Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 666

Search results for: Southeast Asia

666 Analyzing the Significance of Religion in Economic Development in East and Southeast Asia: Case Study of the City of Wenzhou in China

Authors: Wenting Pan, Fang Chen

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The aim is to increase understanding of the potential effects of religion and economy development in East and Southeast Asia. Religion developed in the east, and southeast Asia is connected with community intensively, especially the activities by women. It could facilitate spiritual awakening in the community and economic empowerment. The theories were assessed by using survey information for Wenzhou which is the legendary city of Chinese economic development, measuring attendance at formal religious services, religious beliefs, and self-identification as religious. Wenzhou’s chamber of commerce is all over the world. Apart from large and small processing factories, Wenzhou is dotted with temples and Taoist temples. In the survey four of the control variables (size of temples, profitability, multiple densities, type of industry and so on) were significant issues to find a relationship between local people and the culture of local religion. What’s more, women should be taken into account seriously. This study has social economy implications for Wenzhou as well as a number of other countries in the East and Southeast Asia.

Keywords: East and Southeast Asia, economy development, Religion, Wenzhou

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665 Understanding the Caliphate and Jihad to Prevent Radicalization That Lead to Terrorism: The Role of Social Community in Southeast Asia

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

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In the summer of 2014, the leaders of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria proclaimed the founding of religious-political system known as the caliphate which titled Islamic State (IS). As Caliph, Abu Bakr Baghdadi advocated Jihad from the Ummah (the Muslim community) to defend the Islamic state from unbelievers. This call for Jihad by IS had encouraged some radical organization in Southeast Asia pledge allegiance to IS and established bases for IS operation in Southeast Asia. This development had increased security concern for possible terrorism action in Southeast Asia, which currently not very active due to counterterrorism efforts from ASEAN member states and its cooperation with the world. This paper firstly tries to draw understanding from Ulema (Muslim cleric) about the conception of caliphate and Jihad based on Quran and Hadith. Secondly, this paper will elaborate counterterrorism efforts from ASEAN countries to prevent radicalization and terrorism act in addressing the call for jihad to establish IS in Southeast Asia. The third, this paper will recommend the role of the social community, especially Ulema, in Southeast Asia to prevent the misunderstanding of Jihad which usually used by terrorist to justify their action. Hopefully, this social community role will decrease the radicalization of Muslim community in Southeast Asia alongside with the counterterrorism efforts to create secure and stable ASEAN community based on shared norm and values.

Keywords: caliphate, jihad, ASEAN, counterterrorism, social community

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664 The Urgency of ASEAN Human Rights Court Establishment to Protect Human Rights in Southeast Asia

Authors: Tareq M. Aziz Elven

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The issue of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia has become the serious problem and attract the attention of international community. Principally, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has mentioned the Human Rights as one of the focus and be a part of the ASEAN Charter in 2008. It was followed by the establishment of ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). AICHR is the commission of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia which has a duty, function, and an authority to conduct dissemination and protection of Human Rights. In the end of 2016, however, the function of protection mandated to AICHR have not achieved yet. It can be proved by several cases of Human Rights violation which still exist and have not settled yet. One of case which attracts the public attention recently is human rights violation towards Rohingya in Myanmar. Using the juridical-normative method, the research aims to examine the urgency of Human Rights court establishment in Southeast Asia region which able to issue the decision that binds the ASEAN members or the violating parties. The data shows that ASEAN needs to establish a regional court which intended to settle the Human Rights violations in ASEAN region. Furthermore, the research also highlights three strong factors should be settled by ASEAN for establishing human rights court i.e. the significant distinction of democracy and human rights development among the members, the strong implementation of non-intervention principle, and the financial matter to sustain the court.

Keywords: AICHR, ASEAN, human rights, human rights court

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663 Host-Refugee Relationships in South and Southeast Asia: Seeking and Finding Refuge Amidst ‘Hospitality’

Authors: Miriam Jaehn

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When discussing issues of refuge in South and Southeast Asia, the first points of critique are that the main refugee receiving countries of the regions are not signatories to the 1951 International Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and that they do not provide any national or regional policies regarding refugees. This situation is formulated as a serious lack, forbidding refugees from receiving recognition and protection. The paper critiques this portrayal of South and Southeast Asia's refugee regimes in terms of a 'lack' by questioning its current structures in more detail. The objective of the paper is to better understand conditions of refuge and asylum across regions and countries which are not signatories to the international refugee convention but have been long-term hosts to refugees. The findings of this paper are based on an extensive literature review on refugees in the regions and draw on data collected during (in total) one year of comparative ethnographic fieldwork with refugees and host societies in South and Southeast Asia from 2017 to 2020. The paper finds that instead of being defined by policies, the South and Southeast Asian refugee regimes are defined by practices that display tensions between hospitality and hostility. Its forms of refuge arise in cooperation and in the contestation of the International Refugee Regime (IRR) and its standards as national governments try to limit the power of the IRR and enforce their own definitions of asylum – legally, spatially, and temporally. Focusing on practices, the creation of spaces of refuge and protection is, therefore, a result of dialogic processes between a variety of hosts and refugees as active agents. While official boundaries drawn by the state are more rigid, NGOs have learned to negotiate and work around these firm boundaries by providing more flexible and informal forms of the sanctuary. Refugees themselves mobilize alternative providers of protection and support, such as religious communities, local authorities, and neighborhoods, to create protection spaces. In other words, a refuge in South and Southeast Asia is constituted by a complex web of hospitals and hostile practices and connections between refugees and their many hosts, which critique and question the IRR’s hegemony in defining legitimate refuge.

Keywords: displacement, hospitality, hostility, South Asia, Southeast Asia

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662 Piracy in Southeast Asian Waters: Problems, Legal Measures and Way Forward

Authors: Ahmad Almaududy Amri

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Southeast Asia is considered as an area which is important in terms of piratical studies. There are several reasons to this argument: firstly, it has the second highest figure of piracy attacks in the world from 2008 to 2012. Only the African Region transcends the number of piracies that were committed in Southeast Asia. Secondly, the geographical location of the region is very important to world trade. There are several sea lanes and straits which are normally used for international navigation mainly for trade purposes. In fact, there are six out of 25 busiest ports all over the world located in Southeast Asia. In ancient times, the main drivers of piracy were raiding for plunder and capture of slaves; however, in modern times, developments in politics, economics and even military technology have drastically altered the universal crime of piracy. There are a variety of motives behind modern day piracy including economic gains from receiving ransoms from government or ship companies, political and even terrorist reasons. However, it cannot be denied that piratical attacks persist and continue. States have taken measures both at the international and regional level in order to eradicate piratical attacks. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Act against the Safety of Navigation served as the two main international legal frameworks in combating piracy. At the regional level, Regional Cooperation Agreement against Piracy and Armed Robbery and ASEAN measures are regard as prominent in addressing the piracy problem. This paper will elaborate the problems of piracy in Southeast Asia and examine the adequacy of legal frameworks at both the international and regional levels in order address the current legal measures in combating piracy. Furthermore, it will discuss current challenges in the implementation of anti-piracy measures at the international and regional levels as well as the way forward in addressing the issue.

Keywords: piracy, Southeast Asia, maritime security, legal frameworks

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661 Towards Understanding the Notions of Quality Education among Internationally-Accredited Christian Schools in Southeast Asia

Authors: Selaphares Jatico Tajale

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This research aims to understand the notions of quality education by conducting case studies among internationally-accredited Christian schools in Southeast Asia. Five internationally-accredited Christian schools from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Singapore will be chosen as cases for this study. This study will utilize the processes of interviews, filling up of questionnaires, and writing of reflections in order to obtain data and relevant information. These processes will be conducted through multi-sectoral respondents such as administrators, academic heads, and faculty. This study employs five aspects within the realm of education as guides in the formulation of questionnaire and guide questions in the interview, namely: a) school context, b) classroom, c) quality assurance, d) stakeholders, e) faculty and staff. Guide interview questions and questions in the questionnaires are formulated to uncover information on how those five aspects were managed to achieve desired student learning outcomes and uncover other information useful for the study.

Keywords: internationally-accredited, notions of quality education, quality education, quality education in Southeast Asia

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660 Migrant Workers and the Challenge for Human Security in Southeast Asia since 1997

Authors: Hanen Khaldi

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This paper aims to study the impact of international migration on human security in the Southeastern region of Asia, especially after Asian Financial Crisis 1997-98. International migration has impacts on many dimensions of security: the state security (sovereignty and autonomy); international relationships security (conflicts, terrorism, etc); and immigrants security. The paper aims to improve our comprehension of the impact of international migration on immigrant security in the region of Southeast Asia, particularly “vulnerable workers’’ whose number is growing very fast in the region. The literature review carried out on this matter led us to ask the following two question: 1) Did the creation of ASEAN Community matter on the evolution of immigrants in the region? And How governments try to resolve the gap between economic objectifs and security of immigrants in the region? To answer these two questions, the paper is subdivided in three parts: Firstly, we will show how the creation of the ASEAN Community, especially ASEAN Economic Community, had a significant impact on the pattern of evolution of immigration in this region. Secondly, we will paint a portrait illustrating the vulnerability of immigrants in Southeast Asia, particularly unskilled workers. Finally, using the theories of regional integration, we will assess how governments try to ensure the security and safety of the immigrants. Overall, our analysis illustrate the significant change of the official discourse of the leaders of the ASEAN member states, now more conciliator and especially more open to cooperation, as well as the proliferation of meetings and initiatives between these countries to control mobility flows in the region, and the ensure immigrants security.

Keywords: migrant workers, human security, human rights

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659 US Foreign Aids and Its Institutional and Non-Institutional Impacts in the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America (2000 - 2020)

Authors: Mahdi Fakheri, Mohammad Mohsen Mahdizadeh Naeini

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This paper addresses an understudied aspect of U.S. foreign aids between the years 2000 and 2020. Despite a growing body of literature on the impacts of U.S. aids, the question about how the United States uses its foreign aids to change developing countries has remained unanswered. As foreign aid is a tool of the United States' foreign policy, answering this very question can reveal the future that the U.S. prefers for developing countries and that secures its national interest. This paper will explore USAID's official dataset, which includes the data of foreign aids to the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2020. Through an empirical analysis, this paper argues that the focus of U.S. foreign aid is evenly divided between institutional and non-institutional (i.e., slight enhancement of status quo) changes. The former is induced by training and education, funding the initiatives and projects, making capacity and increasing the efficiency of human, operational, and management sectors, and enhancing the living condition of the people. Moreover, it will be demonstrated that the political, military, cultural, economic, and judicial are some of the institutions that the U.S. has planned to change in the aforementioned period and regions.

Keywords: USAID, foreign aid, development, developing countries, Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America

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658 Thailand and Sino-Japanese Relations in the Early Twentieth Century

Authors: Mizuno Norihito

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This study attempts to examine Japanese views of Thailand primarily in the 1920s and 1930s through the analysis of documents published by the Office of Governor-General of Taiwan (Taiwan Sotokufu) and its affiliated organizations. Japan regarded Taiwan, under its control since 1895, as a foothold to making inroads into the South, and The governor-general office was active in investigations and intelligence gathering in Southeast Asia, as well as the southern part of the Chinese continent. Documents published by the governor-general office and its related organizations, especially those in a couple of decades following the First World War, reveal that the Japanese paid attention to the presence of the-Thai-Chinese during the time period. It would not be surprising that the desiring to penetrating into the Thai market, as well as the markets of the rest of Southeast Asia, the Japanese could not ignore the presence of the Thai-Chinese because of their local economic influences. The increased Japanese concern about the Thai-Chinese toward the end of the 1920s and throughout the 1930s was, moreover, intertwined with the increased tension between China and Japan. In other words, Thailand, as well as the rest of Southeast Asia, became another arena of Sino-Japanese confrontation. The rise of nationalism against Japan in China infected the Thai-Chinese communities and threatened Japanese economic activities in the country. However, the Japanese simultaneously found out that Thai-Chinese concert with anti-Japanese in China did not necessarily match their business interests and that the Thai government’s efforts to assimilate the Thai-Chinese into the Thais society and strategic approach to Japan in the late 1930s hampered their anti-Japanese actions.

Keywords: Japanese-Thai Relations, Sino-Japanese relations, Thai Chinese, Overseas Japanese

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657 US-ASEAN Counter Terrorism Cooperation: Maintaining International Security and Avoiding Muslim Stereotypes

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

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The US Global War on Terror has had effect on Southeast Asia as Second Front of Global War on Terror. Since 2001, ASEAN had adopted legal framework to counter the terrorist threat through numerous approach which accommodate various counterterrorism policy of the ten member states. ASEAN have also enhanced multilateral cooperation with US and its allies in Asia Pacific region in addressing terrorist threat, terrorist funding, cyber terrorism and other forms of terrorism. This cooperation is essential to maintain international security and stability and also assure economic development. This work focuses on the US-ASEAN counterterrorism cooperation due to they identified terrorism as a mutual enemy that posed to human security, infrastructure security, and national security. Having in mind that international terrorism usually connected with Muslim community, this paper will also elaborate the concept of Jihad and Islam revivalism in politics to avoid negative image of Islam and Muslim. This paper argues that as region with large Muslim community, Southeast Asia still need to tighten counter terrorism cooperation and also lessening Muslim stereotypes with terrorism through educating public understanding and inter-faith and intra-faith dialogue to create a better world.

Keywords: ASEAN, U.S., counter terrorism, Muslim stereotypes

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656 Sustainable Investing and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Shariah Compliant Companies in Southeast Asia

Authors: Norashikin Ismail, Nadia Anridho

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Sustainable investing is a responsible investment that focuses on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) elements. ESG integration is essential in the investment process as it provides a positive contribution to the corporate performance for stakeholders, specifically investors. Sustainable investing is in line with the objectives of Shariah (Maqasid of Shariah), such as social inclusion as well as environmental preservation. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of ESG elements to the corporate financial performance among Shariah compliant stocks listed in two countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia. The motivation of this study is to provide a further understanding in corporate sustainability for two different Islamic capital markets. The existence of the FTSE4Good Asean Index has played a vital role for ESG practices and eventually encouraged specific index for ESG and Shariah Compliant stocks. Our sample consists of 60 companies over the period 2010-2020 from two Southeast countries. We employ System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to reduce bias and more specific parameter estimation. Shariah Compliant companies tend to have higher ESG scores and are positively correlated to corporate financial performance. ESG integration with Shariah based investing would provide higher returns and lower risks for Muslim investors. Essentially, integrating ESG and Shariah, compliant companies lead to better financial performance.

Keywords: shariah compliant, southeast asia, corporate performance, sustainable investing

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655 Multilingual Females and Linguistic Change: A Quantitative and Qualitative Sociolinguistic Case Study of Minority Speaker in Southeast Asia

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

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Men and women use minority and majority languages differently and with varying confidence levels. This paper contrasts gendered differences in language use with socioeconomic status and age factors of minority language speakers in Southeast Asia. Language use and competence are conditioned by the variable of gender. Potential reasons for this variation by examining gendered language awareness and sociolinguistic attitudes will be given. Moreover, it is analyzed whether women in multilingual minority speakers’ society function as 'leaders of linguistic change', as represented in Labov’s sociolinguistic model. It is asked whether the societal role expectations in collectivistic cultures influence the model of linguistic change. The findings reveal speaking preferences and suggest predictions on the prospective language use, which is a stable situation of multilingualism. The study further exhibits differences between male and females identity-forming processes and shows why females are the leaders of (socio-) linguistic change.

Keywords: gender, identity construction, multilingual minorities, linguistic change, social networks

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654 Study of Indian and Southeast Asian Literature to Trace Evolution of Hanuman

Authors: Subramanian Chidambaran

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Right from the Vedic period, we have instances of human heroes being deified and later even assimilated into other deities. Many scholars opine Indra to be one such Vedic deity who rose from a ‘human leader’ to the position of Devata. We also see the assimilation of the Vedic deity Rudra into Śiva in post-Vedic period. Thus the current deities and Gods we worship in the polytheistic Hindu system have been a result of many such deifications and assimilations. Hanumān is one such contemporary character in Indian culture that changed from a valiant hero of the Rāmāyaṇa to a prominent deity in present days. There are also many arguments on whether Hanumān was truly a monkey or a human as the term ‘vānara’ could be interpreted as ‘vā narah’ i.e. ‘or a human’. Despite the popularity of this deity, there is very little academic research done on the genesis and evolution of him. There are many questions that arise - Does Hanumān find any mention (in any form) in literature or archaeological evidence prior to Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa? What is the character of Hanumān in the Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa? How has this evolved in later Indian literature and where do we see the deification process beginning? What’s the character of Hanumān in literature beyond Indian shores such as Southeast Asian literature and how does it compare with those in Indian literature? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions and trace the evolution of the character Hanumān right from the Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa to other Indian literature as well as Southeast Asian literature.

Keywords: Hanumān, Indian, Rāmāyaṇa, Southeast Asia

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653 Rice Blessing Ceremony of Thailand and Vietnam: The Relation of Southeast Asia

Authors: Patthida Bunchavalit, Saharot Kittimahacharoen

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The objective of this article is to compare rice blessing ceremony between Thailand and Vietnam. Both countries are located in Southeast Asia where agriculture is the main occupation. As a result of the study, it is found that the rice blessing ceremony of Thai and Vietnamese societies have differences and similarities. A person leading the ceremony is a person who has the highest position in the country. For Thailand, it is the king or royal family member while for Vietnam, it is the president. In Thailand, the ceremony began in Ayutthaya period which derived from Buddhism and Brahmanism ideology. It is annually organized in the beginning of raining season. In Vietnam, it is annually organized in the beginning of spring. The first time it occurred was in Tien Le Monarchy period of Thien Phuc era deriving from Chinese ideology. The differences are ideas, believes, objectives and details of the ceremony. It is, in Thailand, to boost farmer’s morale and to predict the fertility of crops in each year. Additionally, there is a prediction using royal cows. Meanwhile, in Vietnam the purpose is to worship god of weather for seasonal rain and productive harvesting. Therefore, it is presumed that the rice blessing ceremony of Thailand and Vietnam somewhat have similarities in spite of having different origin but are on the same basis of belief.

Keywords: agriculture, ceremony, culture, Thailand, Vietnam

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652 Garment Industry Development in South East Asia and Competitiveness

Authors: P. Nayak, Shakeel Shaikh

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In this paper, we analyse the apparel export performance of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the world market. The study covers the 2003-2012 period at the sector as well as product levels (6 digit HS) and analysis is based HS 2002 nomenclature. We measure export similarity among Southeast Asian nations for the apparel sector (two digit HS-61 & 62), besides analysing the products performance in the world through Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) technique. Coupled with RCA, the price as a factor of competitiveness was examined from the available Unit Value Realizations (UVR). Further to this, the resource availability or outsourced from the region was considered as an extension to the analysis of competitiveness between the nations. With the help of these methodologies, we examine the degree of competition between the exports of southeast nations in the world market. Our results show that Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam are well performing states within ASEAN. The paper further delves into sustainability of the export performing countries within ASEAN.

Keywords: export competitiveness, export similarity index, revealed comparative advantage, unit value realisation

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651 Comparative Analysis of Medical Tourism Industry among Key Nations in Southeast Asia

Authors: Nur A. Azmi, Suseela D. Chandran, Fadilah Puteh, Azizan Zainuddin

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Medical tourism has been associated as a global phenomenon in developed and developing countries in the 21st century. Medical tourism is defined as an activity in which individuals who travel from one country to another country to seek or receive medical healthcare. Based on the global trend, the number of medical tourists is increasing annually, especially in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. Since the establishment of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, the SEA nations have worked towards regional integration in medical tourism. The medical tourism in the SEA has become the third-largest sector that contributes towards economic development. Previous research has demonstrated several factors that affect the development of medical tourism. However, despite the already published literature on SEA's medical tourism in the last ten years there continues to be a scarcity of research on niche areas each of the SEA countries. Hence, this paper is significant in enriching the literature in the field of medical tourism particularly in showcasing the niche market of medical tourism among the SEA best players namely Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. This paper also contributes in offering a comparative analysis between the said nations whether they are complementing or competing with each other in the medical tourism sector. This then, will increase the availability of information in SEA region on medical tourism. The data was collected through an in-depth interview with various stakeholders and private hospitals. The data was then analyzed using two approaches namely thematic analysis (interview data) and document analysis (secondary data). The paper concludes by arguing that the ASEAN countries have specific niche market to promote their medical tourism industry. This paper also concludes that these key nations complement each other in the industry. In addition, the medical tourism sector in SEA region offers greater prospects for market development and expansion that witnessed the emerging of new key players from other nations.

Keywords: healthcare services, medical tourism, medical tourists, SEA region, comparative analysis

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650 South Asia as an Emerging Region of the World in the 21st Century

Authors: Shazia Shinwari

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In the 21st century, South Asia is becoming one of the rising sub-regions of the world. In the whole of Asia, South Asia is going to be the center part of opportunities, development, and challenges. The increasing economy and its geopolitical importance are changing the landscape of South Asia. Despite intensifying the opportunities and development, the region is also facing the challenges of security, poverty, and conflicts. It is one of the most populated sub-regions and has many internal conflicts because of which the region remains for a long time a least developed region in the world. But now South Asia is transforming into the developing process and trying to utilize its potentials and to remove the hurdles in the way of development. South Asia is one of the distinctive regions of the world and could play an important role at the global level if the potentials of the region are properly utilized. South Asia is one of the most important regions of the world and assumed more importance after the British withdrawal from the region. Now South Asia is playing an important role in world politics due to its strategic and geographical location. That is why the importance of this region in the international political systems cannot be ignored. Day by day, changes have been taking place in the structure of the global economy, and South Asia could take advantage of these changes to advance as an economic region. For this, South Asia will need to look at its history, and that changes, particularly in the India and Pakistan relations, are necessary for the development of the South Asian region. Despite having challenges in the region, South Asia is also rising as the land of opportunities and development if the potentials of the region are properly utilized and smoothen the way for regional integration.

Keywords: challenges, development, opportunities, South Asia

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649 The Impact of the EU Competition Law on the Asian Systems

Authors: Maria Casoria

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Throughout the last decade developing countries have been undergoing substantial reforms to promote the establishment of competition regimes, as consequence of the trade liberalization and the spread of a ‘competition awareness movement’ across the globe. The legislative trend affected the whole Asia. Notwithstanding the existence of extensive joint ventures, cartels and other collusive business relationships in this geographical area, almost all the countries have already passed or are committed to enforce specific laws in the field. The study dwells into legal solutions adopted in the five sub-regions in which the continent is commonly divided –i.e. Central, East, South, Southeast, and Western Asia- and, using a comparative methodology, shed lights on the main differences and similarities in place. The final outcome of the analysis is that, despite the undeniable divergences of approach, what links together the legislation in force in the region is the unveiled influence exercised by the European Union competition regulation. Consequently, in order to properly evaluate the deterrence of the rule of law in the sector concerned, it is fundamental to scrutinize the major role played by the EU and its policy for the evolution of pro-competitive practices in the continent.

Keywords: Asia, competition law, differences and similarities, European union, influences

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648 From Ride-Hailing App to Diversified and Sustainable Platform Business Model

Authors: Ridwan Dewayanto Rusli

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We show how prisoner's dilemma-type competition problems can be mitigated through rapid platform diversification and ecosystem expansion. We analyze a ride-hailing company in Southeast Asia, Gojek, whose network grew to more than 170 million users comprising consumers, partner drivers, merchants, and complementors within a few years and has already achieved higher contribution margins than ride-hailing peers Uber and Lyft. Its ecosystem integrates ride-hailing, food delivery and logistics, merchant solutions, e-commerce, marketplace and advertising, payments, and fintech offerings. The company continues growing its network of complementors and App developers, expanding content and gaining critical mass in consumer data analytics and advertising. We compare the company's growth and diversification trajectory with those of its main international rivals and peers. The company's rapid growth and future potential are analyzed using Cusumano's (2012) Staying Power and Six Principles, Hax and Wilde's (2003) and Hax's (2010) The Delta Model as well as Santos' (2016) home-market advantages frameworks. The recently announced multi-billion-dollar merger with one of Southeast Asia's largest e-commerce majors lends additional support to the above arguments.

Keywords: ride-hailing, prisoner's dilemma, platform and ecosystem strategy, digital applications, diversification, home market advantages, e-commerce

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647 Exploring the Dynamics in the EU-Association of Southeast Asia Nations Interregional Relationship, 2012-2017

Authors: Xuechen Chen

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The EU-ASEAN relations which can be dated back to 1972 represents one of the oldest group-to-group relationship in international politics. Despite a longstanding dialogue partnership, the EU and ASEAN have long been reluctant to forge deeper and substantial cooperation in political and security domains. However, the year of 2012 witnessed a salient shift in EU-ASEAN relations, with the EU significantly elevating ASEAN's profile in its external relations. Given the limited scholarly attention that has been devoted to this change in ASEAN-EU relations, this article explores why there has been a greater level of engagement and approximation between the EU and ASEAN. In particular, it asks why the EU, which had long been reluctant to recognize ASEAN as a strategic partner, has changed its policy towards ASEAN. Drawing on social constructivism, this article argues that the EU’s and ASEAN’s evolving identity-formation processes have played a significant role in reshaping their mutual perceptions, which subsequently leads to the modification of the interregional policies of both actors. The methodology of this study is based on content analysis of a wide range of official documents and policy papers from the EU and ASEAN, as well as more than 20 in-depth elite interviews with diplomats and experts working on the EU-ASEAN relationship from both organisations. Departing from the existing works which mainly adopt a Eurocentric perspective when analysing the EU-ASEAN interregionalism, this study suggests that the approximation of the EU-ASEAN relationship between 2012 and 2017 is driven by both actors’ adjustment of international identities, together with the internal dynamics and systematic changes within both regions.

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asia Nations, European Union, EU foreign policy, interregionalism

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646 IN-SEAN: The Pace of Economic Cooperation between India and ASEAN

Authors: Eumsin Payan

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The article desires the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to take interest in the policies and give importance to India over other powerful countries in the World, including powerful countries in Asia, comprising of: People’s Republic of China (PRC), Russia, and India countries with the ability to drive the Asian continent, specifically, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). (Japan was incapable of stepping up to become the leader of ASEAN due to the fact that Japan has created “wounds” from military history with too many countries in Asia, including wounds from the Greater East Asia War, combining with economic problems Japan is currently facing and also several natural disasters, therefore Japan is not considered a good option of our era.) China appears to be an option that stands out, which could be seen through countless published articles in the general public. However, this article desires to propose India as an option to develop and drive the relationship between ASEAN countries in the future development of Computer Science Technology and allow India to be the leader in driving the Asian Economy in place of China and the United States. As for Russia, its location is distant and apart from South East Asia. Moreover, Russia does not give as much importance to ASEAN. In this light, the author perceives that India already has the “Look East” policy. Therefore, it would be simple for ASEAN to look back at India by simply starting cooperation through policies related to collaboration in the areas of computer science. In effect, this will continuously adjust and improve the relationship towards cooperation in the areas of economics, society, and culture. Referring to the above, the author suggests a word that could be used to call the relationship between India and ASEAN, INSEAN or IN-SEAN. Hereinafter, the author hopes that Thailand, in the position of one in the five founders of ASEAN, could become the leader or be the entity that pushes forward the ASEAN policies that will increase the importance of looking towards India. India is an emerging giant that has the ability to step up in Asia. With the proficient use of English, India is able to pass on the knowledge and drive the ASEAN’s Economic relationship better than China or Russia, as faced with higher language barriers. Moreover, India has cultivated democratic civilization from the colonization of the British Empire, similar to other nations of Southeast Asia, which are familiar with various heritage cultures that the British has brought them. The most important aspect in the author’s perspective is the fact that India is not aggressive and that they have courtesy. Through developing policies of the East through the “Look East” policy, it enabled India to establish a more smooth relationship with Asian countries comparing to China. China has imposed harsh policies towards democracy to the land above the South China Sea, which directly affect the ASEAN countries. From the above reasons, India, therefore, is an appropriate option in the establishment of a closer relationship with ASEAN, as the author has proposed relationship as INSEAN or IN-SEAN.

Keywords: IN-SEAN, INSEAN, look west policy, look east policy, ASEAN, India

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645 Moderation Effects of Legal Origin on Corruption and Corporate Performance

Authors: S. Sundarasen, I. Ibrahim

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This study examines whether the legal origin of a country alters the association between corruption and corporate performance in the East Asia and South East Asia Region. A total of 18,286 companies from 14 countries in the East Asia and South East Asia Region are tested using Generalized Least Square (GLS) panel and pool data analysis with the cross-section being the income level. The data is further analyzed in terms of high income, upper middle income and low-income countries within the East and South Asia region. The empirical results indicate that legal origin positively moderates the relationship between a country’s corruption level and firm performance. As for the sub-analysis, legal origin positively moderates only in the high and upper middle-income countries. As for the low-income countries, no significance is documented in both the common and civil law.

Keywords: corruption, performance, legal origin, East Asia and South East Asia Region

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644 Effect of Ease of Doing Business to Economic Growth among Selected Countries in Asia

Authors: Teodorica G. Ani

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Economic activity requires an encouraging regulatory environment and effective rules that are transparent and accessible to all. The World Bank has been publishing the annual Doing Business reports since 2004 to investigate the scope and manner of regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. A streamlined business environment supporting the development of competitive small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may expand employment opportunities and improve the living conditions of low income households. Asia has emerged as one of the most attractive markets in the world. Economies in East Asia and the Pacific were among the most active in making it easier for local firms to do business. The study aimed to describe the ease of doing business and its effect to economic growth among selected economies in Asia for the year 2014. The study covered 29 economies in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Middle Asia. Ease of doing business is measured by the Doing Business indicators (DBI) of the World Bank. The indicators cover ten aspects of the ease of doing business such as starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. In the study, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was used as the proxy variable for economic growth. Descriptive research was the research design used. Graphical analysis was used to describe the income and doing business among selected economies. In addition, multiple regression was used to determine the effect of doing business to economic growth. The study presented the income among selected economies. The graph showed China has the highest income while Maldives produces the lowest and that observation were supported by gathered literatures. The study also presented the status of the ten indicators of doing business among selected economies. The graphs showed varying trends on how easy to start a business, deal with construction permits and to register property. Starting a business is easiest in Singapore followed by Hong Kong. The study found out that the variations in ease of doing business is explained by starting a business, dealing with construction permits and registering property. Moreover, an explanation of the regression result implies that a day increase in the average number of days it takes to complete a procedure will decrease the value of GDP in general. The research proposed inputs to policy which may increase the awareness of local government units of different economies on the simplification of the policies of the different components used in measuring doing business.

Keywords: doing business, economic growth, gross domestic product, Asia

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643 The Belt and Road Initiative in a Spiderweb of Conflicting Great Power Interests: A Geopolitical Analysis

Authors: Csaba Barnabas Horvath

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The Belt and Road initiative of China is one that can change the face of Eurasia as we know it. Instead of four major, densely populated subcontinents defined by Mackinder (East Asia, Europe, the Indian Subcontinent, and the Middle East) isolated from each other by vast, sparsely populated and underdeveloped regions, it can at last start to function as a geographic whole, with a sophisticated infrastructure linking its different parts to each other. This initiative, however, happens not in a geopolitical vacuum, but in a space of conflicting great power interests. In Central Asia, the influence of China and Russia are in a setting of competition, where despite the cooperation between the two powers to a great degree, issues causing mutual mistrust emerge repeatedly. In Afghanistan, besides western military presence, even India’s efforts can be added to the picture. In Southeast Asia, a key region regarding the maritime Silk Road, India’s Act East policy meets with China’s Belt and Road, not always in consensus, not to mention US and Japanese interests in the region. The presentation aims to take an overview on how conflicting great power interests are likely to influence the outcome of the Belt and Road initiative. The findings show, that overall success of the Belt and Road Initiative may not be as smooth, as hoped by China, but at the same time, in a limited number of strategically important countries (such as Pakistan, Laos, and Cambodia), this setting is actually a factor favoring China, providing at least a selected number of reliable corridors, where the initiative is actually likely to be successful.

Keywords: belt and road initiative, geostrategic corridors, geopolitics, great power rivalry

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642 Air Cargo Network Structure Characteristics and Robustness Analysis under the Belt and Road Area

Authors: Feng-jie Xie, Jian-hong Yan

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Based on the complex network theory, we construct the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, analyze its regional distribution and structural characteristics, measure the robustness of the network. The regional distribution results show that Southeast Asia and China have the most prominent development in the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, Central Asia is the least developed. The structure characteristics found that the air cargo network has obvious small-world characteristics; the degree distribution has single-scale property; it shows a significant rich-club phenomenon simultaneously. The network robustness is measured by two attack strategies of degree and betweenness, but the betweenness of network nodes has a greater impact on network connectivity. And identified 24 key cities that have a large impact on the robustness of the network under the two attack strategies. Based on these results, recommendations are given to maintain the air cargo network connectivity in the Belt and Road area.

Keywords: air cargo, complex network, robustness, structure properties, The Belt and Road

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641 An Institutional Mapping and Stakeholder Analysis of ASEAN’s Preparedness for Nuclear Power Disaster

Authors: Nur Azha Putra Abdul Azim, Denise Cheong, S. Nivedita

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Currently, there are no nuclear power reactors among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states (AMS) but there are seven operational nuclear research reactors, and Indonesia is about to construct the region’s first experimental power reactor by the end of the decade. If successful, the experimental power reactor will lay the foundation for the country’s and region’s first nuclear power plant. Despite projecting confidence during the period of nuclear power renaissance in the region in the last decade, none of the AMS has committed to a political decision on the use of nuclear energy and this is largely due to the Fukushima nuclear power accident in 2011. Of the ten AMS, Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia have demonstrated the most progress in developing nuclear energy based on the nuclear power infrastructure development assessments made by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Of these three states, Vietnam came closest to building its first nuclear power plant but decided to delay construction further due to safety and security concerns. Meanwhile, Vietnam along with Indonesia and Malaysia continue with their nuclear power infrastructure development and the remaining SEA states, with the exception of Brunei and Singapore, continue to build their expertise and capacity for nuclear power energy. At the current rate of progress, Indonesia is expected to make a national decision on the use of nuclear power by 2023 while Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand have included the use of nuclear power in their mid to long-term power development plans. Vietnam remains open to nuclear power but has not placed a timeline. The medium to short-term power development projection in the region suggests that the use of nuclear energy in the region is a matter of 'when' rather than 'if'. In lieu of the prospects for nuclear energy in Southeast Asia (SEA), this presentation will review the literature on ASEAN radiological emergency and preparedness response (EPR) plans and examine ASEAN’s disaster management and emergency framework. Through a combination of institutional mapping and stakeholder analysis methods, which we examine in the context of the international EPR, and nuclear safety and security regimes, we will identify the issues and challenges in developing a regional radiological EPR framework in the SEA. We will conclude with the observation that ASEAN faces serious structural, institutional and governance challenges due to the AMS inherent political structures and history of interstate conflicts, and propose that ASEAN should either enlarge the existing scope of its disaster management and response framework or that its radiological EPR framework should exist as a separate entity.

Keywords: nuclear power, nuclear accident, ASEAN, Southeast Asia

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640 Study on the Situation between France and the South China Sea from the Perspective of Balance of Power Theory

Authors: Zhenyi Chen

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With the rise of China and the escalation of tension between China and the United States, European countries led by Great Britain, France, and Germany pay increasing attention to the regional situation in the Asia-Pacific (now known as "Indo-Pacific"). Among them, the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the main areas disputed by China, the United States, Southeast Asian countries and some European countries. Western countries are worried that the rise of China's military power will break the stability of the situation in SCS and alter the balance of power among major powers. Therefore, they tried to balance China's rise through alliance. In France's Indo-Pacific strategy, France aims to build a regional order with the alliance of France, India and Australia as the core, and regularly carry out military exercises targeting SCS with the United States, Japan and Southeast Asian countries. For China, the instability of the situation in SCS could also threaten the security of the southeast coastal areas and Taiwan, affect China's peaceful development process, and pose a threat to China's territorial sovereignty. This paper aims to study the activities and motivation of France in the South China Sea, and put the situation in SCS under the perspective of Balance of Power Theory, focusing on China, America and France. To be more specific, this paper will first briefly introduce Balance of Power Theory, then describe the new trends of France in recent years, followed with the analysis on the motivation of the increasing trend of France's involvement in SCS, and finally analyze the situation in SCS from the perspective of "balance of power" theory. It will be argued that great powers are carefully maintaining the balance of military power in SCS, and it is highly possible that this trend would still last in the middle and long term, particularly via military deployment and strategic alliances.

Keywords: South China Sea, France, China, balance of power theory, Indo-Pacific

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639 Communicating Nuclear Energy in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Country Comparison of Communication Channels and Source Credibility

Authors: Shirley S. Ho, Alisius X. L. D. Leong, Jiemin Looi, Agnes S. F. Chuah

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Nuclear energy is a contentious technology that has attracted much public debate over the years. The prominence of nuclear energy in Southeast Asia (SEA) has burgeoned due to the surge of interest and plans for nuclear development in the region. Understanding public perceptions of nuclear energy in SEA is pertinent given the limited number of studies conducted. In particular, five SEA nations – Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam are of immediate interest as that they are amongst the most economically developed or developing nations in the SEA region. High energy demands from economic development in these nations have led to considerations of adopting nuclear energy as an alternative source of energy. This study aims to explore whether differences in the nuclear developmental stage in each country affects public perceptions of nuclear energy. In addition, this study seeks to find out about the type and importance of communication credibility as a judgement heuristic in facilitating message acceptance across these five countries. Credibility of a communication channel is a crucial component influencing public perception, acceptance, and attitudes towards nuclear energy. Aside from simply identifying the frequently used communication channels, it is of greater significance to understand public perception of source and media credibility. Given the lack of studies conducted in SEA, this exploratory study adopts a qualitative approach to elicit a spectrum of opinions and insights regarding the key communication aspects influencing public perceptions of nuclear energy. Specifically, the capitals of each of the abovementioned countries - Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, and Hanoi - were selected, with the exception of Singapore, an island city-state, and Yogyakarta, the most populous island of Indonesia to better understand public perception towards nuclear energy. Focus group discussions were utilized as the mode of data collection to elicit a wide variety of viewpoints held by the participants, which is well-suited for exploratory research. In total, 156 participants took part in the 13 focus group discussions. The participants were either local citizens or permanent residents aged between 18 and 69 years old. Each of the focus groups consists of 8-10 participants, including both male and female participants. The transcripts from each focus group were analysed using NVivo 10, and the text was organised according to the emerging themes or categories. The general public in all the countries was familiar but had no in-depth knowledge with nuclear energy. Four dimensions of nuclear energy communication were identified based on the focus group discussions: communication channels, perceived credibility of sources, circumstances for discussion, and discussion style. The first dimension, communication channels refers to the medium through which participants receive information about nuclear energy. Four types of media emerged from the discussions. They included online and social media, broadcast media, print media, and word-of- mouth (WOM). Collectively, across all five countries, participants were found to engage in different types of knowledge acquisition and information seeking behavior depending on the communication channels used.

Keywords: nuclear energy, public perception, communication, Southeast Asia, source credibility

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638 China's Role in Promoting Regionalism in East Asia in Post-Maoist Era: An Analysis through Uneven and Combined Development

Authors: Ali Jibran

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China was considered as a revisionist state by the countries of East Asia during Maoist era; but China’s role changed from a revisionist state to a constructive member of East Asian Community in post-Maoist era. This research will mainly investigate the two phenomena: what were reasons of behavioral change of China in East Asia and what role has China played to promote regionalism in East Asia since Open Door Policy of Deng Xiaoping. To understand these two phenomena, this study applies the international relations theory of Uneven and Combined Development (U&CD). The central finding of this study is that ‘whip of external necessity’ posed by the Western dominance during the Chinese ‘century of ignominy’ resulted in a Maoist regime in China in 1948 which was hostile to its neighbors due to ideological tensions. Maoist regime in China could not solve the challenges posed by the ‘international’; therefore after Mao’s death, a new economic approach was introduced in China to deal with the challenges postured by the ‘international’. Due to Deng Xiaoping’s 'Open Door Policy' era, China used its ‘privilege of historic backwardness’ and witnessed unprecedented economic growth. As the societies are multiple and exist in real time, therefore interaction among societies is pertinent. Export oriented domestic policy pushed China to concentrate less on class struggle and improve its relations with its neighbors in East Asia. As China soon become a global hub of trade after market oriented reforms, therefore friendly relations with the states of East Asia was pertinent. This study will investigate Chinese role in regionalism in East Asia in three area: Chinese role in promoting regionalism in East Asia, China’s role in economic integration in East Asia and China’s role in combatting terrorism in East Asia. This study will be divided in two section. The first section will deal with the transformation in Chinese behavior in East Asia in post Maoist era, and the second section will analyze China’s role in East Asia by looking at Chinese role in institutional mechanism, economic integration and combatting terrorism in East Asia.

Keywords: East Asia, regionalism, institutionlism, economic integration

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637 Design Exploration on Mixed-Use Development of Island House: Take the Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese as an Example

Authors: Fu Jiayan, Wang Zhu, Sun Jiaojiao

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Mixed-use development is one of the most important trends in new island house transformation along southeast coastal area in China. Unique island geographical environment and profound fishing village culture coexist for a long time in this. With artistic creation for the purpose of the "live-work" houses are in a large number of emergence, however, still lack of systematic strategy. Based on space effect from marine resources to regional human settlements, this article teases out the evolution regularity of island settlement context and architectural form, then, puts forward the formation mechanism and construction model of art island houses. Thereby, to further explore space design method and site creation strategy of mixed-use development.

Keywords: mixed-use, island house, art creation, Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese

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