Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Lynne vanHerwerden

14 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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13 Designing and Enacting an Adjunct Faculty Self-Study of Teaching Community

Authors: Anastasia P. Samaras, Allison Ward-Parsons, Beth Dalbec, Paula Cristina Azevedo, Anya Evmenova, Arvinder Johri, Lynne Scott Constantine, Lesley Smith

Abstract:

Two cycles of qualitative data were collected. Cycle One sources included participant survey results, participant postings on Blackboard forums, facilitator memos, and meeting notes as well as reflections and notes from whole-group meetings.

Keywords: adjunct faculty, professional development, self-study methodology, teaching

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12 Hybrid Knowledge Approach for Determining Health Care Provider Specialty from Patient Diagnoses

Authors: Erin Lynne Plettenberg, Jeremy Vickery

Abstract:

In an access-control situation, the role of a user determines whether a data request is appropriate. This paper combines vetted web mining and logic modeling to build a lightweight system for determining the role of a health care provider based only on their prior authorized requests. The model identifies provider roles with 100% recall from very little data. This shows the value of vetted web mining in AI systems, and suggests the impact of the ICD classification on medical practice.

Keywords: electronic medical records, information extraction, logic modeling, ontology, vetted web mining

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11 Practices Supporting the Wellbeing of Healthcare Staff: Findings From a Narrative Inquiry

Authors: Julaine Allan, Katarzyna Olcon, Padmini Pai, Lynne Keevers, Mim Fox, Maria Mackay, Ruth Everingham, Sue Cutmore, Chris Degeling, Kristine Falzon, Summer Finlay

Abstract:

Effective local responses to community needs are grounded in contextual knowledge and built on existing resources. The SEED Wellbeing Program was created in 2020 in response to cumulative disasters, bushfires, floods and COVID experienced by healthcare staff in the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, NSW, Australia. SEED used a participatory action methodology to bring healthcare staff teams together to engage in restorative activities in the workplace. Guided by Practice Theory, this study identified the practices that supported the recovery of healthcare staff.

Keywords: mental health and wellbeing, workplace wellness, healthcare providers, natural disasters, COVID-19, burnout, occupational trauma

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10 Trauma Narratives and Meaning Making in Refugee Women Post Resettlement

Authors: Melika Taheri, Sally Fitzpatrick, Lynne McCormack

Abstract:

The complex trauma narratives of women refugees, one of the largest minority displaced groups worldwide, reflect multiple losses, threats, and dangers. Trauma narratives and meaning making play a significant role in the recovery process and becoming empowered in the spirit of resilience, thriving, and growth. How refugee women reconstruct meaning is not known, given the paucity of research on this population; however, posttraumatic growth is now known to be one consequence of catastrophic experiences. This study aims to explore both positive and negative subjective interpretations of former women refugees' lived experiences of pre-migration, transition, and host country resettlement. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect in-depth data, which was analysed according to the protocols of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Participants were ten former Afghan refugee women who had been resettled in Australia for over 15 years. The current study's findings will contribute to understanding and updating theoretical and conceptual frameworks, particularly the constructs of trauma and posttraumatic growth, underpinning refugee literature. It also has the potential to support government policy and health system program providers in the delivery of services to this vulnerable group.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, narratives, refugee, trauma, women

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9 Applying Critical Realism to Qualitative Social Work Research: A Critical Realist Approach for Social Work Thematic Analysis Method

Authors: Lynne Soon-Chean Park

Abstract:

Critical Realism (CR) has emerged as an alternative to both the positivist and constructivist perspectives that have long dominated social work research. By unpacking the epistemic weakness of two dogmatic perspectives, CR provides a useful philosophical approach that incorporates the ontological objectivist and subjectivist stance. The CR perspective suggests an alternative approach for social work researchers who have long been looking to engage in the complex interplay between perceived reality at the empirical level and the objective reality that lies behind the empirical event as a causal mechanism. However, despite the usefulness of CR in informing social work research, little practical guidance is available about how CR can inform methodological considerations in social work research studies. This presentation aims to provide a detailed description of CR-informed thematic analysis by drawing examples from a social work doctoral research of Korean migrants’ experiences and understanding of trust associated with their settlement experience in New Zealand. Because of its theoretical flexibility and accessibility as a qualitative analysis method, thematic analysis can be applied as a method that works both to search for the demi-regularities of the collected data and to identify the causal mechanisms that lay behind the empirical data. In so doing, this presentation seeks to provide a concrete and detailed exemplar for social work researchers wishing to employ CR in their qualitative thematic analysis process.

Keywords: critical Realism, data analysis, epistemology, research methodology, social work research, thematic analysis

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8 Comparing the Uptake of Seasonal Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccines among Older Adults in Australia and Hong Kong between 2016 and 2018

Authors: Lynne Briggs, Patricia Fronek, Judy Siu.

Abstract:

This qualitative study aimed to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and barriers to receiving seasonal influenza and pneumococcal vaccines among Australian and Hong Kong adults aged ≥ 65 years. The findings showed that vaccine uptake for the two diseases was lower in Hong Kong than in Australia. Common and divergent issues identified included the impact of different health systems, the promotion of vaccination by health professionals, beliefs about hospitals and clinics, traditional and alternative medicines, perceptions of risk, and personal responsibility. Objective of the research: The objective of this comparison study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and barriers to receiving seasonal influenza and pneumococcal vaccines among Australian and Hong Kong adults aged ≥ 65 years. Methodology: This qualitative study used semi structured face to face interviews for data collection in both countries. Thematic analysis of the data allowed for a comparison of the main themes identified across the two countries. Main Contribution of the Research: Differences in vaccine uptake between Australian and Hong Kong was attributable to differing health systems, including access, prevention, socioeconomic status, and cultural attitudes. Understanding the needs of older people would enhance vaccine uptake for these two preventable diseases.

Keywords: influenza vaccine uptake, pneumonia vaccine uptake, vaccination of the elderly, hesitancy vaccine

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7 BiLex-Kids: A Bilingual Word Database for Children 5-13 Years Old

Authors: Aris R. Terzopoulos, Georgia Z. Niolaki, Lynne G. Duncan, Mark A. J. Wilson, Antonios Kyparissiadis, Jackie Masterson

Abstract:

As word databases for bilingual children are not available, researchers, educators and textbook writers must rely on monolingual databases. The aim of this study is thus to develop a bilingual word database, BiLex-kids, an online open access developmental word database for 5-13 year old bilingual children who learn Greek as a second language and have English as their dominant one. BiLex-kids is compiled from 120 Greek textbooks used in Greek-English bilingual education in the UK, USA and Australia, and provides word translations in the two languages, pronunciations in Greek, and psycholinguistic variables (e.g. Zipf, Frequency per million, Dispersion, Contextual Diversity, Neighbourhood size). After clearing the textbooks of non-relevant items (e.g. punctuation), algorithms were applied to extract the psycholinguistic indices for all words. As well as one total lexicon, the database produces values for all ages (one lexicon for each age) and for three age bands (one lexicon per age band: 5-8, 9-11, 12-13 years). BiLex-kids provides researchers with accurate figures for a wide range of psycholinguistic variables, making it a useful and reliable research tool for selecting stimuli to examine lexical processing among bilingual children. In addition, it offers children the opportunity to study word spelling, learn translations and listen to pronunciations in their second language. It further benefits educators in selecting age-appropriate words for teaching reading and spelling, while special educational needs teachers will have a resource to control the content of word lists when designing interventions for bilinguals with literacy difficulties.

Keywords: bilingual children, psycholinguistics, vocabulary development, word databases

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6 Reducing Later Life Loneliness: A Systematic Literature Review of Loneliness Interventions

Authors: Dhruv Sharma, Lynne Blair, Stephen Clune

Abstract:

Later life loneliness is a social issue that is increasing alongside an upward global population trend. As a society, one way that we have responded to this social challenge is through developing non-pharmacological interventions such as befriending services, activity clubs, meet-ups, etc. Through a systematic literature review, this paper suggests that currently there is an underrepresentation of radical innovation, and underutilization of digital technologies in developing loneliness interventions for older adults. This paper examines intervention studies that were published in English language, within peer reviewed journals between January 2005 and December 2014 across 4 electronic databases. In addition to academic databases, interventions found in grey literature in the form of websites, blogs, and Twitter were also included in the overall review. This approach yielded 129 interventions that were included in the study. A systematic approach allowed the minimization of any bias dictating the selection of interventions to study. A coding strategy based on a pattern analysis approach was devised to be able to compare and contrast the loneliness interventions. Firstly, interventions were categorized on the basis of their objective to identify whether they were preventative, supportive, or remedial in nature. Secondly, depending on their scope, they were categorized as one-to-one, community-based, or group based. It was also ascertained whether interventions represented an improvement, an incremental innovation, a major advance or a radical departure, in comparison to the most basic form of a loneliness intervention. Finally, interventions were also assessed on the basis of the extent to which they utilized digital technologies. Individual visualizations representing the four levels of coding were created for each intervention, followed by an aggregated visual to facilitate analysis. To keep the inquiry within scope and to present a coherent view of the findings, the analysis was primarily concerned the level of innovation, and the use of digital technologies. This analysis highlights a weak but positive correlation between the level of innovation and the use of digital technologies in designing and deploying loneliness interventions, and also emphasizes how certain existing interventions could be tweaked to enable their migration from representing incremental innovation to radical innovation for example. This analysis also points out the value of including grey literature, especially from Twitter, in systematic literature reviews to get a contemporary view of latest work in the area under investigation.

Keywords: ageing, loneliness, innovation, digital

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5 ‘Nature Will Slow You Down for a Reason’: Virtual Elder-Led Support Services during COVID-19

Authors: Grandmother Roberta Oshkawbewisens, Elder Isabelle Meawasige, Lynne Groulx, Chloë Hamilton, Lee Allison Clark, Dana Hickey, Wansu Qiu, Jared Leedham, Nishanthini Mahendran, Cameron Maclaine

Abstract:

In March of 2020, the world suddenly shifted with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic; in-person programs and services were unavailable and a scramble to shift to virtual service delivery began. The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) established virtual programming through the Resiliency Lodge model and connected with Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people across Turtle Island and Inuit Nunangat through programs that provide a safe space to slow down and reflect on their lives, environment, and well-being. To continue to grow the virtual Resiliency Lodge model, NWAC needed to develop an understanding of three questions: how COVID-19 affects Elder-led support services, how Elder-led support services have adapted during the pandemic, and what Wise Practices need to be implemented to continue to develop, refine, and evaluate virtual Elder-led support services specifically for Indigenous women, girls, two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people. Through funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), NWAC gained deeper insight into these questions and developed a series of key findings and recommendations that are outlined throughout this report. The goals of this project are to contribute to a more robust participatory analysis that reflects the complexities of Elder-led virtual cultural responses and the impacts of COVID-19 on Elder-led support services; develop culturally and contextually meaningful virtual protocols and wise practices for virtual Indigenous-led support; and develop an Evaluation Strategy to improve the capacity of the Resiliency Lodge model. Significant findings from the project include Resiliency Lodge programs, especially crafting and business sessions, have provided participants with a sense of community and contributed to healing and wellness; Elder-led support services need greater and more stable funding to offer more workshops to more Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people; and Elder- and Indigenous-led programs play a significant role in healing and building a sense of purpose and belonging among Indigenous people. Ultimately, the findings and recommendations outlined in this research project help to guide future Elder-led virtual support services and emphasize the critical need to increase access to Elder-led programming for Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people.

Keywords: indigenous women, traditional healing, virtual programs, covid-19

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4 Making Meaning, Authenticity, and Redefining a Future in Former Refugees and Asylum Seekers Detained in Australia

Authors: Lynne McCormack, Andrew Digges

Abstract:

Since 2013, the Australian government has enforced mandatory detention of anyone arriving in Australia without a valid visa, including those subsequently identified as a refugee or seeking asylum. While consistent with the increased use of immigration detention internationally, Australia’s use of offshore processing facilities both during and subsequent to refugee status determination processing has until recently remained a unique feature of Australia’s program of deterrence. The commonplace detention of refugees and asylum seekers following displacement is a significant and independent source of trauma and a contributory factor in adverse psychological outcomes. Officially, these individuals have no prospect of resettlement in Australia, are barred from applying for substantive visas, and are frequently and indefinitely detained in closed facilities such as immigration detention centres, or alternative places of detention, including hotels. It is also important to note that the limited access to Australia’s immigration detention population made available to researchers often means that data available for secondary analysis may be incomplete or delayed in its release. Further, studies into the lived experience of refugees and asylum seekers are typically cross-sectional and convenience sampled, employing a variety of designs and research methodologies that limit comparability and focused on the immediacy of the individual’s experience. Consequently, how former detainees make sense of their experience, redefine their future trajectory upon release, and recover a sense of authenticity and purpose, is unknown. As such, the present study sought the positive and negative subjective interpretations of 6 participants in Australia regarding their lived experiences as refugees and asylum seekers within Australia’s immigration detention system and its impact on their future sense of self. It made use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research methodology that is interested in how individuals make sense of, and ascribe meaning to, their unique lived experiences of phenomena. Underpinned by phenomenology, hermeneutics, and critical realism, this idiographic study aimed to explore both positive and negative subjective interpretations of former refugees and asylum seekers held in detention in Australia. It sought to understand how they make sense of their experiences, how detention has impacted their overall journey as displaced persons, and how they have moved forward in the aftermath of protracted detention in Australia. Examining the unique lived experiences of previously detained refugees and asylum seekers may inform the future development of theoretical models of posttraumatic growth among this vulnerable population, thereby informing the delivery of future mental health and resettlement services.

Keywords: mandatory detention, refugee, asylum seeker, authenticity, Interpretative phenomenological analysis

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3 Upgrading of Bio-Oil by Bio-Pd Catalyst

Authors: Sam Derakhshan Deilami, Iain N. Kings, Lynne E. Macaskie, Brajendra K. Sharma, Anthony V. Bridgwater, Joseph Wood

Abstract:

This paper reports the application of a bacteria-supported palladium catalyst to the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis bio-oil, towards producing an upgraded transport fuel. Biofuels are key to the timely replacement of fossil fuels in order to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gases and depletion of non-renewable resources. The process is an essential step in the upgrading of bio-oils derived from industrial by-products such as agricultural and forestry wastes, the crude oil from pyrolysis containing a large amount of oxygen that requires to be removed in order to create a fuel resembling fossil-derived hydrocarbons. The bacteria supported catalyst manufacture is a means of utilizing recycled metals and second life bacteria, and the metal can also be easily recovered from the spent catalysts after use. Comparisons are made between bio-Pd, and a conventional activated carbon supported Pd/C catalyst. Bio-oil was produced by fast pyrolysis of beechwood at 500 C at a residence time below 2 seconds, provided by Aston University. 5 wt % BioPd/C was prepared under reducing conditions, exposing cells of E. coli MC4100 to a solution of sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2PdCl4), followed by rinsing, drying and grinding to form a powder. Pd/C was procured from Sigma-Aldrich. The HDO experiments were carried out in a 100 mL Parr batch autoclave using ~20g bio-crude oil and 0.6 g bio-Pd/C catalyst. Experimental variables investigated for optimization included temperature (160-350C) and reaction times (up to 5 h) at a hydrogen pressure of 100 bar. Most of the experiments resulted in an aqueous phase (~40%) and an organic phase (~50-60%) as well as gas phase (<5%) and coke (<2%). Study of the temperature and time upon the process showed that the degree of deoxygenation increased (from ~20 % up to 60 %) at higher temperatures in the region of 350 C and longer residence times up to 5 h. However minimum viscosity (~0.035 Pa.s) occurred at 250 C and 3 h residence time, indicating that some polymerization of the oil product occurs at the higher temperatures. Bio-Pd showed a similar degree of deoxygenation (~20 %) to Pd/C at lower temperatures of 160 C, but did not rise as steeply with temperature. More coke was formed over bio-Pd/C than Pd/C at temperatures above 250 C, suggesting that bio-Pd/C may be more susceptible to coke formation than Pd/C. Reactions occurring during bio-oil upgrading include catalytic cracking, decarbonylation, decarboxylation, hydrocracking, hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation. In conclusion, it was shown that bio-Pd/C displays an acceptable rate of HDO, which increases with residence time and temperature. However some undesirable reactions also occur, leading to a deleterious increase in viscosity at higher temperatures. Comparisons are also drawn with earlier work on the HDO of Chlorella derived bio-oil manufactured from micro-algae via hydrothermal liquefaction. Future work will analyze the kinetics of the reaction and investigate the effect of bi-metallic catalysts.

Keywords: bio-oil, catalyst, palladium, upgrading

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2 Bioresorbable Medicament-Eluting Grommet Tube for Otitis Media with Effusion

Authors: Chee Wee Gan, Anthony Herr Cheun Ng, Yee Shan Wong, Subbu Venkatraman, Lynne Hsueh Yee Lim

Abstract:

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the leading cause of hearing loss in children worldwide. Surgery to insert grommet tube into the eardrum is usually indicated for OME unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy. It is the most common surgery for children. However, current commercially available grommet tubes are non-bioresorbable, not drug-treated, with unpredictable duration of retention on the eardrum to ventilate middle ear. Their functionality is impaired when clogged or chronically infected, requiring additional surgery to remove/reinsert grommet tubes. We envisaged that a novel fully bioresorbable grommet tube with sustained antibiotic release technology could address these drawbacks. In this study, drug-loaded bioresorbable poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)(PLC) copolymer grommet tubes were fabricated by microinjection moulding technique. In vitro drug release and degradation model of PLC tubes were studied. Antibacterial property was evaluated by incubating PLC tubes with P. aeruginosa broth. Surface morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary animal study was conducted using guinea pigs as an in vivo model to evaluate PLC tubes with and without drug, with commercial Mini Shah grommet tube as comparison. Our in vitro data showed sustained drug release over 3 months. All PLC tubes revealed exponential degradation profiles over time. Modeling predicted loss of tube functionality in water to be approximately 14 weeks and 17 weeks for PLC with and without drug, respectively. Generally, PLC tubes had less bacteria adherence, which were attributed to the much smoother tube surfaces compared to Mini Shah. Antibiotic from PLC tube further made bacteria adherence on surface negligible. They showed neither inflammation nor otorrhea after 18 weeks post-insertion in the eardrums of guinea pigs, but had demonstrated severe degree of bioresorption. Histology confirmed the new PLC tubes were biocompatible. Analyses on the PLC tubes in the eardrums showed bioresorption profiles close to our in vitro degradation models. The bioresorbable antibiotic-loaded grommet tubes showed good predictability in functionality. The smooth surface and sustained release technology reduced the risk of tube infection. Tube functional duration of 18 weeks allowed sufficient ventilation period to treat OME. Our ongoing studies include modifying the surface properties with protein coating, optimizing the drug dosage in the tubes to enhance their performances, evaluating their functional outcome on hearing after full resoption of grommet tube and healing of eardrums, and developing animal model with OME to further validate our in vitro models.

Keywords: bioresorbable polymer, drug release, grommet tube, guinea pigs, otitis media with effusion

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1 Significant Aspects and Drivers of Germany and Australia's Energy Policy from a Political Economy Perspective

Authors: Sarah Niklas, Lynne Chester, Mark Diesendorf

Abstract:

Geopolitical tensions, climate change and recent movements favouring a transformative shift in institutional power structures have influenced the economics of conventional energy supply for decades. This study takes a multi-dimensional approach to illustrate the potential of renewable energy (RE) technology to provide a pathway to a low-carbon economy driven by ecologically sustainable, independent and socially just energy. This comparative analysis identifies economic, political and social drivers that shaped the adoption of RE policy in two significantly different economies, Germany and Australia, with strong and weak commitments to RE respectively. Two complementary political-economy theories frame the document-based analysis. Régulation Theory, inspired by Marxist ideas and strongly influenced by contemporary economic problems, provides the background to explore the social relationships contributing the adoption of RE within the macro-economy. Varieties of Capitalism theory, a more recently developed micro-economic approach, examines the nature of state-firm relationships. Together these approaches provide a comprehensive lens of analysis. Germany’s energy policy transformed substantially over the second half of the last century. The development is characterised by the coordination of societal, environmental and industrial demands throughout the advancement of capitalist regimes. In the Fordist regime, mass production based on coal drove Germany’s astounding economic recovery during the post-war period. Economic depression and the instability of institutional arrangements necessitated the impulsive seeking of national security and energy independence. During the postwar Flexi-Fordist period, quality-based production, innovation and technology-based competition schemes, particularly with regard to political power structures in and across Europe, favoured the adoption of RE. Innovation, knowledge and education were institutionalized, leading to the legislation of environmental concerns. Lastly the establishment of government-industry-based coordinative programs supported the phase out of nuclear power and the increased adoption of RE during the last decade. Australia’s energy policy is shaped by the country’s richness in mineral resources. Energy policy largely served coal mining, historically and currently one of the most capital-intense industry. Assisted by the macro-economic dimensions of institutional arrangements, social and financial capital is orientated towards the export-led and strongly demand-oriented economy. Here energy policy serves the maintenance of capital accumulation in the mining sector and the emerging Asian economies. The adoption of supportive renewable energy policy would challenge the distinct role of the mining industry within the (neo)-liberal market economy. The state’s protective role of the mining sector has resulted in weak commitment to RE policy and investment uncertainty in the energy sector. Recent developments, driven by strong public support for RE, emphasize the sense of community in urban and rural areas and the emergence of a bottom-up approach to adopt renewables. Thus, political economy frameworks on both the macro-economic (Regulation Theory) and micro-economic (Varieties of Capitalism theory) scales can together explain the strong commitment to RE in Germany vis-à-vis the weak commitment in Australia.

Keywords: political economy, regulation theory, renewable energy, social relationships, energy transitions

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