models and remote sensing techniques employed in a GIS platform.

Keywords: biomass, geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing, renewable energy

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31 ReS, Resonant String Shell: Development of an Acoustic Shell for Outdoor Chamber Music Concerts

Authors: Serafino Di Rosario

Abstract:

ReS is a sustainable hand-built temporary acoustic shell, developed since 2011 and built during the architectural workshop at Villa Pennisi in Musica in Acireale, Sicily, each year since 2012. The design concept aims to provide a portable structure by reducing the on-site construction problems and the skills required by the builders together with maximizing the acoustic performance for the audience and the musicians. The shell is built using only wood, recycled for the most part, and can be built and dismantled by non-specialized workers in just three days. This paper describes the research process, which spans over four years and presents the final results in form of acoustic simulations performed by acoustic modeling software and real world measurements. ReS is developed by the ReS team who has been presented with the Peter Lord Award in 2015 by the Institute of Acoustics in the UK.

Keywords: acoustic shell, outdoor natural amplification, computational design, room acoustics

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30 Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide

Authors: Indra Gonzalez Ojeda, Tatiana Quinones, Manuel Rosario, Igor Lednev, Juan Lopez Garriga

Abstract:

Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, hydrogen sulfide, protein folding, raman spectroscopy

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29 Perceptions on Development of the Deaf in Higher Education Level: The Case of Special Education Students in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines

Authors: Ashley Venerable, Rosario Tatlonghari

Abstract:

This study identified how college deaf students of Bartimaeus Center for Alternative Learning in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines view development using visual communication techniques and generating themes from responses. Complete enumeration was employed. Guided by Constructivist Theory of Perception, past experiences and stored information influenced perception. These themes of development emerged: social development; pleasant environment; interpersonal relationships; availability of resources; employment; infrastructure development; values; and peace and security. Using the National Economic and Development Authority development indicators, findings showed the deaf students’ views on development were similar from the mainstream views. Responses also became more meaningful through visual communication techniques.

Keywords: deaf, development, perception, development indicators, visual communication

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28 The Development and Validation of the Awareness to Disaster Risk Reduction Questionnaire for Teachers

Authors: Ian Phil Canlas, Mageswary Karpudewan, Joyce Magtolis, Rosario Canlas

Abstract:

This study reported the development and validation of the Awareness to Disaster Risk Reduction Questionnaire for Teachers (ADRRQT). The questionnaire is a combination of Likert scale and open-ended questions that were grouped into two parts. The first part included questions relating to the general awareness on disaster risk reduction. Whereas, the second part comprised questions regarding the integration of disaster risk reduction in the teaching process. The entire process of developing and validating of the ADRRQT was described in this study. Statistical and qualitative findings revealed that the ADRRQT is significantly valid and reliable and has the potential of measuring awareness to disaster risk reduction of stakeholders in the field of teaching. Moreover, it also shows the potential to be adopted in other fields.

Keywords: awareness, development, disaster risk reduction, questionnaire, validation

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27 Tourism Development in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro

Authors: Janet Jeanne B. Comia, Camille R. Del Rosario, Ma. Janzen A. Dizon, Jacob Russell A. Gooh, Patricia Ann S. Muli

Abstract:

The researchers conducted the study in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro.There is a substantial lack of research regarding this place as a destination for tourism as well as its potentials. The researchers aspired to determine how the locals perceive the tourism development in the province in terms of activities, attractions, as well as tourist influx. The main instrument used in the study is the interview method to get more in-depth information regarding the subject. The results showed that attractions and activities greatly increased. There has been a very evident ascent in the number of tourists, foreign and local, visiting the place leading to an increase in tourist influx. Results also presented that tourist congestion is moderate and manageable. It has been observed as well that the town lacked tourism-related merchandise available for tourist consumption and the same can be said for the accommodation and lodging facilities in the destination.

Keywords: tourism development, tourism activities, tourist attractions, tourist influx

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26 Immunostimulant from Biodiversity to Enhance Shrimp Survival against Vibriosis

Authors: Frank Alexis, Jenny Antonia Rodriguez Leon, Cristobal Leonardo Dominguez Borbor, Mery Rosario Ramirez Munoz

Abstract:

The shrimp industry has increased in the last years to the point of becoming one of the most dynamic industries. However, the appearance of diseases that significantly affect the production of shrimps has been an obstacle for the shrimp industry. We hypothesized that natural fibers from biodiversity can stimulate the immune system to prevent shrimp diseases like vibriosis. In this project, we extracted the fibers from vegetal sources in Ecuador and characterized them using common techniques like XRD, SEM, and then we tested the effect of fibers as immunostimulants for shrimps in-vitro and in-vivo using small aquarium and large pools. Our results demonstrate that vegetal fibers can significantly increase the survival of shrimps. Moreover, the production of shrimps in a large pool was significantly increased. Lastly, the test of color and taste successfully surpass the control group of shrimps not treated with fiber food supplements.

Keywords: fibers, immunostimulant, shrimp, vibriosis

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25 An excessive Screen Time of High School Students in Their Free Time Promotes Our Young People’s Risk of Obesity

Authors: Susana Aldaba Yaben, Marga Echauri Ozcoidi, Rosario Osinaga Cenoz

Abstract:

It was decided to make a diagnosis with students of Berriozar High School between 12 and 15 years (both included) for their lifestyles in relation to eating habits, BMI (Body Mass Index), physical activity, drugs, interpersonal relationships and screen time. The aim of this survey is identifying needs of this population and depending on the results, we could program socio-educational activities. This action is part of the Community Health Promotion Programme and healthy lifestyles in childhood and youth of Berriozar. The eating habits, a lack of physical activity and an excessive screen time are causes of 26,75% of obese or overweight young people. First of all, many of them have got a diet enriched in saturated fats and sugars. Secondly, most of them do not practise physical exercise daily and finally, their screen time are higher than the recommendation (until 2 hours a day).

Keywords: lifestyle, diet, BMI, physical activity, screen time, education, youth

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24 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States

Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam

Abstract:

Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.

Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysis

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23 Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Indigenous Vegetables in Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Renee P. Baang, Romeo M. del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

Abstract:

The crude methanol extracts of five indigenous vegetables namely, Amarathus tricolor, Basella rubra L, Chochurus olitorius L., Ipomea batatas, and Momordica chuchinensis L., were examined for their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 7.6-89.53% with B. rubra and I. batatas having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The total flavonoid content of all five indigenous vegetables ranged from 74.65-277.3 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried vegetable material while the total phenolic content ranged from 1.93-6.15 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried material. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars, which may also be associated with the antioxidant activity shown by these indigenous vegetables.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Philippine İndigenous vegetables, phytochemical screening

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22 Development of a Wind Resource Assessment Framework Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Python Scripting and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Jerome T. Tolentino, Ma. Victoria Rejuso, Jara Kaye Villanueva, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang

Abstract:

Wind energy is rapidly emerging as the primary source of electricity in the Philippines, although developing an accurate wind resource model is difficult. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, an open source mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, was used to produce a 1-year atmospheric simulation with 4 km resolution on the Ilocos Region of the Philippines. The WRF output (netCDF) extracts the annual mean wind speed data using a Python-based Graphical User Interface. Lastly, wind resource assessment was produced using a GIS software. Results of the study showed that it is more flexible to use Python scripts than using other post-processing tools in dealing with netCDF files. Using WRF Model, Python, and Geographic Information Systems, a reliable wind resource map is produced.

Keywords: wind resource assessment, weather research and forecasting (WRF) model, python, GIS software

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21 Morphology, Chromosome Numbers and Molecular Evidences of Three New Species of Begonia Section Baryandra (Begoniaceae) from Panay Island, Philippines

Authors: Rosario Rivera Rubite, Ching-I Peng, Che-Wei Lin, Mark Hughes, Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung

Abstract:

The flora of Panay Island is under-collected compared with the other islands of the Philippines. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia and compared them with potentially allied species. The three species are clearly assignable to Begonia section Baryandra which is largely endemic to the Philippines. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new species: Begonia culasiensis, Begonia merrilliana, and Begonia sykakiengii. Somatic chromosomes at metaphase were determined to be 2n=30 for B. culasiensis and 2n=28 for both B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii, which are congruent with those of most species in sect. Baryandra. Molecular phylogenetic evidence is consistent with B. culasiensis being a relict from the late Miocene, and with B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii being younger species of Pleistocene origin. The continuing discovery of endemic Philippine species means the remaining fragments of both primary and secondary native vegetation in the archipelago are of increasing value in terms of natural capital. A secure future for the species could be realized through ex-situ conservation collections and raising awareness with community groups.

Keywords: conservation, endemic , herbarium , limestone, phylogenetics, taxonomy

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20 PhilSHORE: Development of a WebGIS-Based Marine Spatial Planning Tool for Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment and Site Suitability Analysis

Authors: Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang, Luis Caezar Ian K. Panganiban, Charmyne B. Mamador, Oliver Dan G. De Luna, Michael D. Bausas, Joselito P. Cruz

Abstract:

PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multi-criteria decision support tool designed to support the development of tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis. It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability analyses. Results of the initial development shows PhilSHORE is a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.

Keywords: gis, site suitability analysis, tidal current energy resource assessment, webgis

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19 Analysis of the Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in the Theorical Hydraulic Potential and Streamflow Forecast

Authors: Sara Patricia Ibarra-Zavaleta, Rabindranarth Romero-Lopez, Rosario Langrave, Annie Poulin, Gerald Corzo, Mathias Glaus, Ricardo Vega-Azamar, Norma Angelica Oropeza

Abstract:

The progressive change in climatic conditions worldwide has increased frequency and severity of extreme hydrometeorological events (EHE). Mexico is an example; this has been affected by the presence of EHE leaving economic, social and environmental losses. The objective of this research was to apply a Canadian distributed hydrological model (DHM) to tropical conditions and to evaluate its capacity to predict flows in a basin in the central Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the DHM (once calibrated and validated) was used to calculate the theoretical hydraulic power and the performance to predict streamflow before the presence of an EHE. The results of the DHM show that the goodness of fit indicators between the observed and simulated flows in the calibration process (NSE=0.83, RSR=0.021 and BIAS=-4.3) and validation: temporal was assessed at two points: point one (NSE=0.78, RSR=0.113 and BIAS=0.054) and point two (NSE=0.825, RSR=0.103 and BIAS=0.063) are satisfactory. The DHM showed its applicability in tropical environments and its ability to characterize the rainfall-runoff relationship in the study area. This work can serve as a tool for identifying vulnerabilities before floods and for the rational and sustainable management of water resources.

Keywords: HYDROTEL, hydraulic power, extreme hydrometeorological events, streamflow

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18 Logic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks in Pharmacological Screening of Schinus Essential Oils

Authors: José Neves, M. Rosário Martins, Fátima Candeias, Diana Ferreira, Sílvia Arantes, Júlio Cruz-Morais, Guida Gomes, Joaquim Macedo, António Abelha, Henrique Vicente

Abstract:

Some plants of genus Schinus have been used in the folk medicine as topical antiseptic, digestive, purgative, diuretic, analgesic or antidepressant, and also for respiratory and urinary infections. Chemical composition of essential oils of S. molle and S. terebinthifolius had been evaluated and presented high variability according with the part of the plant studied and with the geographic and climatic regions. The pharmacological properties, namely antimicrobial, anti-tumoural and anti-inflammatory activities are conditioned by chemical composition of essential oils. Taking into account the difficulty to infer the pharmacological properties of Schinus essential oils without hard experimental approach, this work will focus on the development of a decision support system, in terms of its knowledge representation and reasoning procedures, under a formal framework based on Logic Programming, complemented with an approach to computing centered on Artificial Neural Networks and the respective Degree-of-Confidence that one has on such an occurrence.

Keywords: artificial neuronal networks, essential oils, knowledge representation and reasoning, logic programming, Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

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17 Indoor Microclimate in a Historic Library: Considerations on the Positive Effect of Historic Books on the Stability of Indoor Relative Humidity

Authors: Magda Posani, Maria Do Rosario Veiga, Vasco Peixoto De Freitas

Abstract:

The presented research considers the hygrothermal data acquired in the municipal library of Porto. The library is housed in an XVIII century convent and, among all the rooms in the construction, one, in particular, was chosen for the monitoring campaign because of the presence of a great number of historic books. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as CO₂ concentration, were measured for six consecutive months, in the period December 24th - June 24th. The indoor environment of the building is controlled with a heating and cooling system that is turned on only during the opening hours of the library. The ventilation rate is low because the windows are kept closed, and there is no forced ventilation. The micro-climate is analyzed in terms of users’ comfort and degradation risks for historic books and valuable building surfaces. Through a comparison between indoor and outdoor measured hygrothermal data, indoor relative humidity appears very stable. The influence of the hygroscopicity of books on the stabilization of indoor relative humidity is therefore investigated in detail. The paper finally discusses the benefits given by the presence of historic books in libraries with intermittent heating and cooling. The possibility of obtaining a comfortable and stable indoor climate with low use of HVAC systems in these conditions, while avoiding degradation risks for books and historic building components, is further debated.

Keywords: books, historic buildings, hygroscopicity, relative humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
16 Water Quality Assessment of Deep Wells in Western Misamis Oriental, Philippines

Authors: Girlie D. Leopoldo, Myrna S. Ceniza, Ronnie L. Besagas, Antonio Y. Asoy, Noel T. Dael, Romeo M. Del Rosario

Abstract:

The quality of groundwater from main deep well sources of seven (7) municipalities in Western Misamis Oriental, Philippines was examined. The study looks at the well waters’ physicochemical properties (temperture, pH, turbidity, conductivity, TDS, salinity, chlorides, TOC, and total hardness), the heavy metals and other metals (Pb, Cd, Al, As, Hg, Sb, Zn, Cu, Fe) and their microbiological (total coliform and E. coli) characteristics. The physicochemical properties of groundwater samples were found to be within the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW)/US-EPA except for the TDS, chlorides, and hardness of some sources. Well waters from both Initao and Gitagum municipalities have TDS values of 643.2 mg/L and 578.4 mg/L, respectively, as compared to PNSDW/US-EPA standard limit of 500 mg/L. These same two municipalities Initao and Gitagum as well as the municipality of Libertad also have chloride levels beyond the 250 mg/L limit of PNSDW/US-EPA/EU with values at 360, 318 and 277 mg/L respectively. The Libertad sample also registered a total hardness of 407.5 mg/L CaCO3 as compared to the 300 mg/L PNSDW limit. These mentioned three (3) municipalities are noticed to have similar geologic structures. Although metal analyses revealed the presence of Zn, Cu and Fe in almost all well water sources, their concentrations are below allowable limit. All well waters from the seven municipalities failed in total coliform count. Escherichia coli were also found in well waters from four (4) municipalities including Laguindingan, Lugait, Gitagum, and Libertad. The presence of these pathogens in the well waters needs to be addressed to make the waters suitable for human consumption.

Keywords: groundwater, deep well, physico-chemical, heavy metal, microbiological

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15 A Study on the Ideal and Actual Coping Responses of Public and Private College School Teachers on Job-Related Stress

Authors: Zaralyn Bernardo, Dante Boac, Annabelle Del Rosario

Abstract:

Professional individuals who are in a primary role to impart learning with the new generation are alarmingly tend to have a vast decrease in their workforce due to stress at work. Thus, the study used mixed method research design to explore the ideal and actual coping patterns of college school teachers, both private and public, using Coping Response Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult). It was suggested that in order for coping to be effective there must be a congruence or good match between coping efforts and preferred coping style. Results basically provided the same information on sources of teacher stress. However, workload and low salary were more likely heightened, for public and private school, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the ideal and actual coping style of college school teachers. Though the public school teachers leaned towards problem-focused as their ideal way of coping, both public and private teachers are somewhat inclined to use emotion-focused coping in actual situation. Results of FGD identified the factors that contribute to the incongruence or mismatch in their preferred style of coping and actual efforts to cope. Identified factors based on thematic analysis (TA) are clustered into themes such as affectivity and rehearsal of the preferred coping responses, sensitivity to pressure impairs coping efficacy, seeking for social acceptance and approval, indefinite appraisal of perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity, immediate desire to terminate negative emotion and adversity. Most of the factors somewhat provide partial elucidation on the engagement of the respondents on emotion-focused coping.

Keywords: coping responses subtypes, appraisal, teacher stress, ideal and actual coping

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
14 In vitro Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemistry of Some Philippine Creeping Medicinal Plants

Authors: Richard I. Licayan, Aisle Janne B. Dagpin, Romeo M. Del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

Abstract:

Hiptage benghalensis, Antigonon leptopus, Macroptillium atropurpureum, and Dioscorea bulbifera L. are herbal weeds that have been used by traditional healers in rural communities in the Philippines as medicine. In this study, the basic pharmacological components of the crude secondary metabolites extracted from the four herbal weeds and their in vitro antioxidant properties was investigated to provide baseline data for the possible development of these metabolites in pharmaceutical products. Qualitative screening of the secondary metabolites showed that alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and flavonoids were present in their leaf extracts. All of the plant extracts showed varied antioxidant activity. The greatest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in H. begnhalensis (84.64%), followed by A. leptopus (68.21%), M. atropurpureum (26.62%), and D. bulbifera L. (19.04%). The FRAP assay revealed that H. benghalensis had the highest antioxidant activity (8.32 mg/g) while ABTS assay showed that M. atropurpureum had the strongest scavenging ability of free radicals (0.0842 mg Trolox/g). The total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis showed that D. bulbifera L. had the highest TFC (420.35 mg quercetin per gram-dried material). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the four herbal weeds showed large variations, between 26.56±0.160 and 55.91±0.087 mg GAE/g dried material. The plant leaf extracts arranged in increasing values of TPC are H. benghalensis (26.565) < A. leptopus (37.29) < D. bulbifera L. (46.81) < M. atropurpureum (55.91). The obtained results may support their use in herbal medicine and as baseline data for the development of new drugs and standardized phytomedicines.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, total flavonoids, total phenolics, creeping herbal weeds

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13 Development of National Scale Hydropower Resource Assessment Scheme Using SWAT and Geospatial Techniques

Authors: Rowane May A. Fesalbon, Greyland C. Agno, Jodel L. Cuasay, Dindo A. Malonzo, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang

Abstract:

The Department of Energy of the Republic of the Philippines estimates that the country’s energy reserves for 2015 are dwindling– observed in the rotating power outages in several localities. To aid in the energy crisis, a national hydropower resource assessment scheme is developed. Hydropower is a resource that is derived from flowing water and difference in elevation. It is a renewable energy resource that is deemed abundant in the Philippines – being an archipelagic country that is rich in bodies of water and water resources. The objectives of this study is to develop a methodology for a national hydropower resource assessment using hydrologic modeling and geospatial techniques in order to generate resource maps for future reference and use of the government and other stakeholders. The methodology developed for this purpose is focused on two models – the implementation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the river discharge and the use of geospatial techniques to analyze the topography and obtain the head, and generate the theoretical hydropower potential sites. The methodology is highly coupled with Geographic Information Systems to maximize the use of geodatabases and the spatial significance of the determined sites. The hydrologic model used in this workflow is SWAT integrated in the GIS software ArcGIS. The head is determined by a developed algorithm that utilizes a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived digital elevation model (DEM) which has a resolution of 10-meters. The initial results of the developed workflow indicate hydropower potential in the river reaches ranging from pico (less than 5 kW) to mini (1-3 MW) theoretical potential.

Keywords: ArcSWAT, renewable energy, hydrologic model, hydropower, GIS

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12 Construction of Microbial Fuel Cells from Local Benthic Zones

Authors: Maria Luiza D. Ramiento, Maria Lissette D. Lucas

Abstract:

Electricity is said to serve as the backbone of modern technology. Considering this, electricity consumption has dynamically grown due to the continuous demand. An alternative producer of energy concerning electricity must therefore be given focus. Microbial fuel cell wholly characterizes a new method of renewable energy recovery: the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using bacteria. Electricity is produced as fuel or new food is given to the bacteria. The study concentrated in determining the feasibility of electricity production from local benthic zones. Microbial fuel cells were constructed to harvest the possible electricity and to test the presence of electricity producing microorganisms. Soil samples were gathered from Calumpang River, Palawan Mangrove Forest, Rosario River and Batangas Port. Eleven modules were constructed for the different trials of the soil samples. These modules were made of cathode and anode chambers connected by a salt bridge. For 85 days, the harvested voltage was measured daily. No parameter is added for the first 24 days. For the next 61 days, acetic acid was included in the first and second trials of the modules. Each of the trials of the soil samples gave a positive result in electricity production.There were electricity producing microbes in local benthic zones. It is observed that the higher the organic content of the soil sample, the higher the electricity harvested from it. It is recommended to identify the specific species of the electricity-producing microorganism present in the local benthic zone. Complement experiments are encouraged like determining the kind of soil particles to test its effect on the amount electricity that can be harvested. To pursue the development of microbial fuel cells by building a closed circuit in it is also suggested.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, benthic zone, electricity, reduction-oxidation reaction, bacteria

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11 Locating Potential Site for Biomass Power Plant Development in Central Luzon Philippines Using GIS-Based Suitability Analysis

Authors: Bryan M. Baltazar, Marjorie V. Remolador, Klathea H. Sevilla, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang

Abstract:

Biomass energy is a traditional source of sustainable energy, which has been widely used in developing countries. The Philippines, specifically Central Luzon, has an abundant source of biomass. Hence, it could supply abundant agricultural residues (rice husks), as feedstock in a biomass power plant. However, locating a potential site for biomass development is a complex process which involves different factors, such as physical, environmental, socio-economic, and risks that are usually diverse and conflicting. Moreover, biomass distribution is highly dispersed geographically. Thus, this study develops an integrated method combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and methods for energy planning; Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), for locating suitable site for biomass power plant development in Central Luzon, Philippines by considering different constraints and factors. Using MCDA, a three level hierarchy of factors and constraints was produced, with corresponding weights determined by experts by using AHP. Applying the results, a suitability map for Biomass power plant development in Central Luzon was generated. It showed that the central part of the region has the highest potential for biomass power plant development. It is because of the characteristics of the area such as the abundance of rice fields, with generally flat land surfaces, accessible roads and grid networks, and low risks to flooding and landslide. This study recommends the use of higher accuracy resource maps, and further analysis in selecting the optimum site for biomass power plant development that would account for the cost and transportation of biomass residues.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, biomass energy, GIS, multi-criteria decision analysis, site suitability analysis

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10 Indigenous Understandings of Climate Vulnerability in Chile: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Rosario Carmona

Abstract:

This article aims to discuss the importance of indigenous people participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Specifically, it analyses different understandings of climate vulnerability among diverse actors involved in climate change policies in Chile: indigenous people, state officials, and academics. These data were collected through participant observation and interviews conducted during October 2017 and January 2019 in Chile. Following Karen O’Brien, there are two types of vulnerability, outcome vulnerability and contextual vulnerability. How vulnerability to climate change is understood determines the approach, which actors are involved and which knowledge is considered to address it. Because climate change is a very complex phenomenon, it is necessary to transform the institutions and their responses. To do so, it is fundamental to consider these two perspectives and different types of knowledge, particularly those of the most vulnerable, such as indigenous people. For centuries and thanks to a long coexistence with the environment, indigenous societies have elaborated coping strategies, and some of them are already adapting to climate change. Indigenous people from Chile are not an exception. But, indigenous people tend to be excluded from decision-making processes. And indigenous knowledge is frequently seen as subjective and arbitrary in relation to science. Nevertheless, last years indigenous knowledge has gained particular relevance in the academic world, and indigenous actors are getting prominence in international negotiations. There are some mechanisms that promote their participation (e.g., Cancun safeguards, World Bank operational policies, REDD+), which are not absent from difficulties. And since 2016 parties are working on a Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform. This paper also explores the incidence of this process in Chile. Although there is progress in the participation of indigenous people, this participation responds to the operational policies of the funding agencies and not to a real commitment of the state with this sector. The State of Chile omits a review of the structure that promotes inequality and the exclusion of indigenous people. In this way, climate change policies could be configured as a new mechanism of coloniality that validates a single type of knowledge and leads to new territorial control strategies, which increases vulnerability.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, climate change, vulnerability, Chile

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9 Anaerobic Co-digestion in Two-Phase TPAD System of Sewage Sludge and Fish Waste

Authors: Rocio López, Miriam Tena, Montserrat Pérez, Rosario Solera

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Biotransformation of organic waste into biogas is considered an interesting alternative for the production of clean energy from renewable sources by reducing the volume and organic content of waste Anaerobic digestion is considered one of the most efficient technologies to transform waste into fertilizer and biogas in order to obtain electrical energy or biofuel within the concept of the circular economy. Currently, three types of anaerobic processes have been developed on a commercial scale: (1) single-stage process where sludge bioconversion is completed in a single chamber, (2) two-stage process where the acidogenic and methanogenic stages are separated into two chambers and, finally, (3) temperature-phase sequencing (TPAD) process that combines a thermophilic pretreatment unit prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Two-stage processes can provide hydrogen and methane with easier control of the first and second stage conditions producing higher total energy recovery and substrate degradation than single-stage processes. On the other hand, co-digestion is the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of a mixture of two or more substrates. The technology is similar to anaerobic digestion but is a more attractive option as it produces increased methane yields due to the positive synergism of the mixtures in the digestion medium thus increasing the economic viability of biogas plants. The present study focuses on the energy recovery by anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and waste from the aquaculture-fishing sector. The valorization is approached through the application of a temperature sequential phase process or TPAD technology (Temperature - Phased Anaerobic Digestion). Moreover, two-phase of microorganisms is considered. Thus, the selected process allows the development of a thermophilic acidogenic phase followed by a mesophilic methanogenic phase to obtain hydrogen (H₂) in the first stage and methane (CH₄) in the second stage. The combination of these technologies makes it possible to unify all the advantages of these anaerobic digestion processes individually. To achieve these objectives, a sequential study has been carried out in which the biochemical potential of hydrogen (BHP) is tested followed by a BMP test, which will allow checking the feasibility of the two-stage process. The best results obtained were high total and soluble COD yields (59.8% and 82.67%, respectively) as well as H₂ production rates of 12LH₂/kg SVadded and methane of 28.76 L CH₄/kg SVadded for TPAD.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, TPAD, two-phase, BHP, BMP, sewage sludge, fish waste

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8 Building up Regional Innovation Systems (RIS) for Development: The Case Study of the State of Mexico, México

Authors: Jose Luis Solleiro, Rosario Castanon, Laura Elena Martinez

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The State of Mexico is an administrative entity of Mexico, and it is one of the most important territories due to its great economic and social impact for the whole country, especially since it contributes with more than eight of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The State of Mexico has a population of over seventeen million people and host very important business and productive industries such as Automotive, Chemicals, Pharmaceutical, and Agri-food. In 2017, the State Development Plan (Plan Estatal de Desarrollo in Spanish) which is a policy document that rules State's economic actions and integrates the bases for sectoral and regional programs to achieve regional development), raised innovation as a key aspect to boost competitiveness and productivity of the State of Mexico. Therefore, in line with this proposal, in 2018 the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (COMECYT for its acronym in Spanish), an institution in charge of promoting public science and technology policies in the State of Mexico, took actions towards building up the State´s Innovation System. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to review and analyze the process to create RIS in the State of Mexico. We focus on the key elements of the process, the diverse actors that were involved in it, the activities that were carried out and the identification of the challenges, findings, successes, and failures of the intended exercise. The methodology used to analyze the structure of the Innovation System of the State of Mexico is based on two elements: the case study and the research-action approach. The main objective of the paper, the case study was based on semi-structured interviews with key actors who have participated in the process of launching the RIS of the State of Mexico. Additionally, we analyzed the information reports and other documents that were elaborated during the process of shaping the State's innovation system. Finally, the results obtained in the process were also examined. The relevance of this investigation fundamentally rests in two elements: 1) keeping documental record of the process of building a RIS in Mexico; and 2) carrying out the analysis of this case study recognizing the importance of knowledge extraction and dissemination, so that lessons on this matter may be useful for similar experiences in the future. We conclude that in Mexico, documentation and analysis efforts related to the formation of RIS and interaction processes between innovation ecosystem actors are scarce, so documents like are of great importance, especially since it generates a series of findings and recommendations for the building of RIS.

Keywords: regional innovation systems, innovation, development, competitiveness

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7 The Production of Reinforced Insulation Bricks out of the Concentration of Ganoderma lucidum Fungal Inoculums and Cement Paste

Authors: Jovie Esquivias Nicolas, Ron Aldrin Lontoc Austria, Crisabelle Belleza Bautista, Mariane Chiho Espinosa Bundalian, Owwen Kervy Del Rosario Castillo, Mary Angelyn Mercado Dela Cruz, Heinrich Theraja Recana De Luna, Chriscell Gipanao Eustaquio, Desiree Laine Lauz Gilbas, Jordan Ignacio Legaspi, Larah Denise David Madrid, Charles Linelle Malapote Mendoza, Hazel Maxine Manalad Reyes, Carl Justine Nabora Saberdo, Claire Mae Rendon Santos

Abstract:

In response to the global race in discovering the next advanced sustainable material that will reduce our ecological footprint, the researchers aimed to create a masonry unit which is competent in physical edifices and other constructional facets. From different proven researches, mycelium has been concluded that when dried can be used as a robust and waterproof building material that can be grown into explicit forms, thus reducing the processing requirements. Hypothesizing inclusive measures to attest fungi’s impressive structural qualities and absorbency, the researchers projected to perform comparative analyses in creating mycelium bricks from mushroom spores of G. lucidum. Three treatments were intended to classify the most ideal concentration of clay and substrate fixings. The substrate bags fixed with 30% clay and 70% mixings indicated highest numerical frequencies in terms of full occupation of fungal mycelia. Subsequently, sorted parts of white portions from the treatment were settled in a thermoplastic mold and burnt. Three proportional concentrations of cultivated substrate and cement were also prioritized to gather results of variation focused on the weights of the bricks in the Water Absorption Test and Durability Test. Fungal inoculums with solutions of cement showed small to moderate amounts of decrease and increase in load. This proves that the treatments did not show any significant difference when it comes to strength, efficiency and absorption capacity. Each of the concentration is equally valid and could be used in supporting the worldwide demands of creating numerous bricks while also taking into consideration the recovery of our nature.

Keywords: mycelium, fungi, fungal mycelia, durability test, water absorption test

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6 Generation Z: Insights into Travel Behavior

Authors: Joao Ferreira Do Rosario, Nuno Gustavo, Ana Machado, Lurdes Calisto, Luisa Carvalho, Georgette Andraz

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Currently, tourism small and medium enterprises (TSMEs) face serious economic and financial problems, making recovery efforts difficult. How the pandemic will affect tourists' behavior is still to be known. Will tourists be even more cautious regarding their choices or, on the contrary, will they be more adventurers with an enormous desire to travel in search of the lost freedom? Tourists may become even more demanding when traveling, more austere, or less concerned and eager to socialize. Adjusting to this "new tourist" is an added challenge for tourism service providers. Generation Z made up of individuals born in 1995 and following years, currently tends to assume a particular role and meaning in the present and future economic and social context, considering that we are facing the youngest workforce as well as tomorrow's consumers. This generation is distinguished from others as it is the first generation to combine a high level of education and technological knowledge and to fully experience the digital world. These young people are framed by a new value system that can explain new behaviours and consumption, namely, in the context of tourism. All these considerations point to the importance of investigating this target group as it is essential to understand how these individuals perceive, understand, act, and can be involved in a new environment built around a society regulated by new priorities and challenges of a sustainable nature. This leads not only to a focus on short-term market choices but mainly to predict future choices from a longer-term perspective. Together with the social background of a person, values are considered a stable antecedent of behavior and might therefore predict not just immediate, but also future choices. Furthermore, the meaning attributed to travel has a general connotation and goes beyond a specific travel choice or experience. In other words, values and travel's meaning form a chain of influences on the present and future travel behavior. This study explores the social background and values of Generation Z travelers vs the meaning these tourists give to travel. The aim is to discover in their present behavior cues to predict travel choices so that the future of tourism can be secured. This study also provides data for predicting the tourism choices of youngsters in the more immediate future. Methodologically, a quantitative approach was adopted based on the collection of data through a survey. Since academic research on Generation Z of tourists is still scarce, it is expected to contribute to deepening scientific knowledge in this area. Furthermore, it is expected that this research will support tourism professionals in defining differentiated marketing strategies and adapted to the requirements of this target, in a new time.

Keywords: Generation Z, travel behavior, travel meaning, Generation Z Values

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5 Life Cycle Assessment-Based Environmental Assessment of the Production and Maintenance of Wooden Windows

Authors: Pamela Del Rosario, Elisabetta Palumbo, Marzia Traverso

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The building sector plays an important role in addressing pressing environmental issues such as climate change and resource scarcity. The energy performance of buildings is considerably affected by the external envelope. In fact, a considerable proportion of the building energy demand is due to energy losses through the windows. Nevertheless, according to literature, to pay attention only to the contribution of windows to the building energy performance, i.e., their influence on energy use during building operation, could result in a partial evaluation. Hence, it is important to consider not only the building energy performance but also the environmental performance of windows, and this not only during the operational stage but along its complete life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006+A1:2018 is one of the most adopted and robust methods to evaluate the environmental performance of products throughout their complete life cycle. This life-cycle based approach avoids the shift of environmental impacts of a life cycle stage to another, allowing to allocate them to the stage in which they originated and to adopt measures that optimize the environmental performance of the product. Moreover, the LCA method is widely implemented in the construction sector to assess whole buildings as well as construction products and materials. LCA is regulated by the European Standards EN 15978:2011, at the building level, and EN 15804:2012+A2:2019, at the level of construction products and materials. In this work, the environmental performance of wooden windows was assessed by implementing the LCA method and adopting primary data. More specifically, the emphasis is given to embedded and operational impacts. Furthermore, correlations are made between these environmental impacts and aspects such as type of wood and window transmittance. In the particular case of the operational impacts, special attention is set on the definition of suitable maintenance scenarios that consider the potential climate influence on the environmental impacts. For this purpose, a literature review was conducted, and expert consultation was carried out. The study underlined the variability of the embedded environmental impacts of wooden windows by considering different wood types and transmittance values. The results also highlighted the need to define appropriate maintenance scenarios for precise assessment results. It was found that both the service life and the window maintenance requirements in terms of treatment and its frequency are highly dependent not only on the wood type and its treatment during the manufacturing process but also on the weather conditions of the place where the window is installed. In particular, it became evident that maintenance-related environmental impacts were the highest for climate regions with the lowest temperatures and the greatest amount of precipitation.

Keywords: embedded impacts, environmental performance, life cycle assessment, LCA, maintenance stage, operational impacts, wooden windows

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