Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5487

Search results for: theory of reasoned action

5487 Factors Drive Consumers to Purchase Digital Music: An Empirical Study

Authors: Chechen Liao, Yi-Jen Huang, Yu-Ting Lu

Abstract:

This study explores and complements digital aspects. In this study, we construct a research model based on the theory of reasoned action and extend it with the advantages and disadvantages of intangibility (convenience, perceived risk), some characteristics of digital products (price, variety, trialability), and factors related to entertainment (perceived playfulness) to predict what consumers really consider when they buy digital music. Eight hypotheses were tested and supported. Finally, we prove that the theory of reasoned action is still valid in the field of digital products.

Keywords: digital music, digital product, theory of reasoned action

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
5486 Behavioral Intentions and Cognitive-Affective Effects of Exposure to YouTube Advertisements among College Students

Authors: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud, Othman Fekry Abdelbaki

Abstract:

This study attempts to investigate the exposure to YouTube ads among Egyptian college students, their attitudes towards these ads, behavioral intentions to watch them, and the effects of this exposure and to examine the relationships among these variables as well. The current study is theoretically guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and cognitive-affective behavioral model (CAB) through a questionnaire survey administered to a convenience sample of 390 college students who watch YouTube videos from Cairo University, Egypt from February to May 2019. The results showed that 98.7% of respondents exposed to YouTube ads, and both of their attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and their intentions to this exposure were moderately positive. The findings also indicated that respondents' gender had a significant impact on their intention to expose these ads. One-way ANOVA indicated that their attitudes towards exposure to YouTube ads influenced their behavioral intentions to watch these ads, and it also demonstrated that their behavioral intentions to watch these ads had an impact on the exposure to such ads. Pearson correlation revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between respondents' attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects of this exposure.

Keywords: attitudes, behavioral intentions, theory of reasoned action, YouTube ads

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
5485 Using the Theory of Reasoned Action and Parental Mediation Theory to Examine Cyberbullying Perpetration among Children and Adolescents

Authors: Shirley S. Ho

Abstract:

The advancement and development of social media have inadvertently brought about a new form of bullying – cyberbullying – that transcends across physical boundaries of space. Although extensive research has been conducted in the field of cyberbullying, most of these studies have taken an overwhelmingly empirical angle. Theories guiding cyberbullying research are few. Furthermore, very few studies have explored the association between parental mediation and cyberbullying, with majority of existing studies focusing on cyberbullying victimization rather than perpetration. Therefore, this present study investigates cyberbullying perpetration from a theoretical angle, with a focus on the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Parental Mediation Theory. More specifically, this study examines the direct effects of attitude, subjective norms, descriptive norms, injunctive norms and active mediation and restrictive mediation on cyberbullying perpetration on social media among children and adolescents in Singapore. Furthermore, the moderating role of age on the relationship between parental mediation and cyberbullying perpetration on social media are examined. A self-administered paper-and-pencil nationally-representative survey was conducted. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was used to ensure that schools from all the four (North, South, East, and West) regions of Singapore were equally represented in the sample used for the survey. In all 607 upper primary school children (i.e., Primary 4 to 6 students) and 782 secondary school adolescents participated in our survey. The total average response rates were 69.6% for student participation. An ordinary least squares hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses and research questions. The results revealed that attitude and subjective norms were positively associated with cyberbullying perpetration on social media. Descriptive norms and injunctive norms were not found to be significantly associated with cyberbullying perpetration. The results also showed that both parental mediation strategies were negatively associated with cyberbullying perpetration on social media. Age was a significant moderator of both parental mediation strategies and cyberbullying perpetration. The negative relationship between active mediation and cyberbullying perpetration was found to be greater in the case of children than adolescents. Children who received high restrictive parental mediation were less likely to perform cyberbullying behaviors, while adolescents who received high restrictive parental mediation were more likely to be engaged in cyberbullying perpetration. The study reveals that parents should apply active mediation and restrictive mediation in different ways for children and adolescents when trying to prevent cyberbullying perpetration. The effectiveness of active parental mediation for reducing cyberbullying perpetration was more in the case of children than for adolescents. Younger children were found to be more likely to respond more positively toward restrictive parental mediation strategies, but in the case of adolescents, overly restrictive control was found to increase cyberbullying perpetration. Adolescents exhibited less cyberbullying behaviors when under low restrictive strategies. Findings highlight that the Theory of Reasoned Action and Parental Mediation Theory are promising frameworks to apply in the examination of cyberbullying perpetration. The findings that different parental mediation strategies had differing effectiveness, based on the children’s age, bring about several practical implications that may benefit educators and parents when addressing their children’s online risk.

Keywords: cyberbullying perpetration, theory of reasoned action, parental mediation, social media, Singapore

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
5484 Sharing Tourism Experience through Social Media: Consumer's Behavioral Intention for Destination Choice

Authors: Mohammad Tipu Sultan, Farzana Sharmin, Ke Xue

Abstract:

Social media create a better opportunity for travelers to search for travel information, select destination and share their personal experiences of the travel. This study proposes a framework which describes the relationships between social media, and positive or negative tourism experience sharing impact on destination choice. To find out new trends of travelers behavioral intention, we propose an extended theoretical model, the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). We conducted a survey to analyze three external factors, subjective norms, and positive and negative experience influence on travel destination choice. Structural questionnaire analysis was employed to confirm the proposed research hypothesis within the relationship between consumer influences on the shared experience of social media. The results of the study confirm that sharing positive experiences influence the positive effect of destination choice, while negative experiences decrease the destination selection option. The results indicate that attitudes, subjective norms are passively influenced by shared experience. Moreover, we find that sharing live pictures of travel experiences through social media helps to reduce negative perceptions of the destination brand. This research contribution is useable to the research field as a new determination factor and the findings could be used by destination organization management (DMO) to enhancing their tourism promotion through social media.

Keywords: destination choice, tourism experience sharing, Theory of Reasoned Action, TRA, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
5483 Top Management Characteristics and Adoption of Internet Banking: Case Study of the Tunisian Banking Sector

Authors: Dorra Gherib

Abstract:

This article explores in depth the technological innovations by the Top Managements of banks in the Tunisian banking sector. The framework of this research is based on an amalgamation of four theories related to the decision of adopting technological innovations: The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and Diffusion of Innovation (DI). The result of our qualitative study highlights four variables which influence the attitude of the Top Managements towards the adoption of internet banking: Relative advantage, Perceived Ease of Use, compatibility and Perceived risk.

Keywords: top management, attitude, internet banking, TRA, TAM, TPB, DI

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
5482 The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior

Authors: Yu Du, Jian-Guo Wang

Abstract:

Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.

Keywords: green product, attitude-behavior gap, behavior reasoning theory, green consumption, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
5481 Aristotle's Notion of Akratic Action through the Prism of Moral Psychology

Authors: Manik Konch

Abstract:

Actions are generally evaluated from moral point of view. Either the action is praised or condemned, but in all cases it involves the agent who performs it. The agent is held morally responsible for bringing out an action. This paper is an attempt to explore the Aristotle’s notion of action and its relation with moral development in response to modern philosophical moral psychology. Particularly, the distinction between voluntary, involuntary, and non-voluntary action in the Nicomachean Ethics with some basic problems from the perspective of moral psychology: the role of choice, moral responsibility, desire, and akrasia for an action. How to do a morally right action? Is there any role of virtue, character to do a moral action? These problems are analyzed and interpreted in order to show that the Aristotelian theory of action significantly contributes to the philosophical study of moral psychology. In this connection, the paper juxtaposes Aristotle’s theory of action with response from David Charles, John R. Searle’s, and Alfred Mele theorization of action in the mechanism of human moral behaviours. To achieve this addressed problem, we consider, how the recent moral philosophical moral psychology research can shed light on Aristotle's ethics by focusing on theory of action. In this connection, we argue that the desire is the only responsible for the akratic action. According to Aristotle, desire is primary source of action and it is the starting point of action and also the endpoint of an action. Therefore we are trying to see how desire can make a person incontinent and motivate to do such irrational actions. Is there any causes which we can say such actions are right or wrong? To measure an action we have need to see the consequences such act. Thus, we discuss the relationship between akrasia and action from the perspective of contemporary moral psychologists and philosophers whose are currently working on it.

Keywords: action, desire, moral psychology, Aristotle

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
5480 Psychoeducation to Prevent Spread of HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Surabaya City

Authors: Christina Albertina Ludwinia Parung, I Gusti Ayu Maya Vratasti

Abstract:

Sexual transmission of HIV among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) is believed to be one of the sources of the AIDS epidemic. Nowadays, government, communities, and NGOs are taking action to prevent its spread by assisting and educating groups of MSM in their countries. This assistance involves experts in many fields of study, including psychology. In the field of psychology, psychoeducation is believed to be one of the ways to assist the MSM groups. Just like in other countries, this psychoeducation assistance is also needed in Indonesia, where MSM groups are found in many cities within. Surabaya, as the second largest and densely populated city in Indonesia, is known to have a big number of MSM population. In September to December 2020, the author and a colleague conducted a mentoring effort to the MSM community at the MSM community gathering location called Gang Pattaya, in the city of Surabaya. The existence of this community is disguised by the general public, but is well known by NGOs. Community members do MSM out of their liking, although some do it in exchange for money. However, safety factors, such as using condoms for MSM, are not a priority for this community. They do MSM whether they receive a reward or not, just out of a boost of pleasure. There is no attempt to find out the health of the partner once they are attracted to each other. In general, they do not know whether they are infected with HIV. Most of them feel healthy and since they do not show any symptoms, they think it is not necessary to get tested. In the mentoring process, the researchers conduct psychoeducation, which begins with an approach to certain individuals so that they are comfortable with the researchers’ presence, then increasing awareness of safe sex behavior for HIV prevention for groups in the form of counseling using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) approach. Counseling is carried out in various forms including roleplay, games, and seminars. The number of participants was 11 people, varying from 19-47 years old. Pretest related to knowledge of safe sex was carried out before conducting the intervention and post-test after the intervention. The normality test used is the Shapiro-Wilk analysis. Different tests on the data obtained were carried out using the non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. None of the participants had lower post-test knowledge scores than the pre-test. Prestest and post test for safer sex behavior showed 2 participants with safer sex behavior did not change. Both belong to the senior group, while other participants have an improvement in their safer sex behavior. These findings suggest that intervention programs for MSM as an effort to reduce HIV transmission should pay attention to affective and cognitive coping strategies.

Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men, psychoeducation, psychology health, safer sex behavior, theory of reasoned action

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
5479 The Factors Influencing Consumer Intentions to Use Internet Banking and Apps: A Case of Banks in Cambodia

Authors: Tithdanin Chav, Phichhang Ou

Abstract:

The study is about the e-banking consumer behavior of five major banks in Cambodia. This work aims to examine the relationships among job relevance, trust, mobility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude toward using, and intention to use of internet banking and apps. Also, the research develops and tests a conceptual model of intention to use internet banking by integrating the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and job relevance, trust, and mobility which were supported by Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), which was processed by using SPSS and AMOS with a sample size of 250 e-banking users. The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship among variables and attitudes toward using internet banking, and apps are the most factor influencing consumers’ intention to use internet banking and apps with the importance level in SEM 0.82 accounted by 82%. Significantly, all six hypotheses were accepted.

Keywords: bank apps, consumer intention, internet banking, technology acceptance model, TAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5478 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
5477 Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Use of Scharmer’s Theory-U Model in Action-Learning-Based Leadership Development Program

Authors: Donald C. Lantu, Henndy Ginting, M. Yorga Permana, Dany M. A. Ramdlany

Abstract:

We constructed a training program for top-talents of a Bank with Scharmer Theory-U as the model. In this training program, we implemented the action learning perspective, as it is claimed to be the most effective one currently available. In the process, participants were encouraged to be more involved, especially compared to traditional lecturing. The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of this particular training. The program consists of six days non-residential workshop within two months. Between each workshop, the participants were involved in the works of action learning group. They were challenged by dealing with the real problem related to their tasks at work. The participants of the program were 30 best talents who were chosen according to their yearly performance. Using paired difference statistical test in the behavioral assessment, we found that the training was not effective to increase participants’ leadership competencies. For the future development program, we suggested to modify the goals of the program toward the next stage of development.

Keywords: action learning, behavior, leadership development, Theory-U

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
5476 Exploring Consumers' Intention to Adopt Mobile Payment System in Ghana

Authors: Y. Kong, I. Masud, M. H. Nyaso

Abstract:

This paper seeks to examine consumers’ intention to adopt and use mobile payment method in Ghana. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as the theoretical bases. Data for the study was obtained from a sample of 425 respondents through online and direct surveys using structured questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse the data through SPSS v.22 and SmartPLS v.3. Findings with regards to the determinants of mobile payment system adoption indicate that subjective norm, perceived ease of use, attitude, and perceived usefulness play active roles in consumers’ decision to adopt mobile payment system in Ghana. Also, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have a significant and positive influence on consumers’ attitude towards mobile payment adoption in Ghana. Further, subjective norm was found to influence perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of mobile payment adoption in Ghana. The study contributes to literature on mobile payment system from developing country context. The study proffered some recommendations.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, mobile payment, subjective norm, theory of planned behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
5475 Technology Adoption Models: A Study on Brick Kiln Firms in Punjab

Authors: Ajay Kumar, Shamily Jaggi

Abstract:

In developing countries like India development of modern technologies has been a key determinant in accelerating industrialization and urbanization. But in the pursuit of rapid economic growth, development is considered a top priority, while environmental protection is not given the same importance. Thus, a number of industries sited haphazardly have been established, leading to a deterioration of natural resources like water, soil and air. As a result, environmental pollution is tremendously increasing due to industrialization and mechanization that are serving to fulfill the demands of the population. With the increasing population, demand for bricks for construction work is also increasing, establishing the brick industry as a growing industry. Brick production requires two main resources; water as a source of life, and soil, as a living environment. Water and soil conservation is a critical issue in areas facing scarcity of water and soil resources. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a brief overview of the theoretical frameworks used in the analysis of the adoption and/or acceptance of soil and water conservation practices in the brick industry. Different frameworks and models have been used in the analysis of the adoption and/or acceptance of new technologies and practices; these include the technology acceptance model, motivational model, theory of reasoned action, innovation diffusion theory, theory of planned behavior, and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. However, every model has some limitations, such as not considering environmental/contextual and economic factors that may affect the individual’s intention to perform a behavior. The paper concludes that in comparing other models, the UTAUT seems a better model for understanding the dynamics of acceptance and adoption of water and soil conservation practices.

Keywords: brick kiln, water conservation, soil conservation, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, technology adoption

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
5474 The Effects of Negative Electronic Word-of-Mouth and Webcare on Thai Online Consumer Behavior

Authors: Pongsatorn Tantrabundit, Lersak Phothong, Ong-art Chanprasitchai

Abstract:

Due to the emergence of the Internet, it has extended the traditional Word-of-Mouth (WOM) to a new form called “Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM).” Unlike traditional WOM, eWOM is able to present information in various ways by applying different components. Each eWOM component generates different effects on online consumer behavior. This research investigates the effects of Webcare (responding message) from product/ service providers on negative eWOM by applying two types of products (search and experience). The proposed conceptual model was developed based on the combination of the stages in consumer decision-making process, theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behavior (TPB), the technology acceptance model (TAM), the information integration theory and the elaboration likelihood model. The methodology techniques used in this study included multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multiple regression analysis. The results suggest that Webcare does slightly increase Thai online consumer’s perceptions on perceived eWOM trustworthiness, information diagnosticity and quality. For negative eWOM, we also found that perceived eWOM Trustworthiness, perceived eWOM diagnosticity and quality have a positive relationship with eWOM influence whereas perceived valence has a negative relationship with eWOM influence in Thai online consumers.

Keywords: consumer behavior, electronic word-of-mouth, online review, online word-of-mouth, Thai online consumer, webcare

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
5473 Science of Social Work: Recognizing Its Existence as a Scientific Discipline by a Method Triangulation

Authors: Sandra Mendes

Abstract:

Social Work has encountered over time with multivariate requests in the field of its action, provisioning frameworks of knowledge and praxis. Over the years, we have observed a transformation of society and, consequently, of the public who deals with the social work practitioners. Both, training and profession have had need to adapt and readapt the ways of doing, bailing up theories to action, while action unfolds emancipation of new theories. The theoretical questioning of this subject lies on classical authors from social sciences, and contemporary authors of Social Work. In fact, both enhance, in the design of social work, an integration and social cohesion function, creating a culture of action and theory, attributing to its method a relevant function, which shall be promoter of social changes in various dimensions of both individual and collective life, as well as scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it is assumed that Social Work, through its professionalism and through the academy, is now closer to distinguish itself from other Social Sciences as an autonomous scientific field, being, however, in the center of power struggles. This paper seeks to fill the gap in social work literature about the study of the scientific field of this area of knowledge.

Keywords: field theory, knowledge, science, social work

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5472 Determinants of Mobile Payment Adoption among Retailers in Ghana

Authors: Ibrahim Masud, Yusheng Kong, Adam Diyawu Rahman

Abstract:

Mobile payment variously referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet refers to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Mobile payment systems have come to augment and to some extent try to replace the conventional payment methods like cash, cheque, or credit cards. This study examines mobile payment adoption factors among retailers in Ghana. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature using the Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Reasoned action as the theoretical bases. Data for the study was obtained from a sample of 240 respondents through a structured questionnaire. The PLS-SEM was used to analyze the data through SPSS v.22 and SmartPLS v.3. The findings indicate that factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, competitive pressure and facilitating conditions are the main determinants of mobile payment adoption among retailers in Ghana. The study contributes to the literature on mobile payment adoption from developing country context.

Keywords: mobile payment, retailers, structural equation modeling, technology acceptance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
5471 Reframing Service Sector Privatisation Quality Conception with the Theory of Deferred Action

Authors: Mukunda Bastola, Frank Nyame-Asiamah

Abstract:

Economics explanation for privatisation, drawing on neo-liberal market structures and technical efficiency principles has failed to address social imbalance and, distribute the efficiency benefits accrued from privatisation equitably among service users and different classes of people in society. Stakeholders’ interest, which cover ethical values and changing human needs are ignored due to shareholders’ profit maximising strategy with higher service charges. The consequence of these is that, the existing justifications for privatisation have fallen short of customer quality expectations because the underlying plan-based models fail to account for the nuances of customer expectations. We draw on the theory of deferred action to develop a context-based privatisation model, the deferred-based privatisation model, to explain how privatisation could be strategised for the emergent reality of the wider stakeholders’ interests and everyday quality demands of customers which are unpredictable.

Keywords: privatisation, service quality, shareholders, deferred action, deferred-based privatisation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
5470 Patterns of Positive Feedback Formation in the System of Online Action

Authors: D. Gvozdikov

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an attempt to describe an online action as a system that combines disjointed events and behavioral chains into a whole. The research focuses on patterns of naturally-formed chains of actions united by an orientation towards the online environment. A key characteristic of the system of online action is that it acts as an attractor for separate actions and chains of behavioral repertoire accumulating time and efforts made by users. The article demonstrates how the chains of online-offline actions are combined into a single pattern due to a simple identifiable mechanism, a positive feedback system. Using methods of digital ethnography and analyzing the content of the Instagram application and media blogs, the research reveals how through the positive feedback mechanism the entire system of online action acquires stability and can expand involving new spheres of human activity.

Keywords: digital anthropology, internet studies, systems theory, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
5469 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper offers a critique of Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington's thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between 'groups' and 'categories'. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain the capacity for concerted action, i.e., become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations' transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington's clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of the presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: clash of civilizations, groups, categories, groupism

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
5468 The Application of Action Research to Integrate the Innovation in Learning Experience in a Design Course

Authors: Walaa Mohammed Metwally

Abstract:

This case study used the action research concept as a tool to integrate the innovation in a learning experience on a design course. The action research was investigated at Prince Sultan University, College of Engineering in the Interior Design and Architecture Department in January 2015, through the Higher Education Academy program. The action research was presented first with the definition of the research, leading to how it was used and how solutions were found. It concluded by showing that once the action research application in interior design and architecture were studied it was an effective tool to improve student’s learning, develop their practice in design courses, and it discussed the negative and positive issues that were encountered.

Keywords: action research, innovation, intervention, learning experience, peer review

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5467 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is largely a response/critique of Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington´s thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between ´groups´ and ´categories´. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain capacity for concerted action i.e. become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations´ transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington´s clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: categories, civilizations, clash, groups, groupness

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
5466 The Constitution of Kenya, 2010, and the Feminist Legal Theory

Authors: Tecla Rita Karendi, Andy Cons Matata

Abstract:

Although before and at the advent of colonial administration, several women such as Mekatilili wa Menza and Muthoni Nyanjiru took up leadership positions in resisting the colonial administration. Kenya is generally considered a patriarchal society. Many women who tried to take up positions of leadership in postcolonial Kenya, such as the Nobel Prize winner Wangari Maathai, were branded as prostitutes or generally immoral women. However, the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, has since made a huge impact not only in the area of affirmative action but also in various aspects of the feminist legal theory such as the constitutional requirement that no more than two-thirds of the members of the elective or appointive bodies should be of the same gender. This favours women who are often sidelined in elective posts such as parliament or county assemblies and state-appointed posts in the parastatals and commissions. The constitution also recognizes the right to abortion, which was outrightly outlawed in the independence constitution. Certain practices adverse to women’s health, such as wife inheritance, female genital mutilation, and property rights, are either outlawed or framed to recognized women’s rights. The education of the girl-child is also now considered a priority, unlike in the past. Despite these developments, a lot remains to be done.

Keywords: feminist legal theory, constitution of Kenya, 2010, affirmative action, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
5465 Metaphors, Cognition, and Action: Conceptual Metaphor Analysis of President Akuffo-Addo’s Speeches in the COVID-19 Crisis

Authors: Isaac Kwabena Adubofour, Esther Serwaah Afreh

Abstract:

The connection between metaphor use, cognition, decision-making, and action has been researched. The same goes for political speeches; they are structured in ways that ensure that the ideology of the leader is communicated so that the opinions of the audience are influenced towards certain lines of action. In a nutshell, metaphors influence thought and action just as presidential speeches do. This partly explains why these addresses use metaphors. Leaders generally may always want to influence the opinions and actions of their audience, and they will need this even more, particularly in crisis situations such as the breakout of a pandemic of global proportions such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Such situations require, among other things, that the thoughts, emotions, and actions of the population are controlled towards dealing with the crisis. The primary question this study assesses is how, in crisis situations like the COVID-19 pandemic, metaphor use could influence thought and determine the policies a government adopts as well as the reactions of the people. Previous researchhasinvestigated metaphors and their influence on decision-making. The nature and relevance of presidential speeches have also been investigated. Even the presence of metaphors in such speeches have been investigated. However, there is a paucity in the actual connection between the presence of metaphors in presidential speeches and their influence on thought and action. Especially in the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes relevant to investigate how the presence of metaphors in presidential addresses influences social thought and action. Thus, the current study sought to investigate the potential for metaphor use to influence thought and action on a national scale from the COVID crisis. The goals were met with a theoretical grounding in conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) and Metaphor Identification Process by the Praglejazz Group (2007) in assessing twenty-four (24) speeches of the President of Ghana, Nana Addo Danquah Akuffo-Addo on the pandemic. The findings of the study show that the President’s adoption of war metaphors may not have been ideal since it triggered thoughts, policies, and social actions in line with war. We hope to, in this proposed presentation, all the components of these findings. This investigation expands the research on metaphors and society. It is an indication of the potential investigations on metaphors hold for other aspects too.

Keywords: COVID-19, conceptual metaphor theory, crisis communication, presidential addresses, risk communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
5464 Real Time Multi Person Action Recognition Using Pose Estimates

Authors: Aishrith Rao

Abstract:

Human activity recognition is an important aspect of video analytics, and many approaches have been recommended to enable action recognition. In this approach, the model is used to identify the action of the multiple people in the frame and classify them accordingly. A few approaches use RNNs and 3D CNNs, which are computationally expensive and cannot be trained with the small datasets which are currently available. Multi-person action recognition has been performed in order to understand the positions and action of people present in the video frame. The size of the video frame can be adjusted as a hyper-parameter depending on the hardware resources available. OpenPose has been used to calculate pose estimate using CNN to produce heap-maps, one of which provides skeleton features, which are basically joint features. The features are then extracted, and a classification algorithm can be applied to classify the action.

Keywords: human activity recognition, computer vision, pose estimates, convolutional neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5463 Exploring the Power of Words: Domesticating the Competence/Competency Concept in Ugandan Organisations

Authors: John C. Munene, Florence Nansubuga

Abstract:

The study set out to examine a number of theories that have directly or indirectly implied that words are potent but that the potency depends on the context or practice in which they are utilised. The theories include the Freudian theory of Cathexis, which directly suggests that ambiguous events when named become potent as well as the word that is used to name them. We briefly examine Psychological differentiation, which submit that ambiguity is often a result of failure to distinguish figure from ground. The investigate Prospecting Theory, which suggests that in a situation when people have to make decisions, they have options to utilise intuition or reasoned judgment. It suggests that more often than not, the tendency is to utilise intuition especially when generic heuristics such as representativeness and similarity are available. That usage of these heuristics may depend on lack of a salience or accessibility of the situation due to ambiguity. We also examine Activity Theory, which proposes that meaning of words emerge directly and dialectically from the activities in which they are used. The paper argues that the power of words will depend on either or all of the theories mentioned above. To examine this general proposition we test the utilization of a generic competence framework in a local setting. The assumption is that generic frameworks are inherently ambiguous and lack the potency normally associated with the competence concept in the management of human resources. A number of case studies provide initial supporting evidence for the general proposition.

Keywords: competence, meaning, operationalisation, power of words

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
5462 A Density Functional Theory Computational Study on the Inhibiting Action of Some Derivatives of 1,8-Bis(Benzylideneamino)Naphthalene against Aluminum Corrosion

Authors: Taher S. Ababneh, Taghreed M. A. Jazzazi, Tareq M. A. Alshboul

Abstract:

The inhibiting action against aluminum corrosion by three derivatives of 1,8-bis (benzylideneamino) naphthalene (BN) Schiff base has been investigated by means of DFT quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The derivatives (CBN, NBN and MBN) were prepared from the condensation reaction of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene with substituted benzaldehyde (4-CN, 3-NO₂ and 3,4-(OMe)₂, respectively). Calculations were conducted to study the adsorption of each Schiff base on aluminum surface to evaluate its potential as a corrosion inhibitor. The computational structural features and electronic properties of each derivative such as relative energies and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) have been reported. Thermodynamic functions and quantum chemical parameters such as the hardness of the inhibitor, the softness and the electrophilicity index were calculated to determine the derivative of the highest inhibition efficiency.

Keywords: corrosion, aluminum, DFT calculation, 1, 8-diaminonaphthalene, benzaldehyde

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
5461 Effecting the Unaffected Through the Effervescent Disk Theory, a Different Perspective of Media Effective Theories

Authors: Tarik Elaujali

Abstract:

This study examines a new media effective theory was developed by the author, it is called ‘The Effervescent Disk Theory’ (EDT). The theory main goal is to affect the unaffected audience who are either not exposing to a particular message or do not show interest in it. EDT suggest melting down messages that means to be affected within the media materials which are selected willingly by the audience themselves. A certain set of procedures to test EDT hypotheses were taken and illustrated in this study. A sample of 342 respondents (males & females) was collected from Tripoli University in Libya during the academic year 2013-2014. The designated sample is representing students who were failing to pass the English module for beginners’. This study aims to change the students’ negative notion about the importance of learning English, and to put their new idea into action. The theory seeks to affect audience cognition, emotions, and behaviors. EDT was applied in the present study alongside the media dependency theory. EDT hypotheses were confirmed, study results denoted that 73.6 percentage of the students responded positively and passed their English exam for beginners after being exposed selectively to their favorite TV program that contains a dissolved messages about the importance and vitality of learning English language.

Keywords: effervescent disk theory, selective exposure, media dependency, Libyan students

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
5460 Effects of Different Kinds of Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery on Improving Golf Putting Performance and Learning

Authors: Chi H. Lin, Chi C. Lin, Chih L. Hsieh

Abstract:

Motor Imagery (MI) alone or combined with action observation (AO) has been shown to enhance motor performance and skill learning. The most effective way to combine these techniques has received limited scientific scrutiny. In the present study, we examined the effects of simultaneous (i.e., observing an action whilst imagining carrying out the action concurrently), alternate (i.e., observing an action and then doing imagery related to that action consecutively) and synthesis (alternately perform action observation and imagery action and then perform observation and imagery action simultaneously) AOMI combinations on improving golf putting performance and learning. Participants, 45 university students who had no formal experience of using imagery for the study, were randomly allocated to one of four training groups: simultaneous action observation and motor imagery (S-AOMI), alternate action observation and motor imagery (A-AOMI), synthesis action observation and motor imagery (A-S-AOMI), and a control group. And it was applied 'Different Experimental Groups with Pre and Post Measured' designs. Participants underwent eighteen times of different interventions, which were happened three times a week and lasting for six weeks. We analyzed the information we received based on two-factor (group × times) mixed between and within analysis of variance to discuss the real effects on participants' golf putting performance and learning about different intervention methods of different types of combined action observation and motor imagery. After the intervention, we then used imagery questionnaire and journey to understand the condition and suggestion about different motor imagery and action observation intervention from the participants. The results revealed that the three experimental groups both are effective in putting performance and learning but not for the control group, and the A-S-AOMI group is significantly better effect than S-AOMI group on golf putting performance and learning. The results confirmed the effect of motor imagery combined with action observation on the performance and learning of golf putting. In particular, in the groups of synthesis, motor imagery, or action observation were alternately performed first and then performed motor imagery, and action observation simultaneously would have the best effectiveness.

Keywords: motor skill learning, motor imagery, action observation, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
5459 The Determinants of Customer’s Purchase Intention of Islamic Credit Card: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Muhammad Yar Khan, Anam Javeed

Abstract:

This study aims to scrutinize the dynamics which tend to impact customer’s purchasing intention of Islamic credit card and nexus of product’s knowledge and religiosity with the attitude of potential Islamic credit card’s customer. The theory of reasoned action strengthened the idea that intentions due to its proven predictive power are most likely to instigate intended consumer behavior. Particularly, the study examines the relationships of perceived financial cost (PFC), subjective norms (SN), and attitude (ATT) with the intention to purchase Islamic credit cards. Using a convenience sampling approach, data have been collected from 450 customers of banks located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A five-point Likert scale self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) through the procedures of principal component and multiple regression analysis. The results suggested that customer’s religiosity and product knowledge are strong indicators of attitude towards buying Islamic credit cards. Likewise, subjective norms, attitude, and perceived financial cost have a significant positive impact on customers’ purchase intent of Islamic bank’s credit cards. This study models a useful path for future researchers to further investigate the underlined phenomenon along with a variety of psychodynamic factors which are still in its infancy, at least in the Pakistani banking sector. The study also provides an insight to the practitioners and Islamic bank managers for directing their efforts toward educating customers regarding the use of Islamic credit cards and other financial products.

Keywords: attitude, Islamic credit card, religiosity, subjective norms

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
5458 The Weights of Distinguished sl2-Subalgebras in Dn

Authors: Yassir I. Dinar

Abstract:

We computed the weights of the adjoint action of distinguished sl2-triples in Lie algebra of type Dn using mathematical induction.

Keywords: lie algebra, root systems, representation theory, nilpotent orbits

Procedia PDF Downloads 234