Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Clinton A. J. Duffy

21 A Functional Analysis of the 2016 United States Presidential Debates through the Application of the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse

Authors: Maryam Vaezi

Abstract:

In this study, the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse has been applied in order to investigate the 2016 Clinton-Trump presidential debates. All three kinds of utterances (acclaims, attacks, and defenses) were produced by the candidates supporting the usefulness of the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse for the analysis of the presidential debates as a type of political discourse. Attacks comprised 45% of the candidates’ utterances, followed by acclaims at 33%; defenses were the least common function at 22%. The candidate from the Democratic Party, Hillary Clinton, acclaimed more, whereas the Republican Party presidential candidate, Donald Trump, attacked more. Simple denial was the most common form of defense used by the candidates. Both candidates directed more of their utterances to policy (past deeds, future plans, and general goals) than character (personal qualities, leadership abilities, and ideals). Analyzing debates in terms of the functions performed by the candidates to increase their desirability and chance of winning the election, can lead to a better understanding of these significant political events as well as other forms of political discourse.

Keywords: acclaim, attack, defend, character, Democratic Party, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, policy, presidential debates, Republican Party

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20 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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19 Investigating the Demand of Short-Shelf Life Food Products for SME Wholesalers

Authors: Yamini Raju, Parminder S. Kang, Adam Moroz, Ross Clement, Alistair Duffy, Ashley Hopwell

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Accurate prediction of fresh produce demand is one the challenges faced by Small Medium Enterprise (SME) wholesalers. Current research in this area focused on limited number of factors specific to a single product or a business type. This paper gives an overview of the current literature on the variability factors used to predict demand and the existing forecasting techniques of short shelf life products. It then extends it by adding new factors and investigating if there is a time lag and possibility of noise in the orders. It also identifies the most important factors using correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

Keywords: demand forecasting, deteriorating products, food wholesalers, principal component analysis, variability factors

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18 The Power of Words: A Corpus Analysis of Campaign Speeches of President Donald J. Trump

Authors: Aiza Dalman

Abstract:

Words are powerful when these are used wisely and strategically. In this study, twelve (12) campaign speeches of President Donald J. Trump were analyzed as to frequently used words and ethos, pathos and logos being employed. The speeches were read thoroughly, analyzed and interpreted. With the use of Word Counter Tool and Text Analyzer software accessible online, it was found out that the word ‘will’ has the highest frequency of 121, followed by Hillary (58), American (38), going (35), plan and Clinton (32), illegal (30), government (28), corruption (26) and criminal (24). When the speeches were analyzed as to ethos, pathos and logos, on the other hand, it revealed that these were all employed in his speeches. The statements under these pointed out against Hillary or in his favor. The unique strategy of President Donald J. Trump as to frequently used words and ethos, pathos and logos in persuading people perhaps lead the way to his victory.

Keywords: campaign speeches, corpus analysis, ethos, logos and pathos, power of words

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17 Abating the Barriers to the Deployment of RFID for Construction Project Delivery in South Africa

Authors: Matthew O. Ikuabe, Ayodeji E. Oke, Clinton O. Aigbavboa, Douglas O. Aghimien

Abstract:

The use of technological innovations have been touted to be beneficial in the delivery of construction projects. Particularly, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is widely regarded to be of immense advantage for the management of construction projects. This study focused on evaluating the barriers to the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for the delivery of construction projects. Using Gauteng Provincein South Africa as the study area, questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from construction professionals, which made up the population of the study. Retrieved data was analysed using Mean Item Score and One-Sample t-test. Findings from the study showed that the most significant barriers to the deployment of RFID for construction project delivery are high cost and lack of awareness. Conclusively, the study made recommendations that would aid in the abatement of the barriers to the use of RFID technology for construction project delivery.

Keywords: barriers, construction, project delivery, RFID

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16 Delivery of Sustainable Construction in South Africa – Assessing the Roles of Organisational Leadership

Authors: Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, Mathew O. Ikuabe, Clinton O. Aigbavboa, Douglas O. Aghimien

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The call for sustainable construction has received significant drive in recent time considering the overwhelming impacts of its adoption. However, not much has been deliberated on this subject with regards to the roles of organisational leadership in delivering sustainable construction. To this end, the study empirically scrutinised the roles of organisational leadership in delivering sustainable construction. The study adopted a quantitative approach while construction professionals formed the population of the study. A well-articulated questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from the respondents, while appropriate methods of data analysis were used. Findings from the study depicted that the major role of organisational leadership in the delivery of sustainable construction is acting as sustainability integrators. Equally revealed are the internal and external factors affecting organisational leadership in delivering sustainable construction. The study concluded by emphasizing the core roles for delivering sustainable construction by organisational leadership and further recommended that sustainable construction should serve as a prominent and focal organisation goal by organisational leadership when steering the organisation towards meeting its objectives

Keywords: organisational leadership, project delivery, roles, sustainable construction

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15 The Need for a One Health and Welfare Approach to Industrial Animal Farming

Authors: Clinton Adas

Abstract:

Industrial animal farming contributes to numerous problems that humans face, and among these, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified by the World Health Organisation as a real possibility for the 21st Century. While numerous factors contribute to AMR, one of them is industrial animal farming and its effect on the food chain and environment. In 2017, livestock were given around 73% of all antibiotics worldwide to make them grow faster for profit purposes, to prevent illness caused by unhealthy living conditions, and to treat disease when it breaks out. Many of the antibiotics used provide little benefit to animals, and most are the same as those used by humans - including many deemed critical to human health that should be used sparingly. AMR contributes to millions of illnesses, and in 2019 was responsible for around 4.95 million deaths worldwide. It costs Europe around nine billion euros per year, while it costs the United States (US) around 20 billion dollars per year. While not a simple or quick solution, one way to begin to address the challenge of AMR and other harms from this type of farming is to focus on animal welfare as part of a One Health and Welfare approach, as better welfare requires less antibiotics usage, which may begin to break the cycle.

Keywords: animal and human welfare, industrial animal farming, antimicrobial resistance, one health and welfare, sustainable development goals

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14 Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Didi Thwala

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Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.

Keywords: accident, construction, HFACS, unsafe acts

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13 Integration of Technology in Business Education: Emerging Voices from Business Education Classrooms in Nigeria Secondary Schools

Authors: Clinton Chidiebere Anyanwu

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Secondary education is a vital part of a virtuous circle of economic growth within the context of a globalised knowledge economy. The teaching of Business Education entails teaching learners the essentials, rudiments, assumptions, and methods of business. Hence, it was deemed necessary for the study to investigate technology integration in Business Education. Drawing from the theoretical frameworks of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), the study observes teachers’ level of technology use in Business Education classrooms. Using a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design, probability, and purposive sampling, the majority of participants were found to be not integrating technology to an acceptable level and a small percentage was. After an analysis of constructs from UTAUT, some of this could be attributed to the lack of facilitating conditions in the teaching and learning of Business Education. The implication of the study findings is that poor investment in technology integration in secondary schools in Nigeria affects pedagogical implementations and effective teaching and learning of Business Education subjects. The study concludes that if facilitating conditions and professional development are considered to address the shortfalls in terms of TPACK, technology integration will become a reality in secondary schools in Nigeria.

Keywords: business education, secondary education, technology integration, TPACK, UTAUT

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12 Determining the Effects of Wind-Aided Midge Movement on the Probability of Coexistence of Multiple Bluetongue Virus Serotypes in Patchy Environments

Authors: Francis Mugabi, Kevin Duffy, Joseph J. Y. T Mugisha, Obiora Collins

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Bluetongue virus (BTV) has 27 serotypes, with some of them coexisting in patchy (different) environments, which make its control difficult. Wind-aided midge movement is a known mechanism in the spread of BTV. However, its effects on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes are not clear. Deterministic and stochastic models for r BTV serotypes in n discrete patches connected by midge and/or cattle movement are formulated and analyzed. For the deterministic model without midge and cattle movement, using the comparison principle, it is shown that if the patch reproduction number R0 < 1, i=1,2,...,n, j=1,2,...,r, all serotypes go extinct. If R^j_i0>1, competitive exclusion takes place. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that when the n patches are connected by midge movement, coexistence takes place. To account for demographic and movement variability, the deterministic model is transformed into a continuous-time Markov chain stochastic model. Utilizing a multitype branching process, it is shown that the midge movement can have a large effect on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes. The probability of coexistence can be brought to zero when the control interventions that directly kill the adult midges are applied. These results indicate the significance of wind-aided midge movement and vector control interventions on the coexistence and control of multiple BTV serotypes in patchy environments.

Keywords: bluetongue virus, coexistence, multiple serotypes, midge movement, branching process

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11 Biodegradable Polymer Film Incorporated with Polyphenols for Active Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Amit Jaiswal

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The key features of any active packaging film are its biodegradability and antimicrobial properties. Biological macromolecules such as polyphenols (ferulic acid (FA) and tannic acids (TA)) are naturally found in plants such as grapes, berries, and tea. In this study, antimicrobial activity screening of several polyphenols was carried out by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against two strains of gram-negative bacteria - Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and two-gram positive strains - Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. FA and TA had shown strong antibacterial activity at the low concentration against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The selected polyphenols FA and TA were incorporated at various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10% w/w) in the poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) composite film by using the solvent casting method. The effect of TA and FA incorporation in the packaging was characterized based on morphological, optical, color, mechanical, thermal, and antimicrobial properties. The thickness of the FA composite film was increased by 1.5 – 7.2%, while for TA composite film, it increased by 0.018 – 1.6%. FA and TA (10 wt%) composite film had shown approximately 65% - 66% increase in the UV barrier property. As the FA and TA concentration increases from 1% - 10% (w/w), the TS value increases by 1.98 and 1.80 times, respectively. The water contact angle of the film was observed to decrease significantly with the increase in the FA and TA content in the composite film. FA has shown more significant increase in antimicrobial activity than TA in the composite film against Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. The FA and TA composite film has the potential for its application as an active food packaging.

Keywords: active packaging, biodegradable film, polyphenols, UV barrier, tensile strength

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10 Construction 4.0: The Future of the Construction Industry in South Africa

Authors: Temidayo. O. Osunsanmi, Clinton Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Oke

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The construction industry is a renowned latecomer to the efficiency offered by the adoption of information technology. Whereas, the banking, manufacturing, retailing industries have keyed into the future by using digitization and information technology as a new approach for ensuring competitive gain and efficiency. The construction industry has yet to fully realize similar benefits because the adoption of ICT is still at the infancy stage with a major concentration on the use of software. Thus, this study evaluates the awareness and readiness of construction professionals towards embracing a full digitalization of the construction industry using construction 4.0. The term ‘construction 4.0’ was coined from the industry 4.0 concept which is regarded as the fourth industrial revolution that originated from Germany. A questionnaire was utilized for sourcing data distributed to practicing construction professionals through a convenience sampling method. Using SPSS v24, the hypotheses posed were tested with the Mann Whitney test. The result revealed that there are no differences between the consulting and contracting organizations on the readiness for adopting construction 4.0 concepts in the construction industry. Using factor analysis, the study discovers that adopting construction 4.0 will improve the performance of the construction industry regarding cost and time savings and also create sustainable buildings. In conclusion, the study determined that construction professionals have a low awareness towards construction 4.0 concepts. The study recommends an increase in awareness of construction 4.0 concepts through seminars, workshops and training, while construction professionals should take hold of the benefits of adopting construction 4.0 concepts. The study contributes to the roadmap for the implementation of construction industry 4.0 concepts in the South African construction industry.

Keywords: building information technology, Construction 4.0, Industry 4.0, smart site

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9 Clove Oil Incorporated Biodegradable Film for Active Food Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Sandra Barkauskaite, Brendan Duffy, Swarna Jaiswal, Amit K. Jaiswal

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Food packaging protects food from temperature, light, and humidity; preserves food and guarantees the safety and the integrity of the food. Advancement in packaging research leads to development of active packaging system with numerous properties such as oxygen scavengers, carbon-dioxide generating systems, antimicrobial active packaging, moisture control packaging, ethylene scavengers etc. In the active packaging, several additives such as essential oils, polyphenols etc. are incorporated into packaging film or within the packaging material to achieve the desired properties. This study investigates the effect on the structural, thermal and functional properties of different poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) blend films incorporated with clove essential oil. The PLA-PBAT films were prepared by a solution casting method and then characterized based on their optical, mechanical properties, surface hydrophobicity, chemical composition, antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli, and inhibition of biofilm formation of E. coli. Results showed that, the developed packaging film containing clove oil has significant UV-blocking property (80%). However, incorporation of clove oil resulted in reduced transparency and tensile strength of the film as the concentration of clove oil increased. The surface hydrophobicity of packaging film was improved with the increasing concentration of essential oil. Similarly, thickness of the clove oil containing films increased from 36.71 µm to 106.67 µm as the concentration increases. The antimicrobial activity and biofilm inhibition study showed that the clove-incorporated PLA-PBAT composite film was effective against tested bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. This study showed that the PLA-PBAT – Clove oil composite film has significant antimicrobial and UV-blocking properties and can be used as an active food packaging film.

Keywords: active packaging, clove oil, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), poly(lactide)

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8 Investigating Sustainable Construction and Demolition Waste Management Practices in South Africa

Authors: Ademilade J. Aboginije, Clinton O. Aigbavboa

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South Africa is among the emerging economy, which has a policy and suitable environment that dynamically stimulates waste management practices of diverting waste away from landfill through prevention, reuse, recycling, and recovery known as the 4R-approaches. The focus of this paper is to investigate the existing structures and processes that are environmentally responsible, then determine the resource-efficiency of the waste management practices in the South Africa construction industry. This paper indicates the results of an investigation carried out by using a systematic review of several related literatures to assess the sustainability of waste management scenarios with secondary material recovery to pinpoint all influential criteria and consequently, highlights a step by step approach to adequately analyze the process by using the indicators that can clearly and fully value the waste management practices in South Africa. Furthermore, a life cycle Analytical tool is used to support the development of a framework which can be applied in measuring the sustainability of existing waste management practices in South Africa. Finding shows that sustainable C&D waste management practices stance a great prospect far more noticeable in terms of job creation and opportunities, saving cost and conserving natural resources when incorporated, especially in the process of recycling and reusing of C&D waste materials in several construction projects in South Africa. However, there are problems such as; inadequacy of waste to energy plants, low compliances to policies and sustainable principles, lack of enough technical capacities confronting the effectiveness of the current waste management practices. Thus, with the increase in the pursuit of sustainable development in most developing countries, this paper determines how sustainability can be measured and used in top-level decision-making policy within construction and demolition waste management for a sustainable built environment.

Keywords: construction industry, green-star rating, life-cycle analysis, sustainability, zero-waste hierarchy

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7 Alternate Methods to Visualize 2016 U.S. Presidential Election Result

Authors: Hong Beom Hur

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Politics in America is polarized. The best illustration of this is the 2016 presidential election result map. States with megacities like California, New York, Illinois, Virginia, and others are marked blue to signify the color of the Democratic party. States located in inland and south like Texas, Florida, Tennesse, Kansas and others are marked red to signify the color of the Republican party. Such a stark difference between two colors, red and blue, combined with geolocations of each state with their borderline remarks one central message; America is divided into two colors between urban Democrats and rural Republicans. This paper seeks to defy the visualization by pointing out its limitations and search for alternative ways to visualize the 2016 election result. One such limitation is that geolocations of each state and state borderlines limit the visualization of population density. As a result, the election result map does not convey the fact that Clinton won the popular vote and only accentuates the voting patterns of urban and rural states. The paper seeks whether an alternative narrative can be observed by factoring in the population number into the size of each state and manipulating the state borderline according to the normalization. Yet another alternative narrative may be reached by factoring the size of each state by the number of the electoral college of each state by voting and visualize the number. Other alternatives will be discussed but are not implemented in visualization. Such methods include dividing the land of America into about 120 million cubes each representing a voter or by the number of whole population 300 million cubes. By exploring these alternative methods to visualize the politics of the 2016 election map, the public may be able to question whether it is possible to be free from the narrative of the divide-conquer when interpreting the election map and to look at both parties as a story of the United States of America.

Keywords: 2016 U.S. presidential election, data visualization, population scale, geo-political

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6 A Case-Series Analysis of Tuberculosis in Patients at Internal Medicine Department

Authors: Cherif Y., Ghariani R., Derbal S., Farhati S., Ben Dahmen F., Abdallah M.

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Introduction: Tuberculosis (TBC) is a frequent infection and is still a major public health problem in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to focus on diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of TBC in patients referred to our internal medicine department. Patients and Methods: The study was retrospective and descriptive of a cohort of consecutive cases treated from January 2016 to December 2019, collecting patients with latent or patent TBC. Twenty-eight medical records of adults diagnosed with TBC were reviewed. Results: Twenty-eight patients, including 18 women and 10 men, were diagnosed with TBC. Their mean age is 48 years (range: 22-78 years). Five patients have a medical history of diabetes mellitus, 1 patient was followed for systemic lupus erythematosus treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressant drugs, and another was treated with corticosteroids for Mac Duffy syndrome. The TBC is latent in 12 cases and patent in 16 cases. The most common symptoms were fever and weight loss and were found in 10 cases, a cough in 2 cases, sputum in 3 cases, lymph nodes in 4 cases, erythema nodosum in 2 cases, and neurological signs in 3 cases. Lymphopenia is noticed in 3 cases and a biological inflammatory syndrome in 18 of the cases. The purified protein derivate reaction was positive in 17 cases, anergic in 3 cases, negative in 5 cases, and not done in 3 cases. The acid-fast bacilli stain culture was strongly positive in one patient. The histopathological study was conclusive in 11 patients and showed granulomatosis with caseous necrosis. TBC was pulmonary in 7 patients, lymph node in 7 cases, peritoneal in 7 cases, digestive in 1 case, neuromeningeal in 3 cases, and thyroïd in 1 case. Seven patients had multifocal TBC. All the patients received anti-tuberculosis treatment with a mean duration of 8 months with no failure or relapse with an average follow-up time of 10.58 months. Conclusion: Diagnosis and management of TBC remain essential to avoid serious complications. The survey is necessary to ensure timely detection and treatment of infected adults to decrease its incidence. The best treatment remains preventive through vaccination and improving social and economic conditions.

Keywords: tuberculosis, infection, autoimmune disease, granulomatosis

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5 Selecting Special Education as a Career: A Qualitative Study of Motivating Factors for Special Education Teachers

Authors: Jennifer Duffy, Liz Fleming

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Teacher shortage in special education is an American educational problem. Due to the implementation of The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) and The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004), there has been an increase in the number of students requiring special education services. Consequently, there has been an influx to hire more special education teachers. However, the historic challenge of hiring certified special education teachers has been intensified with this the profession’s increasing demand of positions to fill. Efforts to improve recruitment and entry into the field must be informed by an understanding of the factors that initially inspire special education teachers to choose this career pathway. Hence, an understanding of reasons why teachers select special education as a profession is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore personal, academic, and professional motivations that lead to the selection of special education as a career choice. Using the grounded theory approach, this research investigation examined the factors that were most instrumental in influencing applicants to select special education as a career choice. Over one hundred de-identified graduate school applications to Bay Path University’s Graduate Special Education Programs from 2014- 2017 were qualitatively analyzed. Grounded coding was used to discover themes that emerged in applicants’ admissions essays explaining why he/she was pursuing a career in special education. The central themes that were most influential in applicants’ selection of special education as a career trajectory were (a) personal/familial connections to disability, (b) meaningful paraprofessional experiences working with disabled children, (c) aptitudes for teaching, and (d) finding personal rewards and professional fulfillment by advocating for vulnerable children. Implications from these findings include educating family members of children with disabilities about possible career tracks in special education, designing programs for paraprofessionals to become certified teachers, exposing prospective teacher candidates to the field of special education, and recruiting professionals from the human services field who seek to improve the quality of life and educational opportunities for children with special needs.

Keywords: career choice, professional pathways to teaching children with disabilities, special education, teacher recruitment

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4 Synergism in the Inquiry Lab: An Analysis of Time Targets and Achievement

Authors: John M. Basey, Clinton D. Francis, Maxwell B. Joseph

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After gathering data from experimental procedures, inquiry-oriented-science labs often allow students the freedom to stay and complete the write up in class or leave lab early and complete the write up later. Teachers must decide whether to allow students this freedom to self-regulate this time. Student interviews have indicated four time-target strategies that may influence how students utilize this time: grade-target-A, grade-target-C, time-limited, and proficiency. The hypothesis tested was that variability in class composition relative to the four grade-target strategies has an impact on when students leave class, which in turn may influence their overall learning as exemplified by grades. Students were divided into the four indicated groups with a survey. Class composition and the GTA teaching the class had significant impacts on how long students stayed in class with class composition having the greatest impact. A factor analysis identified two factors. Factor 1 included classes with percentages of grade-target students opposite time-limited/proficiency students and explained 43% of the variance. Factor 2 included classes with percentages of grade-target-A/proficiency students opposite grade-target-C students and explained 33% of the variance. Students who stayed longer received significantly higher grades (P = 0.008) with no significant relationships between grade and Factor 1 or Factor 2 (P > 0.05). The time students stayed in class was significantly positively related to Factor 1 (P = 0.006) and significantly negatively related to Factor 2 (P = 0.008). These results support the hypothesis and indicate that teachers may want to know the composition of student-target strategies before deciding on how to have students allocate study time at the end of inquiry-oriented labs. According to these results, ideal classes for self-regulation have a high proportion of proficiency and time-limited students and a low proportion of grade-target students, or a high proportion of grade-target-A and proficiency students and a low proportion of grade-target-C students. Non-ideal classes for self-regulation were comprised of the inverse proportions.

Keywords: grades, inquiry lab design, synergism in student motivation, class composition

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3 From Text to Data: Sentiment Analysis of Presidential Election Political Forums

Authors: Sergio V Davalos, Alison L. Watkins

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User generated content (UGC) such as website post has data associated with it: time of the post, gender, location, type of device, and number of words. The text entered in user generated content (UGC) can provide a valuable dimension for analysis. In this research, each user post is treated as a collection of terms (words). In addition to the number of words per post, the frequency of each term is determined by post and by the sum of occurrences in all posts. This research focuses on one specific aspect of UGC: sentiment. Sentiment analysis (SA) was applied to the content (user posts) of two sets of political forums related to the US presidential elections for 2012 and 2016. Sentiment analysis results in deriving data from the text. This enables the subsequent application of data analytic methods. The SASA (SAIL/SAI Sentiment Analyzer) model was used for sentiment analysis. The application of SASA resulted with a sentiment score for each post. Based on the sentiment scores for the posts there are significant differences between the content and sentiment of the two sets for the 2012 and 2016 presidential election forums. In the 2012 forums, 38% of the forums started with positive sentiment and 16% with negative sentiment. In the 2016 forums, 29% started with positive sentiment and 15% with negative sentiment. There also were changes in sentiment over time. For both elections as the election got closer, the cumulative sentiment score became negative. The candidate who won each election was in the more posts than the losing candidates. In the case of Trump, there were more negative posts than Clinton’s highest number of posts which were positive. KNIME topic modeling was used to derive topics from the posts. There were also changes in topics and keyword emphasis over time. Initially, the political parties were the most referenced and as the election got closer the emphasis changed to the candidates. The performance of the SASA method proved to predict sentiment better than four other methods in Sentibench. The research resulted in deriving sentiment data from text. In combination with other data, the sentiment data provided insight and discovery about user sentiment in the US presidential elections for 2012 and 2016.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, text mining, user generated content, US presidential elections

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2 Development of a One Health and Comparative Medicine Curriculum for Medical Students

Authors: Aliya Moreira, Blake Duffy, Sam Kosinski, Kate Heckman, Erika Steensma

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Introduction: The One Health initiative promotes recognition of the interrelatedness between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment. The field of comparative medicine studies the similarities and differences between humans and animals for the purpose of advancing medical sciences. Currently, medical school education is narrowly focused on human anatomy and physiology, but as the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated, a holistic understanding of health requires comprehension of the interconnection between health and the lived environment. To prepare future physicians for unique challenges from emerging zoonoses to climate change, medical students can benefit from exposure to and experience with One Health and Comparative Medicine content. Methods: In January 2020, an elective course for medical students on One Health and Comparative Medicine was created to provide medical students with the background knowledge necessary to understand the applicability of animal and environmental health in medical research and practice. The 2-week course was continued in January 2021, with didactic and experiential activities taking place virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to student feedback, lectures were added to expand instructional content on zoonotic and wildlife diseases for the second iteration of the course. Other didactic sessions included interprofessional lectures from 20 physicians, veterinarians, public health professionals, and basic science researchers. The first two cohorts of students were surveyed regarding One Health and Comparative Medicine concepts at the beginning and conclusion of the course. Results: 16 medical students have completed the comparative medicine course thus far, with 87.5% (n=14) completing pre-and post-course evaluations. 100% of student respondents indicated little to no exposure to comparative medicine or One Health concepts during medical school. Following the course, 100% of students felt familiar or very familiar with comparative medicine and One Health concepts. To assess course efficacy, questions were evaluated on a five-point Likert scale. 100% agreed or strongly agreed that learning Comparative Medicine and One Health topics augmented their medical education. 100% agreed or strongly agreed that a course covering this content should be regularly offered to medical students. Conclusions: Data from the student evaluation surveys demonstrate that the Comparative Medicine course was successful in increasing medical student knowledge of Comparative Medicine and One Health. Results also suggest that interprofessional training in One Health and Comparative Medicine is applicable and useful for medical trainees. Future iterations of this course could capitalize on the inherently interdisciplinary nature of these topics by enrolling students from veterinary and public health schools into a longitudinal course. Such recruitment may increase the course’s value by offering multidisciplinary student teams the opportunity to conduct research projects, thereby strengthening both the individual learning experience as well as sparking future interprofessional research ventures. Overall, these efforts to educate medical students in One Health topics should be reproducible at other institutions, preparing more future physicians for the diverse challenges they will encounter in practice.

Keywords: medical education, interprofessional instruction, one health, comparative medicine

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1 Genetic Polymorphism and Insilico Study Epitope Block 2 MSP1 Gene of Plasmodium falciparum Isolate Endemic Jayapura

Authors: Arsyam Mawardi, Sony Suhandono, Azzania Fibriani, Fifi Fitriyah Masduki

Abstract:

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium sp. This disease has a high prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Jayapura. The vaccine that is currently being developed has not been effective in overcoming malaria. This is due to the high polymorphism in the Plasmodium genome especially in areas that encode Plasmodium surface proteins. Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1) Plasmodium falciparum is a surface protein that plays a role in the invasion process in human erythrocytes through the interaction of Glycophorin A protein receptors and sialic acid in erythrocytes with Reticulocyte Binding Proteins (RBP) and Duffy Adhesion Protein (DAP) ligands in merozoites. MSP1 can be targeted to be a specific antigen and predicted epitope area which will be used for the development of diagnostic and malaria vaccine therapy. MSP1 consists of 17 blocks, each block is dimorphic, and has been marked as the K1 and MAD20 alleles. Exceptions only in block 2, because it has 3 alleles, among others K1, MAD20 and RO33. These polymorphisms cause allelic variations and implicate the severity of patients infected P. falciparum. In addition, polymorphism of MSP1 in Jayapura isolates has not been reported so it is interesting to be further identified and projected as a specific antigen. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the allele polymorphism as well as detected the MSP1 epitope antigen candidate on block 2 P. falciparum. Clinical samples of selected malaria patients followed the consecutive sampling method, examining malaria parasites with blood preparations on glass objects observed through a microscope. Plasmodium DNA was isolated from the blood of malarial positive patients. The block 2 MSP1 gene was amplified using PCR method and cloned using the pGEM-T easy vector then transformed to TOP'10 E.coli. Positive colonies selection was performed with blue-white screening. The existence of target DNA was confirmed by PCR colonies and DNA sequencing methods. Furthermore, DNA sequence analysis was done through alignment and formation of a phylogenetic tree using MEGA 6 software and insilico analysis using IEDB software to predict epitope candidate for P. falciparum. A total of 15 patient samples have been isolated from Plasmodium DNA. PCR amplification results show the target gene size about ± 1049 bp. The results of MSP1 nucleotide alignment analysis reveal that block 2 MSP1 genes derived from the sample of malarial patients were distributed in four different allele family groups, K1 (7), MAD20 (1), RO33 (0) and MSP1_Jayapura (10) alleles. The most commonly appears of the detected allele is MSP1_Jayapura single allele. There was no significant association between sex variables, age, the density of parasitemia and alel variation (Mann Whitney, U > 0.05), while symptomatic signs have a significant difference as a trigger of detectable allele variation (U < 0.05). In this research, insilico study shows that there is a new epitope antigen candidate from the MSP1_Jayapura allele and it is predicted to be recognized by B cells with 17 amino acid lengths in the amino acid sequence 187 to 203.

Keywords: epitope candidate, insilico analysis, MSP1 P. falciparum, polymorphism

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