Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Alok Kalla

43 Role of Climatic Conditions on Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis Stock Structure

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Naoki Suzuki, Kalla Alok, Nath Paras


Bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) tuna is one of the most economically valuable tuna species in the world. In recent years the stock has been observed to decline. It is suspected that the stock-recruitment relationship and population structure is influenced by environmental and climatic variables. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the trajectory of the different life stages of the North Pacific bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis was performed for the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the bluefin tuna cohorts (age-0, 1, 2,…,9, 10+). General Additive Modeling (GAM) was used to reconstruct the recruitment (R) trajectory. The spatial movement of the SST was also monitored from 1953 to 2012 in the distribution area of the bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis showed significance influence of the North Pacific Sea Surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the age-0 group. Other age group (1, 2,…,9, 10+) time series did not exhibit any significant correlations. PDO showed most significant relationship in the months of October to December. Although the stock-recruitment relationship is of biological significance, the recruits (age-0) showed poor correlation with the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). Indeed the most significant model incorporated the SSB, SST and PDO. The results show that the stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific bluefin tuna is multi-dimensional and cannot be adequately explained by the SSB alone. SST and PDO forcing of the population structure is of significant importance and needs to be accounted for when making harvesting plans for bluefin tuna in the North Pacific.

Keywords: pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, cohorts, recruitment, spawning stock biomass, sea surface temperature, pacific decadal oscillation, general additive model

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42 Sea Surface Temperature and Climatic Variables as Drivers of North Pacific Albacore Tuna Thunnus Alalunga Time Series

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Naoki Suzuki, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Swastika Roshni, Paras Nath, Alok Kalla


Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is one of the commercially important species of tuna in the North Pacific region. Despite the long history of albacore fisheries in the Pacific, its ecological characteristics are not sufficiently understood. The effects of changing climate on numerous commercially and ecologically important fish species including albacore tuna have been documented over the past decades. The objective of this study was to explore and elucidate the relationship of environmental variables with the stock parameters of albacore tuna. The relationship of the North Pacific albacore tuna recruitment (R), spawning stock biomass (SSB) and recruits per spawning biomass (RPS) from 1970 to 2012 with the environmental factors of sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific warm pool index (PWI) was construed. SST and PDO were used as independent variables with SSB to construct stock reproduction models for R and RPS as they showed most significant relationship with the dependent variables. ENSO and PWI were excluded due to collinearity effects with SST and PDO. Model selections were based on R2 values, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and significant parameter estimates at p<0.05. Models with single independent variables of SST, PDO, ENSO and PWI were also constructed to illuminate their individual effect on albacore R and RPS. From the results it can be said that SST and PDO resulted in the most significant models for reproducing North Pacific albacore tuna R and RPS time series. SST has the highest impact on albacore R and RPS when comparing models with single environmental variables. It is important for fishery managers and decision makers to incorporate the findings into their albacore tuna management plans for the North Pacific Oceanic region.

Keywords: Albacore tuna, El Niño southern oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, sea surface temperature

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41 Self-Organization-Based Approach for Embedded Real-Time System Design

Authors: S. S. Bendib, L. W. Mouss, S. Kalla


This paper proposes a self-organization-based approach for real-time systems design. The addressed issue is the mapping of an application onto an architecture of heterogeneous processors while optimizing both makespan and reliability. Since this problem is NP-hard, a heuristic algorithm is used to obtain efficiently approximate solutions. The proposed approach takes into consideration the quality as well as the diversity of solutions. Indeed, an alternate treatment of the two objectives allows to produce solutions of good quality while a self-organization approach based on the neighborhood structure is used to reorganize solutions and consequently to enhance their diversity. Produced solutions make different compromises between the makespan and the reliability giving the user the possibility to select the solution suited to his (her) needs.

Keywords: embedded real-time systems design, makespan, reliability, self-organization, compromises

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
40 Investigation of Heat Conduction through Particulate Filled Polymer Composite

Authors: Alok Agrawal, Alok Satapathy


In this paper, an attempt to determine the effective thermal conductivity (keff) of particulate filled polymer composites using finite element method (FEM) a powerful computational technique is made. A commercially available finite element package ANSYS is used for this numerical analysis. Three-dimensional spheres-in-cube lattice array models are constructed to simulate the microstructures of micro-sized particulate filled polymer composites with filler content ranging from 2.35 to 26.8 vol %. Based on the temperature profiles across the composite body, the keff of each composition is estimated theoretically by FEM. Composites with similar filler contents are than fabricated using compression molding technique by reinforcing micro-sized aluminium oxide (Al2O3) in polypropylene (PP) resin. Thermal conductivities of these composite samples are measured according to the ASTM standard E-1530 by using the Unitherm™ Model 2022 tester, which operates on the double guarded heat flow principle. The experimentally measured conductivity values are compared with the numerical values and also with those obtained from existing empirical models. This comparison reveals that the FEM simulated values are found to be in reasonable good agreement with the experimental data. Values obtained from the theoretical model proposed by the authors are also found to be in even closer approximation with the measured values within percolation limit. Further, this study shows that there is gradual enhancement in the conductivity of PP resin with increase in filler percentage and thereby its heat conduction capability is improved. It is noticed that with addition of 26.8 vol % of filler, the keff of composite increases to around 6.3 times that of neat PP. This study validates the proposed model for PP-Al2O3 composite system and proves that finite element analysis can be an excellent methodology for such investigations. With such improved heat conduction ability, these composites can find potential applications in micro-electronics, printed circuit boards, encapsulations etc.

Keywords: analytical modelling, effective thermal conductivity, finite element method, polymer matrix composite

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39 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty


Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

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38 Sensing to Respond & Recover in Emergency

Authors: Alok Kumar, Raviraj Patil


The ability to respond to an incident of a disastrous event in a vulnerable area is very crucial an aspect of emergency management. The ability to constantly predict the likelihood of an event along with its severity in an area and react to those significant events which are likely to have a high impact allows the authorities to respond by allocating resources optimally in a timely manner. It provides for measuring, monitoring, and modeling facilities that integrate underlying systems into one solution to improve operational efficiency, planning, and coordination. We were particularly involved in this innovative incubation work on the current state of research and development in collaboration. technologies & systems for a disaster.

Keywords: predictive analytics, advanced analytics, area flood likelihood model, area flood severity model, level of impact model, mortality score, economic loss score, resource allocation, crew allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
37 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha


Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, Heavy metals, metallurgical slag, Neutralization

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36 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Modified Fly Ash

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha


Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the generation of acidic water from active as well as abandoned mines. AMD generates due to the oxidation of pyrites present in the rock in mining areas. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans acts as a catalyst in this oxidation process. The characteristics of AMD is extreme low pH (2-3) with elevated concentration of different heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such sulfate and chloride. AMD contaminate the ground water as well as surface water which leads to the degradation of water quality. Moreover, it carries detrimental effect for aquatic organism and degrade the environment. In the present study, AMD is treated with fly ash, modified with alkaline agent (NaOH). This modified fly ash (MFA) was experimentally proven as a very effective neutralizing agent for the treatment of AMD. It was observed that pH of treated AMD raised to 9.22 from 1.51 with 100g/L of MFA dose. Approximately, 99% removal of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co took place with the same MFA dose. The treated water comply with the effluent discharge standard of (IS: 2490-1981).

Keywords: acid mine drainage, heavy metals, modified fly ash, neutralization

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35 Therapeutic Role of Polygonum bistorta and Zingiber roseum by in vivo and in vitro Study

Authors: Deepak Kumar Mittal, Alok Kumar Jena, Deepmala Joshi


The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the roots of Polygonum bistorta (PB) (200 mg/kg) and Zingiber roseum (ZR) (250 mg/kg) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (0.15 ml/kg, i.p.). Extract of PB and ZR at the tested doses restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, significantly. The activities of MTT assay significantly recovered the damage and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that Zingiber roseum has a higher protective effect on liver, compared to Polygonum bistorta, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and possesses antioxidant activities. Also, extracts exhibited moderate anticancer activity towards cell viability at higher concentration.

Keywords: Polygonum bistorta, Zingiber roseum, hepatoprotective effect, carbon tetrachloride, anti-cancerous

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
34 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti


Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: liquid filled containers, circular tanks, IS 1893 (part 2), seismic analysis, sloshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
33 Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Glimepiride and Ilaprazole in Rat Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

Authors: Anil P. Dewani, Alok S. Tripathi, Anil V. Chandewar


Present manuscript reports the development and validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of Glimepiride (GLM) and Ilaprazole (ILA) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were involved with Solid phase extraction process (SPE). The analytes were resolved on a Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm× 250 mm; 5 µm particle size) using a isocratic elution mode comprising methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) with pH of water modified to 3 using Formic acid, the total run time was 10 min at 225 nm as common wavelength, the flow rate throughout was 1ml/min. The method was validated over the concentration range from 10 to 600 ng/mL for GLM and ILA, in rat plasma. Metformin (MET) was used as Internal Standard. Validation data demonstrated the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise. The limit of detection was 1.54 and 4.08 and limit of quantification was 5.15 and 13.62 for GLM and ILA respectively, the method demonstrated excellent linearity with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.999. The intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were < 2.0% for both ILA and GLM. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies followed by oral administration in rats.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, glimepiride, ilaprazole, HPLC, SPE

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
32 The Role of Planning and Memory in the Navigational Ability

Authors: Greeshma Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal


Navigational ability requires spatial representation, planning, and memory. It covers three interdependent domains, i.e. cognitive and perceptual factors, neural information processing, and variability in brain microstructure. Many attempts have been made to see the role of spatial representation in the navigational ability, and the individual differences have been identified in the neural substrate. But, there is also a need to address the influence of planning, memory on navigational ability. The present study aims to evaluate relations of aforementioned factors in the navigational ability. Total 30 participants volunteered in the study of a virtual shopping complex and subsequently were classified into good and bad navigators based on their performances. The result showed that planning ability was the most correlated factor for the navigational ability and also the discriminating factor between the good and bad navigators. There was also found the correlations between spatial memory recall and navigational ability. However, non-verbal episodic memory and spatial memory recall were also found to be correlated with the learning variable. This study attempts to identify differences between people with more and less navigational ability on the basis of planning and memory.

Keywords: memory, planning navigational ability, virtual reality

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31 In Search of Seaplanes in Andhra Pradesh: In View of UDAN

Authors: Priyadarshini Alok


The present situation in India envisages that because of the surge in population and the economy, cities are expected to spill over to hinterland areas. The consumption-led factors such as land, labor, etc. will be boosted. Hence, the need for regional connectivity becomes obligatory. But, there is enormous pressure upon the land; proving itself through rising traffic congestion, roads, and railway accidents. Air transport is practical, but due to decreasing availability of land, this will not be a wise solution. What with the introduction of seaplanes in the country which was once the vital asset in the world prior to Second World War. Maldives has proved it. Seaplanes offer natural landing site and are time and cost-efficient. Seaplanes in accordance with UDAN can prove to be the solution in linking various regions with other states. This research paper aims to offer the feasibility analysis along with site justification of the potential areas in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India; for the operation of seaplanes. The standards are taken from the US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration for the analysis. The conflation of Seaplanes with UDAN will offer an alternate mode of air connectivity, strengthen the transport network by simulation of connectivity to unserved and under-served areas and boost the nation's economy.

Keywords: connectivity, seaplanes, transport, UDAN

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30 Processing and Characterization of Glass-Epoxy Composites Filled with Linz-Donawitz (LD) Slag

Authors: Pravat Ranjan Pati, Alok Satapathy


Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron etc. while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. Although a number of ways for its utilization have been suggested, its potential as a filler material in polymeric matrices has not yet been explored. The present work reports the possible use of this waste in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a filler material. Hybrid composites consisting of bi-directional e-glass-fiber reinforced epoxy filled with different LD slag content (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 wt%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. The composites are characterized in regard to their density, porosity, micro-hardness and strength properties. X-ray diffractography is carried out in order to ascertain the various phases present in LDS. This work shows that LD slag, in spite of being a waste, possesses fairly good filler characteristics as it modifies the strength properties and improves the composite micro-hardness of the polymeric resin.

Keywords: characterization, glass-epoxy composites, LD slag, waste utilization

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29 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong


Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: conductivity, perovskite, mobility, TCO film

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28 Magneto-Transport of Single Molecular Transistor Using Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett Model

Authors: Manasa Kalla, Narasimha Raju Chebrolu, Ashok Chatterjee


We have studied the quantum transport properties of a single molecular transistor in the presence of an external magnetic field using the Keldysh Green function technique. We also used the Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett Model to describe the single molecular transistor that consists of a molecular quantum dot (QD) coupled to two metallic leads and placed on a substrate that acts as a heat bath. The phonons are eliminated by the Lang-Firsov transformation and the effective Hamiltonian is used to study the effect of an external magnetic field on the spectral density function, Tunneling Current, Differential Conductance and Spin polarization. A peak in the spectral function corresponds to a possible excitation. In the presence of a magnetic field, the spin-up and spin-down states are degenerate and this degeneracy is lifted by the magnetic field leading to the splitting of the central peak of the spectral function. The tunneling current decreases with increasing magnetic field. We have observed that even the differential conductance peak in the zero magnetic field curve is split in the presence electron-phonon interaction. As the magnetic field is increased, each peak splits into two peaks. And each peak indicates the existence of an energy level. Thus the number of energy levels for transport in the bias window increases with the magnetic field. In the presence of the electron-phonon interaction, Differential Conductance in general gets reduced and decreases faster with the magnetic field. As magnetic field strength increases, the spin polarization of the current is increasing. Our results show that a strongly interacting QD coupled to metallic leads in the presence of external magnetic field parallel to the plane of QD acts as a spin filter at zero temperature.

Keywords: Anderson-Holstein model, Caldeira-Leggett model, spin-polarization, quantum dots

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27 Biochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Glycated Albumin: Clinical Relevance in Diabetes Associated Complications

Authors: Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad


Background: Serum albumin glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation correlates in diabetes and its associated complications. Extensive modified human serum albumin is used to study the biochemical, electrochemical and functional properties in hyperglycemic environment with relevance to diabetes. We evaluate Spectroscopic, side chain modifications, amino acid analysis, biochemical and functional group properties in four glucose modified samples. Methods: A series four human serum albumin samples modified with glucose was characterized in terms of amino acid analysis, spectroscopic properties and side chain modifications. The diagnostic technique employed incorporates UV Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, biochemical assays for side chain modifications, amino acid estimations. Conclusion: Glucose modified human serum albumin confers AGE formation causes biochemical and functional property that depend on the reactivity of glucose and its concentration used for in-vitro glycation. A biochemical and functional characterization of modified albumin in-vitro produced AGE product that will be useful to interpret the complications and pathophysiological significance in diabetes.

Keywords: glycation, diabetes, human serum albumin, biochemical and electrochemical characterization

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26 Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nano-Platelets Coated Carbon-Fiber Composites

Authors: Alok Srivastava, Vidit Gupta, Aparna Singh, Chandra Sekher Yerramalli


Carbon-fiber epoxy composites show extremely high modulus and strength in the uniaxial direction. However, they are prone to fail under low load in transverse direction due to the weak nature of the interface between the carbon-fiber and epoxy. In the current study, we have coated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) on the carbon-fibers in an attempt to strengthen the interface/interphase between the fiber and the matrix. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) has been used to make the laminates of eight cross-woven fabrics. Tensile, flexural and fracture toughness tests have been performed on pristine carbon-fiber composite (P-CF), GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (GNP-CF) and functionalized-GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (F-GNP-CF). The tensile strength and flexural strength values are pretty similar for P-CF and GNP-CF. The micro-structural examination of the GNP coated carbon-fibers, as well as the fracture surfaces, have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs reveal the deposition of GNPs onto the carbon fibers in transverse and longitudinal direction. Fracture surfaces show the debonding and pull outs of the carbon fibers in P-CF and GNP-CF samples.

Keywords: carbon fiber, graphene nanoplatelets, strength, VARTM, Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
25 Environmental Impact Assessment of Conventional Tyre Manufacturing Process

Authors: G. S. Dangayach, Gaurav Gaurav, Alok Bihari Singh


The popularity of vehicles in both industrialized and developing economies led to a rise in the production of tyres. People have become increasingly concerned about the tyre industry's possible environmental impact in the last two decades. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts of industrial tyres throughout their life cycle, which included four stages: manufacture, transportation, consumption, and end-of-life. The majority of prior studies focused on tyre recycling and disposal. Only a few studies have been conducted on the environmental impact of tyre production process. LCA methodology was employed to determine the environmental impact of tyre manufacture process (gate to gate) at an Indian firm. Comparative analysis was also conducted to identify the environmental hotspots in various stages of tire manufacturing. This study is limited to gate-to-gate analysis of manufacturing processes with the functional unit of a single tyre weighing 50 kg. GaBi software was used to do both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Different environmental impact indicators are measured in terms of CO2, SO2, NOx, GWP (global warming potential), AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), POCP (photochemical oxidant formation potential), and HTP (toxic human potential). The results demonstrate that the major contributor to environmental pollution is electricity. The Banbury process has a very high negative environmental impact, which causes respiratory problems to workers and operators.

Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental impact indicators, tyre manufacturing process, environmental impact assessment

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24 Impact of Glycation on Proteomics of Human Serum Albumin: Relevance to Diabetes Associated Pathologies

Authors: Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad


Background: Serum albumin glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation correlates in diabetes and its associated complications. Extensive modified human serum albumin is used to study the biochemical, electrochemical and functional properties in hyperglycemic environment with relevance to diabetes. We evaluate Spectroscopic, side chain modifications, amino acid analysis, biochemical and functional group properties in four glucose modified samples. Methods: A series four human serum albumin samples modified with glucose was characterized in terms of amino acid analysis, spectroscopic properties and side chain modifications. The diagnostic technique employed incorporates UV Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, biochemical assays for side chain modifications, amino acid estimations, electrochemical and optical characterstic of glycated albumin. Conclusion: Glucose modified human serum albumin confers AGEs formation alters biochemical, electrochemical, optical, and functional property that depend on the reactivity of glucose and its concentration used for in-vitro glycation. A biochemical, electrochemical, optical, and functional characterization of modified albumin in-vitro produced AGE product that will be useful to interpret the complications and pathophysiological significance in diabetes.

Keywords: human serum albumin, glycated albumin, adavanced glycation end products, associated pathologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
23 Shrinkage Evaluation in a Stepped Wax Pattern – a Simulation Approach

Authors: Alok S Chauhan, Sridhar S., Pradyumna R.


In the process of precision investment casting of turbine hollow blade/vane components, a part of the dimensional deviations observed in the castings can be attributed to the wax pattern. In the process of injection moulding of wax to produce patterns, heated wax shrinks in size during cooling in the die, leading to a reduction in the dimensions of the pattern. Also, flow and thermal induced residual stresses result in shrinkage & warpage of the component after removal from the die, further adding to the deviations. Injection moulding parameters such as wax temperature, flow rate, packing pressure, etc. affect the flow and thermal behavior of the component and hence are directly responsible for the dimensional deviations. There is a need to precisely determine and control these deviations in order to achieve stringent dimensional accuracies imposed on these castings by aerospace standards. Simulation based approaches provide a platform to predict these dimensional deviations without resorting to elaborate experimentation. In the present paper, Moldex3D simulation package has been utilized to analyze the effect of variations in injection temperature, packing pressure and cooling time on the shrinkage behavior of a stepped pattern. Two types of waxes with different rheological properties have been included in the study to gauge the effect of change in wax on the dimensional deviations. A full factorial design of experiments has been configured with these parameters and results of analysis of variance have been presented.

Keywords: wax patterns, investment casting, pattern die/mould, wax injection, Moldex3D simulation

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22 Numerical Simulation of Lifeboat Launching Using Overset Meshing

Authors: Alok Khaware, Vinay Kumar Gupta, Jean Noel Pederzani


Lifeboat launching from marine vessel or offshore platform is one of the important areas of research in offshore applications. With the advancement of computational fluid dynamic simulation (CFD) technology to solve fluid induced motions coupled with Six Degree of Freedom (6DOF), rigid body dynamics solver, it is now possible to predict the motion of the lifeboat precisely in different challenging conditions. Traditionally dynamic remeshing approach is used to solve this kind of problems, but remeshing approach has some bottlenecks to control good quality mesh in transient moving mesh cases. In the present study, an overset method with higher-order interpolation is used to simulate a lifeboat launched from an offshore platform into calm water, and volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to track free surface. Overset mesh consists of a set of overlapping component meshes, which allows complex geometries to be meshed with lesser effort. Good quality mesh with local refinement is generated at the beginning of the simulation and stay unchanged throughout the simulation. Overset mesh accuracy depends on the precise interpolation technique; the present study includes a robust and accurate least square interpolation method and results obtained with overset mesh shows good agreement with experiment.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, free surface flow, lifeboat launching, overset mesh, volume of fluid

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21 Performance Based Design of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Near-Field Earthquakes Using Energy Methods

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi


Performance based design (PBD) is an iterative exercise in which a preliminary trial design of the building structure is selected and if the selected trial design of the building structure does not conform to the desired performance objective, the trial design is revised. In this context, development of a fundamental approach for performance based seismic design of masonry infilled frames with minimum number of trials is an important objective. The paper presents a plastic design procedure based on the energy balance concept for PBD of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed energy based plastic design procedure was implemented for trial performance based seismic design of representative masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames with various practically relevant distributions of masonry infill panels over the frame elevation. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the trial PBD of masonry infilled R/C frames was performed under the action of near-field earthquake ground motions. The results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the proposed energy method is effective for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames under near-field as well as far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: masonry infilled frame, energy methods, near-fault ground motions, pushover analysis, nonlinear dynamic analysis, seismic demand

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20 Screening for Antibacterial Activity of Fungi from Indian Marine Environments: A Possible Alternative for New Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin Microbial Infections

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya


Millions of people worldwide are affected by infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) represent a significant category of infectious disease. Unexpectedly, many pathogens have developed resistance towards current antibiotics and over the time this problem has become more and more serious. All these new problems necessitate the continuous search for novel and alternative antibiotics and antifungals. The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine fungi for their antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. A total of 40 marine samples were collected from west coast and Andaman Island of India and 35 morphologically different marine fungi were isolated using natural sea water medium. Among 35 marine fungi, eight isolates exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain 'D5' was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1 mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process. The results of diversity and antimicrobial activity have increased the scope of finding industrially important marine fungi from Indian marine environments and these organisms could be vital sources for the discovery of pharmaceutically useful molecules.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, antibiotic, marine fungi, skin infections

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19 Ameliorative Effect of Martynia annua Linn. on Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Modulating Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Mice

Authors: Alok Pal Jain, Santram Lodhi


Martynia annua Linn. (Martyniaccae) is traditionally used in inflammation and applied locally to tuberculosis glands of camel’s neck. The leaves used topically to bites of venomous insects and wounds of domestic animals. Chemical examination of Martynia annua leaves revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, proteins, phenols and flavonoids. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves. Methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves was tested by using in vivo collagen-induced arthritis mouse model to investigate the anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity. In addition, antioxidant effect of methanolic extract was determined by the estimation of antioxidants level in joint tissues. The severity of arthritis was assessed by arthritis score and edema. Levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, in the joint tissue homogenate were measured using ELISA. A high dose (250 mg/kg) of methanolic extract was significantly reduced the degree of inflammation in mice as compared with reference drug. Antioxidants level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in joint tissue homogenate found significantly (p < 0.05) higher. Methanolic extract at dose of 250 mg/kg modulated the cytokines production and suppressed the oxidative stress in the mice with collagen-induced arthritis. This study suggested that Martynia annua might be alternative herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Martynia annua, collagen, rheumatoid arthritis, antioxidants

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18 Production of Organic Solvent Tolerant Hydrolytic Enzymes (Amylase and Protease) by Bacteria Isolated from Soil of a Dairy Farm

Authors: Alok Kumar, Hari Ram, Lebin Thomas, Ved Pal Singh


Organic solvent tolerant amylases and proteases of microbial origin are in great demand for their application in transglycosylation of water-insoluble flavanoids and in peptide synthesizing reaction in organic media. Most of the amylases and proteases are unstable in presence of organic solvent. In the present work two different bacterial strains M-11 and VP-07 were isolated from the soil sample of a dairy farm in Delhi, India, for the efficient production of extracellular amylase and protease through their screening on starch agar (SA) and skimmed milk agar (SMA) plates, respectively. Both the strains (M-11 and VP-07) were identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. After analysis through Ez-Taxon software, the strains M-11 and VP-07 were found to have maximum pairwise similarity of 98.63% and 100% with Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 and Bacillus anthracis ATCC 14578 and were therefore identified as Bacillus sp. UKS1 and Bacillus sp. UKS2, respectively. Time course study of enzyme activity and bacterial growth has shown that both strains exhibited typical sigmoid growth behavior and maximum production of amylase (180 U/ml) and protease (78 U/ml) by these strains (UKS1 and UKS2) was commenced during stationary phase of growth at 24 and 20 h, respectively. Thereafter, both amylase and protease were tested for their tolerance towards organic solvents and were found to be active as well stable in p-xylene (130% and 115%), chloroform (110% and 112%), isooctane (119% and 107%), benzene (121% and 104%), n-hexane (116% and 103%) and toluene (112% and 101%, respectively). Owing to such properties, these enzymes can be exploited for their potential application in industries for organic synthesis.

Keywords: amylase, enzyme activity, industrial applications, organic solvent tolerant, protease

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17 Anti-Tyrosinase and Antibacterial Activities of Marine Fungal Extracts

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya


A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. The research work carried out in this project aims at isolation, characterization of marine fungal secondary metabolite and evaluating their potential use in future cosmetic skin care products. We have isolated and purified 35 morphologically different fungal isolates from various marine habitats of the India. These isolates have been functionally characterized for anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and anti-acne activities. For molecular characterization, the Internal Transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 15 functionally active marine fungal isolates was amplified using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4 and sequenced. Out of 15 marine fungal isolates crude extract of strains D4 (Aspergillus terreus) and P2 (Talaromyces stipitatus) showed 70% and 57% tyrosinase inhibition at 1mg/mL respectively. Strain D5 (Simplicillium lamellicola) has showed significant inhibition against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, all these strains also displayed DPPH- radical scavenging activity and may be utilized as skin cosmeceutical applications. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process.

Keywords: anti-acne, anti-tyrosinase, cosmeceutical, marine fungi

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16 Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Leaves

Authors: Amit Keshav, Alok Sharma, Bidyut Mazumdar


Colocasia esculenta leaves and roots are widely used in Asian countries, such as, India, Srilanka and Pakistan, as food and feed material. The root is high in carbohydrates and rich in zinc. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season. Leaf juice is stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia. Looking at the medicinal uses of the plant leaves; phytochemicals were extracted from the plant leaves and were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to find the functional groups. Phytochemical analysis of Colocasia esculenta (L.) leaf was studied using three solvents (methanol, chloroform, and ethanol) with soxhlet apparatus. Powder of the leaves was employed to obtain the extracts, which was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for phytochemical content using standard methods. Phytochemical constituents were abundant in the leave extract. Leaf was found to have various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, oxalates and phenols etc., which could have lot of medicinal benefits such as reducing headache, treatment of congestive heart failure, prevent oxidative cell damage etc. These phytochemicals were identified using UV spectrophotometer and results were presented. In order to find the antioxidant activity of the extract, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method was employed using ascorbic acid as standard. DPPH scavenging activity of ascorbic acid was found to be 84%, whereas for ethanol it was observed to be 78.92%, for methanol: 76.46% and for chloroform: 72.46%. Looking at the high antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta may be recommended for medicinal applications. The characterizations of functional groups were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta, leaves, characterization, FTIR

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15 Molecular Modeling a Tool for Postulating the Mechanism of Drug Interaction: Glimepiride Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil Citrate in Diabetic Nephropathy Animals

Authors: Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Chandewar


The present study evaluates the possible drug interaction between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) and confirms it by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on 28th day of its induction. Selected DN animals were used for the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) after 29th and 70th day of protocol. Drug interaction were assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and also determine the change in the biochemical parameter in blood and urine. Mechanism of the interaction was postulated by molecular modeling study using Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in the blood and urine biochemical parameter in STZ treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (p<0.001) in rat plasma when co administered with GLIM after 70th day of protocol. Molecular modelling study revealed few important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9.GLIM has strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL. Whereas, for CYP2C9, GLIM has strong hydrogen bond with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions than SIL. Present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals and mechanism has been supported by molecular modeling studies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, glimepiride, sildenafil citrate, pharmacokinetics, homology modeling, schrodinger

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14 Equipping Organic Farming in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants' Scientific Interventions

Authors: Alok Kalra


Consumers and practitioners (medical herbalists, pharmacists, and aromatherapists) with strong and increased awareness about health and environment demand organically grown medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) to offer a valued product. As the system does not permit the use of synthetic fertilizers the use of nutrient rich organic manures is extremely important. CSIR-CIMAP has developed a complete recycling package for managing distillation and agro-waste of medicinal and aromatic plants for production of superior quality vermicompost involving microbes capable of producing high amounts of humic acid. The major benefits being faster composting period and nutrient rich vermicompost; a nutrient advantage of about 100-150% over the most commonly used organic manure (FYM). At CSIR-CIMAP, strains of microbial inoculants with multiple activities especially strains useful both as biofertilizers and biofungicide and consortia of microbes possessing diverse functional activities have been developed. CSIR-CIMAP has also initiated a program where a large number of accessions are being screened for identifying organic proficient genotypes in mints, ashwagandha, geranium and safed musli. Some of the natural plant growth promoters like calliterpenones from the plant Callicarpa macrophylla has been tested successfully for induction of rooting in stem cuttings and improving growth and yield of various crops. Some of the microbes especially the endophytes have even been identified improving the active constituents of medicinal and aromatic plants. The above said scientific interventions making organic farming a charming proposition would be discussed in details.

Keywords: organic agriculture, microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, natural plant growth promoters

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