Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Bronwyn Gillanders

6 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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5 Cognitive Fusion and Obstacles to Valued Living: Beyond Pain-Specific Events in Chronic Pain

Authors: Sergio A. Carvalho, Jose Pinto-Gouveia, David Gillanders, Paula Castilho

Abstract:

The role of psychological processes has long been recognized as crucial factors in depressive symptoms in chronic pain (CP). Although some studies have explored the negative impact of being entangled with internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, physical sensations) – cognitive fusion, it is not extensively explored 1) whether these are pain-related or rather general difficult experiences, and 2) how they relate to experiencing obstacles in committing to valued actions. The current study followed a cross-sectional design in a sample of 231 participants with CP, in which a mediational model was tested through path analyses in AMOS software. The model presented a very good model fit (Χ²/DF = 1.161; CFI = .999; TLI = .996; RMSEA = .026, PCLOSE = .550.), and results showed that pain intensity was not directly related to depressive symptoms (β = .055; p = .239) but was mediated by cognitive fusion with both general and pain-related internal experiences (β = .181, 95%CI [.097; .271]; p = .015). Additionally, results showed that only general cognitive fusion (but not pain-specific fusion) was associated with experiencing obstacles to living a meaningful life, which mediated its impact on depressive symptoms (β = .197, 95%CI [.102; .307]; p = .001). Overall, this study adds on current literature by suggesting that psychological interventions to pain management should not be focused only on management of pain-related experiences, but also on developing more effective ways of relating to overall internal experiences.

Keywords: cognitive fusion, chronic pain, depressive symptoms, valued living

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4 A Scoping Review to Explore the Policies and Procedures Addressing the Implementation of Inclusive Education in BRICS Countries

Authors: Bronwyn S. Mthimunye, Athena S. Pedro, Nicolette V. Roman

Abstract:

Inclusive education is a global concern, in the context of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. These countries are all striving for inclusive education, as there are many children excluded from formal schooling. The need for inclusive education is imperative, given the increase in special needs diagnoses. Many children confronted with special needs are still not able to exercise their basic right to education. The aim of conducting this scoping review was to explore the policies and procedures addressing the implementation of inclusive education in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The studies included were published between 2006-2016 and located in Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Medline, PsycARTICLES, JSTOR, and SAGE Journals. Seven articles were included in which all of the articles reported on inclusive education and the status of implementation. The findings identified many challenges faced by Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa that affect the implementation of policies and programmes. Challenges such as poor planning, resource-constrained communities, lack of professionals in schools, and the need for adequate teacher training were identified. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa are faced with many social and economic challenges, which serves as a barrier to the implementation of inclusive education.

Keywords: special needs, inclusion, education, scoping review

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3 Age-Stereotypes of Emerging Adults within the South African Work Environment

Authors: Bronwyn Bell, Lizelle Brink

Abstract:

Workplaces of today are populated by employees from different generations; emerging adults being the most recent demographic group entering the workplace. These individuals form part of Generation Y and are between the ages of 18 to 25. Emerging adults bring unique and different characteristics to the workplace. These individuals also differ from other generations with regards to their employment desires and ways of working. Age-stereotypes of emerging adults is, therefore, a common occurrence within workplaces. The general objective of the study was therefore to explore age-related stereotypes experienced regarding emerging adults within the South African work context and to determine the influences thereof. A qualitative research design from the social constructivism paradigm was employed in order to reach the objectives of this research study. A phenomenological approach using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling was employed within this study. A sample of 25 employees (N = 25) from various South African organisations were interviewed for the purpose of this study and formed part of three generations namely Generation Y, Generation X and Baby Boomers. In order to analyse the collected data, the steps of thematic analysis were used. The main findings of this study indicated that emerging adults experience various positive and negative stereotypes within the workplace. Results further indicated that these stereotypes influence emerging adults in a behavioural, cognitive and emotional manner. These stereotypes also influence the way emerging adults are treated by older employees within the workplace. Recommendations based on the results of this study were made for future research and practice. This study creates awareness within organisations regarding age-stereotypes of emerging adults. By being aware, employees can manage the influences thereof within the workplace.

Keywords: age-stereotypes, baby boomers, emerging adults, generation x, generation y, South African work environment, stereotypes

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2 Ecotoxicological Assessment of Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Water and Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unicellular Algae (Tetraselmis Suecica)

Authors: Lina M. Zapata-Restrepo, Georgia Freeman, Bronwyn Lee, Malcolm D. Hudson, Patrick Osborne, Ian D. Williams

Abstract:

There is an increase in installations of exhaust gas scrubbers to reduce the sulphur emissions from ships following international regulations on S content in marine fuel from 2020. The majority of scrubbers installed on marine vessels are wet scrubbers using either a ‘closed-’ or ‘open- loop’ system. The type of scrubber used presents different advantages and disadvantages but washwater (also known as scrubber water) from both wet scrubber systems has been found to release acidic water containing nutrients and contaminants back to the marine environment, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles. In ecotoxicological tests, a number of marine organisms have shown negative effects after acute and chronic exposures to varying concentrations of scrubber water but the main pollutants involved in these responses are not clear yet. The aim of this study, part of the Horizon2020-funded EMERGE project, was to establish the toxicity and mortality of different dilutions of scrubber water and selected PAHs reported in these discharges (as single compounds and combined) on the survival and growth of Tetraselmis suecica. A range of scrubber water dilutions were used varying between 0.001% and 40% of the original outlet scrubber discharge water. PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene) were tested individually or in combination at concentrations equivalent to those identified in scrubber water. After a 96-h exposure, cell concentration and mortality showed a concentration-dependent effect, and the 96-h LC50 was calculated as 60.17% at the end of the experiment. Exposure of T. suecica to all concentrations of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and anthracene resulted in a significant reduction in the cell concentration. Phenanthrene was the only PAH that showed a significant mortality (p<0.05) at the highest concentration. However, the relative toxic effects of the PAHs were greater in combination than when tested individually. Results demonstrate that algal growth was impacted by exposure to PAHs, where exposure to all concentrations of each PAH resulted in a reduction in cell concentration. Our results also suggest that when in combination, the individual toxicity of PAHs is less important, and the combined effects/interactions dominate the toxicity of the mixture. Scrubber water is known to comprise of a multitude of pollutants, including various PAHs, trace metals, nitrates, etc. and interactive effects/mechanisms of pollutants should be considered.

Keywords: maritime exhaust gas scrubber water, open-loop, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity, unicellular algae

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1 A 20 Year Comparison of Australian Childhood Bicycle Injuries – Have We Made a Difference?

Authors: Bronwyn Griffin, Caroline Acton, Tona Gillen, Roy Kimble

Abstract:

Background: Bicycle riding is a common recreational activity enjoyed by many children throughout Australia that has been associated with the usual caveat of benefits related to exercise and recreation. Given Australia was the first country in the world to introduce cyclist helmet laws in 1991, very few publications have reviewed paediatric cycling injuries (fatal or non-fatal) since. Objectives: To identify trends in children (0-16 years) who required admission for greater than 24 hours following a bicycle-related injury (fatal and non-fatal) in Queensland. Further, to discuss changes that have occurred in paediatric cycling injury trends in Queensland since a prominent local study/publication in 1995. This paper aims to establish evidence to inform interventions promoting safer riding to parents, children and communities. Methods: Data on paediatric (0-16 years) cycling injuries in Queensland resulting in hospital admission more than 24 hours across three tertiary paediatric hospitals in Brisbane between November 2008-June 2015 was compiled by the Paediatric Trauma Data Registry for non-fatal injuries. The Child Death Review Team at the Queensland Families and Childhood Commission provided data on fatalities in children <17years from (June 2004 –June 2015). Comparing trends to a local study published in 1995 Results: Between 2008-2015 there were 197 patients admitted for greater than 24 hours following a cycling injury. The median age was 11 years, with males more frequently involved (n=139, 87%) compared to females. Mean length of stay was three days, with 47 (28%) children admitted to PICU, location of injury was most often the street (n=63, 37%). Between 2004 –2015 there were 15 fatalities (Incidence rate 0.25/100,000); all were male, 14/15 occurred on the street, with eight stated to have not been wearing a helmet, 11/15 children came from the least advantaged socio-economic group (SEIFA) compared to a local publication in 1995, finding of 94 fatalities between (1981-1992). Conclusions: There has been a notable decrease in incidence of fatalities between the two time periods with incidence rates dropping from 1.75-0.25/100,000. More statistics need to be run to ascertain if this is a true reduction or perhaps a decrease in children riding bicycles. Injuries that occur on the street that come in contact with a car remain of serious concern. The purpose of this paper is not to discourage bicycle riding among child and adolescent populations, rather, inform parents and the wider community about the risks associated with cycling in order to reduce injuries associated with this sport, whilst promoting safe cycling.

Keywords: paediatric, cycling, trauma, prevention, emergency

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