Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: introgression

11 Enhancement of Seed Longevity in Japonica Rice Cultivars Using Weed Rice

Authors: Jun-Hyeon Cho, Ji-Yoon Lee, Young-Bo Sohn, Dong-Jin Shin, You-Chun Song, Dong-Soo Park, Min-Hee Nam, Young-Up Kwon

Abstract:

Seed germination is a main factor in japonica rice cultivation. For japonica strains unlike indica lines, fast loss of germination ability during storage leads to risk of seeding and deterioration in the quality. To resolve these problems, germplasms screening for longevity was conducted using six days of compulsory aging stress of high temperature (50℃) and humidity (~95% RH). ‘Dharial’, a weedy rice collected in Bangladesh, was chosen as a source of seed longevity for long term storage. The strong germination trait originated from ‘Dharial’ was incorporated into Korean elite japonica cultivars, ‘Ilmi’ and ‘Gopum’, through backcross method. The germination ratio was evaluated after two years of room temperature storage conditions. A high germination ratio of 80.5% in donor plant of ‘Dharial’ and 77.3% in an introgression line were observed based on the two years of storage while the recurrent japonica cultivars, ‘Ilmi’ and ‘Gopum’, were failed in germination. As a result, we investigated the changes of quality affected by germination ability during storage. A gentle slope of palatability which is one of the measurement items for indirect selection indicator of high eating quality in japonica varieties was studied in a high germination ratio introgression line during storage. The introgression line could be useful to increase longevity and quality of japonica rice seed if molecular breeding strategy such as QTLs analysis is combined.

Keywords: rice, longevity, germination, storage

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10 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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9 Phylogenetic Investigations Of The Convergent Evolution Of Fishing Behaviour In The Spider Family Pisauridae

Authors: Shelley Edwards, William Rawson, Khanyisile Buthelezi

Abstract:

Pisauridae is a diverse family of spiders distributed widely across the globe. These spiders remain vastly understudied on a molecular level, most notably within the African members. The fishing trait seen within some of these spiders is a unique behavioural adaption. We aim to determine the genetic relationships of South African Pisauridae across the family through a multigene approach, bringing insight into the diversification and evolution of this group. Global distribution within these lineages is likely due to them including specialist and generalist species, limiting possible geographical barriers. While the African lineage, consisting of only fishing spiders from the genus Nilus, could experience greater barriers. A lack of structuring was seen in the Nilus. It is plausible that this is a result of introgression within the mitochondrial genes, as has been seen in Dolomedes. We also investigated whether the fishing behaviour in various Pisauridae genera are due to ancestral character retention and loss or due to independent convergent evolution of the behaviour.

Keywords: introgression, pisauridae, convergent evolution, fishing behaviour

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8 Effects of AG1 and AG2 QTLs on Rice Seedling Growth and Physiological Processes during Germination in Flooded Soils

Authors: Satyen Mondal, Frederickson Entila, Shalabh Dixit, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz, Abdelbagi M. Ismail

Abstract:

Anaerobic condition caused by flooding during germination in direct seeded rice systems, known as anaerobic germination (AG), severely reduces crop establishment in both rainfed and irrigated areas. Seeds germinating in flooded soils could encounter hypoxia or even anoxia in severe cases, and this hinders germination and seedling growth. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of incorporating two major QTLs, AG1 and AG2, associated with tolerance of flooding during germination and to assess their interactive effects on enhancing crop establishment. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baňos, Philippines, using elite lines incorporating AG1, AG2 and AG1+AG2 in the background of the popular varieties PSBRc82 (PSBRc82-AG1, PSBRc82-AG2, PSBRc82-AG1+AG2) and Ciherang-Sub1 (Ciherang-Sub1-AG1, Ciherang-Sub1-AG2, Ciherang-Sub1-AG1+AG2), along with the donors Kho Hlan On (for AG1) and Ma-Zhan Red (AG2) and the recipients PSBRc82 and Ciherang-Sub1. The experiment was conducted using concrete tanks in an RCBD with three replications. Dry seeds were sown in seedling trays then flooded with 10 cm water depth. Seedling survival, root and shoot growth and relative growth rate were measured. The germinating seedlings were used for assaying nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and ascorbate concentrations, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic concentration, reactive oxygen species and total amylase enzyme activity. Flooding reduced overall survival, though survival of AG1+AG2 introgression lines was greater than other genotypes. Soluble sugars increased, while starch concentration decreased gradually under flooding especially in the tolerant checks and AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Less lipid peroxidation and higher amylase activity, reduced-ascorbate (RAsA) and total phenolic contents (TPC) were observed in the tolerant checks and in AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Lipid peroxidation correlated negatively with ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations and with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introgression of AG1+AG2 QTLs upregulated total amylase activity causing rapid starch degradation and increase in ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations resulting in higher germination and seedling growth in flooded soils.

Keywords: amylase, anaerobic germination, ascorbate, direct-seeded rice, flooding, lipid peroxidation

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7 Molecular Evidence for Three Species of Giraffa

Authors: Alice Petzold, Alexandre Hassanin

Abstract:

The number of giraffe species has been in focus of interest since the exploration of sub-Saharan Africa by European naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries, as previous taxonomists, like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen or William Edward de Winton, recognized two or three species of Giraffa. For the last decades, giraffes were commonly considered as a single species subdivided into nine subspecies. In this study, we have re-examined available nuclear and mitochondrial data. Our genetic admixture analyses of seven introns support three species: G. camelopardalis (i.e., northern giraffes including reticulated giraffes), G. giraffa (southern giraffe) and G. tippelskirchi (Masai giraffe). However, the nuclear alignments show small variation and our phylogenetic analyses provide high support only for the monophyly of G. camelopardalis. Comparisons with the mitochondrial tree revealed a robust conflict for the position and monophyly of G. giraffa and G. tippelskirchi, which is explained firstly by a mitochondrial introgression from Masai giraffe to southeastern giraffe, and secondly, by gene flow mediated by male dispersal between southern populations (subspecies angolensis and giraffa). We conclude that current data gives only moderate support for three giraffe species and point out that additional nuclear data need to be studied to revise giraffe taxonomy.

Keywords: autosomal markers, Giraffidae, mitochondrial introgression, taxonomy

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6 Identifying Apis millefera Strains in Akkar District (North Lebanon) Using Mitochondrial DNA: A Step in Preserving the Local Strain A. m. Syriaca

Authors: Zeina Nasr, Bashar Merheb

Abstract:

The honey bee is a social insect that had driven the human interest much more than any other organism. Beekeeping practices dated the appearance of Man on earth and now it provides a hobby or a secondary work that contributes to the family revenue and requires a little time engagement and money investment. Honey production is not the only contribution of honey bees to the economy, since honey bees play an important role in the pollination. Bee keeping in Lebanon is an important part of the agricultural economy. However, a growing concern about bees is spreading globally, due to an accelerated decline of bees colonies. This raises the alert to preserve and protect local bee strains against uncontrolled introduction of foreign strains and invasive parasitic species. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are commonly used in studying genetic variation in the Apis mellifera species. The DraI-COI-COII test is based on the analysis of the intergenic region between the two genes COI and COII. The different honey bee strains differ in the presence or absence of the p sequence and the number of Q sequences present. A. m. syriaca belonging to the lineage Z, is the native honey bee subspecies in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. A. m. syriaca is known for its high defensiveness, even though it has many important advantages. However, commercial breeder strains, such as the Italian (A. m. ligustica), and Carniolan (A. m. carnica) strains, have been introduced by beekeepers and regularly used for honey production. This raises worries about the disappearance of the local subspecies. It is obvious that identifying A. m. syriaca colonies and protecting them against uncontrolled mating with other bee strains is a crucial step to protect and improve the original local strain. This study aims to reveal the existing sub-species of honey bee in Akkar – Lebanon and to assess the influence of introgression on the hybridization of the local strain. This will help to identify areas of pure A.m. syriaca population over this district to be considered in choosing syriaca reserves. We collected samples of bees from different regions of Akkar district in order to perform mtDNA analysis. We determined the restriction fragments length of the intergenic region COI-COII, using the restriction enzyme DraI. The results showed both the C and the Z lineages. Four restriction patterns were identified among the restriction maps of the studied samples. The most abundant mitochondrial lineage is the Z lineage constituting about 60% of the identified samples. Al-Dreib region reported the lowest introgression with foreign mtDNA of 21% making it the most suitable area for a genetic reserve of syriaca in Akkar based on its lowest introgression and suitable environment in addition to the attitude of local beekeepers to conserve the local strain. Finally, this study is the first step in constructing conservation programs for the preservation of the local strain and should be generalized to the whole Lebanese population, consistent with the effort done in neighboring countries.

Keywords: Akkar Lebanon, Apis millefera syriaca, DraI-COI-COII test, mitochondrial DNA

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5 The Genetic Diversity and Conservation Status of Natural Populus Nigra Populations in Turkey

Authors: Asiye Ciftci, Zeki Kaya

Abstract:

Populus nigra is one of the most economically and ecologically important forest trees in Turkey, well known for its rapid growth, good ability to vegetative propagation and the extreme uses of its wood. Due to overexploitation, loss of natural distribution area and extreme hybridization and introgression, Populus nigra is one of the most threatened tree species in Turkey and Europe. Using 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, the genetic structure of European black poplar populations along the two largest rivers of Turkey was analyzed. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 5 to 15 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.79) has been higher than the expected (overall He = 0.58) in each population. Low level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST= 0,03) and excess of heterozygotes for each river were found. Human-mediated dispersal, phenotypic selection, high level of gene flow and extensive circulations of clonal materials may cause those situations. The genetic data obtained from this study could provide the basis for efficient in situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of species natural populations in its natural habitat as well as having sustainable breeding and poplar plantations in the future.

Keywords: populus, clonal, loci, ex situ

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4 Genetic Variability in Advanced Derivatives of Interspecific Hybrids in Brassica

Authors: Yasir Ali, Farhatullah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in six parental lines and their 56 genotypes derived from five introgressed brassica populations on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during growing season of 2015-2016. The ANOVA of all traits of F5:6 populations showed highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) for all morphological and biochemical traits. Among F5:6 populations, the genotype 2(526) was earlier in flowering (108.65 days), and genotype 14(485) was earlier in maturity (170 days). Tallest plants (182.5 cm), largest main raceme (91.5 cm) and maximum number of pods (80.5) on main raceme were recorded for genotype 17(34). Maximum primary branches plant-1(6.2) and longest pods (10.26 cm) were recorded for genotype 15, while genotype 16(171) had more seeds pod⁻¹ (22) and gave maximum yield plant-1 (30.22 g). The maximum 100-seed weight (0.60 g) was observed for genotype 10(506) while high protein content (22.61%) was recorded for genotype 4(99). Maximum oil content (54.08 %) and low linoleic acid (7.07 %) were produced by genotype (12(138) and low glucosinolate (59.01 µMg⁻¹) was recorded for genotype 21(113). The genotype 27(303) having high oleic acid content (51.73 %) and genotype 1(209) gave low erucic acid (35.97 %). Among the F5:6 populations moderate to high heritability observed for all morphological and biochemical traits coupled with high genetic advance. Cluster analysis grouped the 56 F5:6 populations along their parental lines into seven different groups. Each group was different from the other group on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. Moreover all the F5:6 populations showed sufficient variability. Genotypes 10(506) and 16(171) were superior for high seed yield⁻¹, 100-seeds weight, and seed pod⁻¹ and are recommended for future breeding program.

Keywords: Brassicaceae, biochemical characterization, introgression, morphological characterization

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3 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel

Abstract:

Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheat

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2 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand

Abstract:

The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

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1 Management and Genetic Characterization of Local Sheep Breeds for Better Productive and Adaptive Traits

Authors: Sonia Bedhiaf-Romdhani

Abstract:

The sheep (Ovis aries) was domesticated, approximately 11,000 years ago (YBP), in the Fertile Crescent from Asian Mouflon (Ovis Orientalis). The Northern African (NA) sheep is 7,000 years old, represents a remarkable diversity of sheep populations reared under traditional and low input farming systems (LIFS) over millennia. The majority of small ruminants in developing countries are encountered in low input production systems and the resilience of local communities in rural areas is often linked to the wellbeing of small ruminants. Regardless of the rich biodiversity encountered in sheep ecotypes there are four main sheep breeds in the country with 61,6 and 35.4 percents of Barbarine (fat tail breed) and Queue Fine de l’Ouest (thin tail breed), respectively. Phoenicians introduced the Barbarine sheep from the steppes of Central Asia in the Carthaginian period, 3000 years ago. The Queue Fine de l’Ouest is a thin-tailed meat breed heavily concentrated in the Western and the central semi-arid regions. The Noire de Thibar breed, involving mutton-fine wool producing animals, has been on the verge of extinction, it’s a composite black coated sheep breed found in the northern sub-humid region because of its higher nutritional requirements and non-tolerance of the prevailing harsher condition. The D'Man breed, originated from Morocco, is mainly located in the southern oases of the extreme arid ecosystem. A genetic investigation of Tunisian sheep breeds using a genome-wide scan of approximately 50,000 SNPs was performed. Genetic analysis of relationship between breeds highlighted the genetic differentiation of Noire de Thibar breed from the other local breeds, reflecting the effect of past events of introgression of European gene pool. The Queue Fine de l’Ouest breed showed a genetic heterogeneity and was close to Barbarine. The D'Man breed shared a considerable gene flow with the thin-tailed Queue Fine de l'Ouest breed. Native small ruminants breeds, are capable to be efficiently productive if essential ingredients and coherent breeding schemes are implemented and followed. Assessing the status of genetic variability of native sheep breeds could provide important clues for research and policy makers to devise better strategies for the conservation and management of genetic resources.

Keywords: sheep, farming systems, diversity, SNPs.

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