Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Melissa Sager

54 Investigating The Use Of Socially Assistive Robots To Support Learner Engagement For Students With Learning Disabilities In One-to-one Instructional Settings

Authors: Jennifer Fane, Mike Gray, Melissa Sager

Abstract:

Children with diagnosed or suspected learning disabilities frequently experience significant skill gaps in foundational learning areas such as reading, writing, and math. Remedial one-to-one instruction is a highly effective means of supporting children with learning differences in building these foundational skills and closing the learning gap between them and their same-age peers. However, due to the learning challenges children with learning disabilities face, and ensuing challenges with self-confidence, many children with learning differences struggle with motivation and self-regulation within remedial one-to-one learning environments - despite the benefits of these sessions. Socially Assistive Robots (SARs) are an innovative educational technology tool that has been trialled in a range of educational settings to support diverse learning needs. Yet, little is known about the impact of SARs on the learning of children with learning differences in a one-to-one remedial instructional setting. This study sought to explore the impact of SARs on the engagement of children (n=9) with learning differences attending one-to-one remedial instruction sessions at a non-profit remedial education provider. The study used a mixed-methods design to explore learner engagement during learning tasks both with and without the use of a SAR to investigate how the use of SARs impacts student learning. The study took place over five weeks, with each session within the study followed the same procedure with the SAR acting as a teaching assistant when in use. Data from the study included analysis of time-sample video segments of the instructional sessions, instructor recorded information about the student’s progress towards their session learning goal and student self-reported mood and energy levels before and after the session. Analysis of the findings indicates that the use of SARs resulted in fewer instances of off-task behaviour and less need for instructor re-direction during learning tasks, allowing students to work in more sustained ways towards their learning goals. This initial research indicates that the use of SARs does have a material and measurable impact on learner engagement for children with learning differences and that further exploration of the impact of SARs during one-to-one remedial instruction is warranted.

Keywords: engagement, learning differences, learning disabilities, instruction, social robotics.

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53 Effect of Dietary Melissa officinalis Leaves Supplementation on Lipid Oxidation of Broiler Breast Fillets During Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Khosro Ghazvinian, Touba Khodaeian

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To improve the oxidative stability of meat products, the use of dietary form of antioxidants can extend the shelf life and acceptability of muscle food during exposition or storage condition. As shown, this method is more effective than adding direct preservatives due to uniform incorporation of dietary additives into sub cellular membrane and therefore, they can properly inhibit the oxidative reaction at their localized sites. Furthermore, postmortem addition of antioxidants to meat cannot directly inhibit the oxidation in membrane phospholipids. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of feed supplementation with Melissa officinalis leaves on lipid peroxidation of chicken breast fillets during refrigerated storage. In this study, 72 one-day old Ross 308 broilers distributed in four groups with six replicates (3 chickens each) were fed a basal diet (CONT) or basal diet supplemented with 5, 10, and 15 gr/Kg M.officinalis, for 6 weeks. Following slaughter, fillets from breast were stored at 4 °C in the dark for 12 days, and lipid oxidation was assessed on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed. Results showed that incorporation of M.officinalis in broiler diets delayed lipid oxidation in raw breast meat during refrigerated storage comparative with CONT(p<0.05). In this regard, TBARS levels of breast samples containing higher concentrations (10 and 15 gr/Kg) of M. officinalis (625.43 and 504.32 µg/kg MDA equivalents, respectively )were significantly lower than those of control and 5g/kg samples (872.75 and 841.32 µg/kg MDA equivalents, respectively) (p<0.05). Therefore, M. officinalis might be utilized in novel applications as a nutritional supplement or a functional food component.

Keywords: breast fillet, lipid oxidation, Melissa officinalis, TBARS assay

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52 Evaluation of Persian Medical Terms Compatibility with International Naming Criteria Based on the Applied Translation Procedures

Authors: Ali Akbar Zeinali

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Lack of appropriate equivalences for the terms or technical words is the result of ineffective translation guidelines adopted in the translation processes. The increasing number of foreign words and specific terms incorporated into the native language are due to the ongoing development of technology and science. Many problems appear in medical translation when the Persian translators try to employ non-Persian or imported words in medical texts, in which multiple equivalents may be created for one particular word based on the individual preferences of authors and translators in the target language due to lack of standardization. The study attempted to discuss the findings based on the compatibility of the international naming criteria, considering the translation procedures. About 67% of 339 equivalents under this study were grouped as incompatible words while about 33% of them were compatible terms. The similarities and differences were investigated and discussed according to the compatibility status of the equivalents with Sager’s criteria. Such equivalents have been classified into several groups through bi-dimensional descriptions that were different features of translation procedures related to the international naming criteria. In review of the frequency distribution of compatibilities, the equivalents were divided into two categories of compatibles and incompatibles, indicating the effectiveness of the applied translation procedures.

Keywords: linguistics, medical translation, naming, terminology

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
51 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager

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Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

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50 Solar Cell Using Chemical Bath Deposited PbS:Bi3+ Films as Electron Collecting Layer

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno

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Chemical bath deposited PbS:Bi3+ as an electron collection layer is introduced between the silicon wafer and the Ag electrode the performance of the PbS heterojunction thin film solar thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area. We employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. The experimental results reveal that the cell response parameters depend critically on the deposition procedures in terms of bath temperature, deposition time. The device achieves an open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Bi doping, PbS, thin films, solar cell

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49 Positioning Analysis of Atlantic Canadian Provinces as Travel Destinations by Americans

Authors: Dongkoo Yun, Melissa James-MacEachern

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This study analyzes Americans’ views of four Atlantic Canadian provinces as travel destinations regarding specific destination attributes for a pleasure trip, awareness (heard) of the destinations, past visit to the destinations during the prior two years, and intention to visit in the next two years. Results indicate that American travellers perceived the four Atlantic Canadian provinces as separate and distinct when rating best-fit destination attributes to each destination. The results suggest that travel destinations, specifically the four selected destinations, must be prepared to differentiate their destination’s image and the range of experiences and services to appeal and attract more American travellers.

Keywords: American perceptions, Atlantic Canadian provinces, competitiveness, positioning analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
48 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Oscar Portillo Moreno

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Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: doping, quantum confinement, optical band gap, PbS

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47 Faculty Work-Life Engagement: A Survey about Teaching during and after Covid-19

Authors: Holly A. Rick, Melissa McCartney

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The role of faculty has changed from the impact of Covid-19. Universities are changing faculty expectations. There is a changes in faculty workloads, and shift in how faculty work within a university. The research will identify areas where faculty are satisfied with their work, areas they would like their organizations to change, and how the faculty life is impacted by outside university obligations. A survey to obtain work-life balance, teaching responsibilities, and how a faculty’s personal life impacts their ability to work at their organization was conducted. The results of this research will identify areas where faculty have opportunities to engage in teaching, to balance their work life, and where organizations can change to support their faculty. Different ways of teaching including hyflex and other multimodal models will allow for faculty to engage in their teaching practice, professional development, and begin to establish work-life balance activities.

Keywords: faculty engagement, faculty responsibilities, HyFlex, teaching, work-life balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
46 Topic Sentiments toward the COVID-19 Vaccine on Twitter

Authors: Melissa Vang, Raheyma Khan, Haihua Chen

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has changed people's lives from all over the world. More people have turned to Twitter to engage online and discuss the COVID-19 vaccine. This study aims to present a text mining approach to identify people's attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine on Twitter. To achieve this purpose, we collected 54,268 COVID-19 vaccine tweets from September 01, 2020, to November 01, 2020, then the BERT model is used for the sentiment and topic analysis. The results show that people had more negative than positive attitudes about the vaccine, and countries with an increasing number of confirmed cases had a higher percentage of negative attitudes. Additionally, the topics discussed in positive and negative tweets are different. The tweet datasets can be helpful to information professionals to inform the public about vaccine-related informational resources. Our findings may have implications for understanding people's cognitions and feelings about the vaccine.

Keywords: BERT, COVID-19 vaccine, sentiment analysis, topic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
45 Psychological Testing in Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Validity and Reliability of Psychological Assessments in the Workplace

Authors: Melissa C. Monney

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Psychological testing has been of interest to researchers for many years as useful tools in assessing and diagnosing various disorders as well as to assist in understanding human behavior. However, for over 20 years now, researchers and laypersons alike have been interested in using them for other purposes, such as determining factors in employee selection, promotion, and even termination. In recent years, psychological assessments have been useful in facilitating workplace decision processing, regarding employee circulation within organizations. This literature review explores four of the most commonly used psychological tests in workplace environments, namely cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, integrity, and personality tests, as organizations have used these tests to assess different factors of human behavior as predictive measures of future employee behaviors. The findings suggest that while there is much controversy and debate regarding the validity and reliability of these tests in workplace settings as they were not originally designed for these purposes, the use of such assessments in the workplace has been useful in decreasing costs and employee turnover as well as increase job satisfaction by ensuring the right employees are selected for their roles.

Keywords: cognitive ability, personality testing, predictive validity, workplace behavior

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44 Teaching Science Content Area Literacy to 21st Century Learners

Authors: Melissa C. Ingram

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The use of new literacies within science classrooms needs to be balanced by teachers to both teach different forms of communication while assessing content area proficiency. Using new literacies such as Twitter and Facebook needs to be incorporated into science content area literacy studies in addition to continuing to use generally-accepted forms of scientific content area presentation, which include scientific papers and textbooks. The research question this literature review seeks to answer is “What are some ways in which new forms of literacy are better suited to teach scientific content area literacy to 21st Century learners?” The research question is addressed through a literature review that highlights methods currently being used to educate the next wave of learners in the world of science content area literacy. Both temporal discourse analysis (TDA) and critical discourse analysis (CDA) were used to determine the need to use new literacies to teach science content area literacy. Increased use of digital technologies and a change in science content area pedagogy were explored.

Keywords: science content area literacy, new literacies, critical discourse analysis, temporal discourse analysis

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43 Competition for Talent: Retaining Graduates in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine

Authors: Julia Reinold, Inge Hooijen, Christoph Meng, Melissa Siegel

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This paper investigates whether or not students intend to stay in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) after graduation taking into account the role of hard and soft locational factors, social factors as well as demographic aspects in shaping their mobility preferences. Since graduates are considered a convenient source of human capital in today’s knowledge based economy, it is crucial to understand what drives their mobility intentions in order to retain larger numbers of graduates. This is particularly true for peripheral regions, which need to compete with assumed more attractive economic centres. This paper adds a euregional perspective to the existing literature on graduate migration. Using survey data from 2015 from five higher education institutions in the EMR, this paper finds that mobility intentions are determined by students’ perceptions of the quality of life, openness and career opportunities in the euroregion. In addition, distance to the partner and other social ties such as family and friends influence migration intentions.

Keywords: Euroregion, graduate migration, highly skilled migration, human capital

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42 Festive Fictions: An Iconographic Study of Ritual and Intersectionality in Cartagena, Colombia

Authors: Melissa Valle

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This paper draws upon the studies of visual culture and intersectionality to illuminate how visuality can naturalize social hierarchies. Through the use of iconography, it decodes the denotative, connotative and ideological meanings of symbols of ritualistic events in the context of the Colombian Atlantic Coast. An examination of such exceptional moments, i.e. of the spectacle, brings into focus how such performances are imbued with meaning by both the on-looker and the performer. Through an analysis of preexisting visuals (e.g., advertisements, social media) and visual materials produced by the researcher for the purpose of photo-elicitation interviews, this paper provides a contextual analysis of the ways in which three representations, popular during Colombian Atlantic coastal festivals (Negrita Puloy, Las Palenqueras, and El Son de Negro), have been historically, culturally and politically constituted. This work reveals that the visualizations are born out of and reproduce typifications systems heavily based upon race, gender, class, and ethnicity. Understanding the ways these categories are mutually constituted through the cultural practice of visual representation is essential to a more comprehensive understanding of the role such representation plays in the reproduction of social difference.

Keywords: Colombia, festivals, intersectionality, visual culture

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41 Occupational Health: The Impact of Employee Work Schedules and Employee Morale

Authors: Melissa C. Monney

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Employee morale is an area in which many companies invest millions of dollars, time and effort. Whether these are attributed in benefits or additional monetary compensation, each year, such companies understand that human capital is one of their greatest assets to driving production and revenue. However, with the ever-changing economy, such emphasis on work and production may be counterproductive to employee morale as employees attempt to achieve a healthy work-life balance. A flexible work schedule may be the solution to both companies’ attempt at increasing employee morale and productivity, while affording employees the opportunity to maintain a healthy work-life balance. The information presented in this review derives mostly from research articles, in which the research conducted by means of direct employee feedback through surveys, telephone or face-to-face interviews, or a collection of both, attempted to corroborate (in one way or another) previous research on the largely debated topic of schedule flexibility as the dynamics of economies and families have over the years. This review endeavors to provide a holistic view of schedule flexibility policies, implementation, and perceptions from research in various industries in different countries.

Keywords: flexible scheduling, perceived flexibility, employee morale, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
40 The Impact of Government Subsidies to Keep Residents Studying at Home

Authors: Melissa James Maceachern

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This study examines a financial aid program that is designed to “keep residents at home” to attend higher education by providing financial aid as an incentive or discount in their first year of university following high school graduation. This study offers insight into financial matters for higher education students that can assist in providing policy direction for student financing. In particular, this study found that students appeared to value the bursary but none of the key metrics related to participation or conversion to the home institution indicated that the bursary impacted enrolment or participation. One key metric, student loans received by direct entry high school students did indicate a decline in the number of recipients. This study also identified accessibility issues to higher education that are of importance when considering the declining youth populations, future labour market needs and the need to sustain higher education institutions. This is undoubtedly a challenging period of time given the changing social and demographic forces within Canada. A comprehensive examination of the policy and programs to address these forces needs to be undertaken. This study highlights the importance of utilizing financial aid in combination with other policy to assist students in accessing higher education.

Keywords: accessibility, participation, financing, government

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39 Development of Corn (Zea mays L.) Stalk Geotextile Net for Soil Erosion Mitigation

Authors: Cristina S. Decano, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Melissa E. Agulto, Helen F. Gavino

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This study aimed to introduce new natural fiber to be used in the production of geotextile net for mitigation of soil erosion. Fiber extraction from the stalks was the main challenge faced during the processing of stalks to ropes. Thus, an investigation on the extraction procedures of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk under biological and chemical retting was undertaken. Results indicated significant differences among percent fiber yield as affected by the retting methods used with values of 15.07%, 12.97%, 11.60%, and 9.01%, for dew, water, chemical (1 day after harvest and15 days after harvest), respectively, with the corresponding average extracting duration of 70, 82, 89, and 94 minutes. Physical characterization of the developed corn stalk geotextile net resulted to average mass per unit area of 806.25 g/m2 and 241% water absorbing capacity. The effect of corn stalk geotextile net in mitigating soil erosion was evaluated in a laboratory experiment for 30o and 60o inclinations with three treatments: bare soil (A1), corn stalk geotextile net (A2) and combined cornstalk geotextile net and vegetation cover (A3). Results revealed that treatment A2 and A3 significantly decreased sediment yield and an increase in terms of soil loss reduction efficiency. The cost of corn stalk geotextile net is Php 62.41 per square meter.

Keywords: corn stalk, natural geotextile, retting, soil erosion

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38 Determination of Aflatoxins in Edible-Medicinal Plant Samples by HPLC with Fluorescence Detector and KOBRA-Cell

Authors: Isil Gazioglu, Abdulselam Ertas

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Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. AFs can be absorbed through the skin. Potent carcinogens like AFs should be completely absent from cosmetics, this can be achieved by careful quality control of the raw plant materials. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins have been established in many countries, and reliable testing methodology is needed to implement and enforce the regulatory limits. In this study, ten medicinal plant samples (Bundelia tournefortti, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cardaria draba, Malva neglecta, Malvella sharardiana, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis libanotica, Stakys thirkei, Thymus nummularius) were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing an HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with Kobra-Cell and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all medicinal plant samples. The results revealed that five (50%) of samples were contaminated with AFs. The association between particular samples and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples.

Keywords: aflatoxin B1, HPLC-FLD, KOBRA-Cell, mycotoxin

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37 Determination of Inflow Performance Relationship for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs: Numerical Simulation Study

Authors: Melissa Ramirez, Mohammad Awal

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The Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) of a well is a relation between the oil production rate and flowing bottom-hole pressure. This relationship is an important tool for petroleum engineers to understand and predict the well performance. In the petroleum industry, IPR correlations are used to design and evaluate well completion, optimizing well production, and designing artificial lift. The most commonly used IPR correlations models are Vogel and Wiggins, these models are applicable to homogeneous and isotropic reservoir data. In this work, a new IPR model is developed to determine inflow performance relationship of oil wells in a naturally fracture reservoir. A 3D black-oil reservoir simulator is used to develop the oil mobility function for the studied reservoir. Based on simulation runs, four flow rates are run to record the oil saturation and calculate the relative permeability for a naturally fractured reservoir. The new method uses the result of a well test analysis along with permeability and pressure-volume-temperature data in the fluid flow equations to obtain the oil mobility function. Comparisons between the new method and two popular correlations for non-fractured reservoirs indicate the necessity for developing and using an IPR correlation specifically developed for a fractured reservoir.

Keywords: inflow performance relationship, mobility function, naturally fractured reservoir, well test analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
36 Unbranched, Saturated, Carboxylic Esters as Phase-Change Materials

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Melissa Obermeyer, Ludger J. Fischer, Philipp Schuetz, Jörg Worlitschek

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This study evaluates unbranched, saturated carboxylic esters with respect to their suitability to be used as storage media for latent heat storage applications. Important thermophysical properties are gathered both by means of literature research as well as by experimental measurements. Additionally, esters are critically evaluated against other common phase-change materials in terms of their environmental impact and their economic potential. The experimental investigations are performed for eleven selected ester samples with a focus on the determination of their melting temperature and their enthalpy of fusion using differential scanning calorimetry. Transient Hot Bridge was used to determine the thermal conductivity of the liquid samples while thermogravimetric analysis was employed for the evaluation of the 5% weight loss temperature as well as of the decomposition temperature of the non-volatile samples. Both experimental results and literature data reveal the high potential of esters as phase-change materials. Their good thermal and environmental properties as well as the possibility for production from natural sources (e.g. vegetable oils) render esters as very promising for future storage applications. A particularly high short term application potential of esters could lie in low temperature storage applications where the main alternative is using salt hydrates as phase-change material.

Keywords: esters, phase-change materials, thermal properties, latent heat storage

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35 Cultivating Individuality and Equality in Education: A Literature Review on Respecting Dimensions of Diversity within the Classroom

Authors: Melissa C. Ingram

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This literature review sought to explore the dimensions of diversity that can affect classroom learning. This review is significant as it can aid educators in reaching more of their diverse student population and creating supportive classrooms for teachers and students. For this study, peer-reviewed articles were found and compiled using Google Scholar. Key terms used in the search include student individuality, classroom equality, student development, teacher development, and teacher individuality. Relevant educational standards such as Common Core and Partnership for the 21st Century were also included as part of this review. Student and teacher individuality and equality is discussed as well as methods to grow both within educational settings. Embracing student and teacher individuality was found to be key as it may affect how each person interacts with given information. One method to grow individuality and equality in educational settings included drafting and employing revised teaching standards which include various Common Core and U.S. State standards. Another was to use educational theories such as constructivism, cognitive learning, and Experiential Learning Theory. However, barriers to growing individuality, such as not acknowledging differences in a population’s dimensions of diversity, still exist. Studies found preserving the dimensions of diversity owned by both teachers and students yielded more positive and beneficial classroom experiences.

Keywords: classroom equality, student development, student individuality, teacher development, teacher individuality

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
34 Cultural Tourism in Mexico as a Strategy to Attract Chinese Tourists

Authors: Ruben Molina, Melissa Ochoa

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The rapid expansion and facilities that the Chinese government has granted to its inhabitants to travel abroad has brought benefits to the economies of the countries where these tourists travel. Due to the great economic spill that these tourists make in their travels and the great potential they possess, they become one of the most attractive segments in the world, causing countries to seek to attract them for the profits. The Chinese tourist is a tourist who seeks to know the culture, culinary experiences, traditions and folklore of the place where they travel, more than seeking sun and beach. Mexico is a country that has a great mix of tourist products and services, which favors that the tourism offer focuses on the satisfaction of the needs and preferences of the different segments of international tourists who arrive in Mexico: sun and beach tourism and also cultural tourism. Mexico has 51 sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, of which 12 are natural, 37 are cultural and 2 are mixed. Despite the great tourist attraction of the country and the strategic importance of the sector for the economy, Mexico has not managed to have a large number of tourists or income from international tourism for 15 years. One way to increase the travel industry is to attract the Chinese tourist to Mexico, which is considered a priority by countries like the United States, France and Spain due to the advantages they entail. Therefore, this article will describe the tastes, preferences and habits of Chinese tourists coming to the most popular destinations in Mexico through a Likert scale and it will be described which are the most attractive cultural factors in Mexico for the Chinese tourists and will be proposing strategies of attraction for Mexico and its destinations.

Keywords: attraction, Chinese tourist, cultural tourism, strategic, Mexico

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33 Changes in Air Quality inside Vehicles and in Working Conditions of Professional Drivers during COVID-19 Pandemic in Paris Area

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Lynda Bensefa-Colas, Isabelle Momas

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We evaluated the impact of the first lockdown restriction measures (March-May 2020) in the Paris area on (1) the variation of in-vehicle ultrafine particle (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between pre-and post-lockdown period and (2) the professional drivers working conditions and practices. The study was conducted on 33 Parisian taxi drivers. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively, on two typical working days before and after the first lockdown. The job-related characteristics were self-reported. Our results showed that after the first lockdown, the number of clients significantly decreased as well as the taxi driver's journey duration. Taxi drivers significantly opened their windows more and reduced the use of air recirculation. UFP decreased significantly by 32% and BC by 31% after the first lockdown, with a weaker positive correlation compared to before the lockdown. The reduction of in-vehicle UFP was explained mainly by the reduction of traffic flow and ventilation settings, though the latter probably varied according to the traffic condition. No predictor explained the variation of in-vehicle BC concentration between pre-and post-lockdown periods, suggesting different sources of UFP and BC. The road traffic was not anymore the dominant source of BC post-lockdown. We emphasize the role of traffic emissions on in-vehicle air pollution and that preventive measures such as ventilation settings will help to better manage air quality inside a vehicle in order to minimize exposure of professional drivers, as well as passengers, to air pollutants.

Keywords: black carbon, COVID-19, France, lockdown, taxis, ultrafine particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
32 The Low-Cost Design and 3D Printing of Structural Knee Orthotics for Athletic Knee Injury Patients

Authors: Alexander Hendricks, Sean Nevin, Clayton Wikoff, Melissa Dougherty, Jacob Orlita, Rafiqul Noorani

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Knee orthotics play an important role in aiding in the recovery of those with knee injuries, especially athletes. However, structural knee orthotics is often very expensive, ranging between $300 and $800. The primary reason for this project was to answer the question: can 3D printed orthotics represent a viable and cost-effective alternative to present structural knee orthotics? The primary objective for this research project was to design a knee orthotic for athletes with knee injuries for a low-cost under $100 and evaluate its effectiveness. The initial design for the orthotic was done in SolidWorks, a computer-aided design (CAD) software available at Loyola Marymount University. After this design was completed, finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to understand how normal stresses placed upon the knee affected the orthotic. The knee orthotic was then adjusted and redesigned to meet a specified factor-of-safety of 3.25 based on the data gathered during FEA and literature sources. Once the FEA was completed and the orthotic was redesigned based from the data gathered, the next step was to move on to 3D-printing the first design of the knee brace. Subsequently, physical therapy movement trials were used to evaluate physical performance. Using the data from these movement trials, the CAD design of the brace was refined to accommodate the design requirements. The final goal of this research means to explore the possibility of replacing high-cost, outsourced knee orthotics with a readily available low-cost alternative.

Keywords: 3D printing, knee orthotics, finite element analysis, design for additive manufacturing

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31 Engaging Local Communities on Large-Scale Construction Project

Authors: Melissa Teo

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It is increasingly important that project managers develop greater capabilities to better manage the social, cultural, political, environmental and economic impacts on proposed construction projects. These challenges are best resolved in consultation with communities rather than in conflict with them. This is particularly important on controversial projects which are projects that have obtained government sanctioned ‘development approval’ but not ‘community approval’. While a rich body of research and intellectual frameworks exist in the fields of urban geography and planning to understand and manage community concerns during the pre-development approval stages of new projects, current theoretical frameworks guiding community engagement in project management are inadequate. A new and innovative research agenda is needed to guide thinking about the role of local communities in the construction process and is an important research gap that needs to be filled. Within this context, this research aims to assess the effectiveness of strategies adopted by project teams to engage with local communities so as to capture lessons learnt to apply to future projects. This paper reports a research methodology which uses Arnstein’s model of participation to better understand how power differentials between the project team and local communities can influence the adoption of community engagement strategies. A case study approach is utilizing interviews and documentary analysis of a large-scale controversial construction project in Queensland, Australia is presented. The findings will result in a number of recommendations to guide community engagement practices on future projects.

Keywords: community engagement, construction, case study, project management

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30 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Jamaican and Trinidadian News Articles about D/Deafness

Authors: Melissa Angus Baboun

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Utilizing a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) methodology and a theoretical framework based on disability studies, how Jamaican and Trinidadian newspapers discussed issues relating to the Deaf community were examined. The term deaf was inputted into the search engine tool of the online website for the Jamaica Observer and the Trinidad & Tobago Guardian. All 27 articles that contained the term deaf in its content and were written between August 1, 2017 and November 15, 2017 were chosen for the study. The data analysis was divided into three steps: (1) listing and analysis instances of metaphorical deafness (e.g. fall on deaf ears), (2) categorization of the content of the articles into the models of disability discourse (the medical, socio-cultural, and superscrip models of disability narratives), and (3) the analysis of any additional data found. A total of 42% of the articles pulled for this study did not deal with the Deaf community in any capacity, but rather instances of the use of idiomatic expressions that use deafness as a metaphor for a non-physical, undesirable trait. The most common idiomatic expression found was fall on deaf ears. Regarding the models of disability discourse, eight articles were found to follow the socio-cultural model, two were found to follow the medical model, and two were found to follow the superscrip model. The additional data found in these articles include two instances of the term deaf and mute, an overwhelming use of lower case d for the term deaf, and the misuse of the term translator (to mean interpreter).

Keywords: deafness, disability, news coverage, Caribbean newspapers

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29 Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the USA

Authors: Xin Qi Dong, Melissa Simon

Abstract:

Aims: Elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation are important public health concerns among aging populations. This study will examine the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults in the USA. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, in this study we conducted in-person interviews with Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011 to 2013. Elder mistreatment was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS). Suicidal ideation was assessed by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS-A). Results: Overall, 3,159 Chinese older adults participated in this study, and their mean age was 72.8 years. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, medical comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and social support, elder mistreatment was significantly associated with 2-week suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52--4.01) and 12-month suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.62--3.73). With respect to gender differences, the study found that the association remained significant for older women but not for older men after adjusting for all confounding factors. Conclusion: As the largest epidemiology study conducted among Chinese older adults in the USA, this study suggests that elder mistreatment is significantly associated with 2-week and 12-month suicidal ideation in older women but not in older men. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which elder mistreatment links with suicidal ideation.

Keywords: suicidal ideation, elder abuse, family violence, Asian health equity

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28 Use of a Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) to Correlate with Parasitemia Levels in T. cruzi/HIV Co-Infected Patients

Authors: Yagahira E. Castro-Sesquen, Robert H. Gilman, Carolina Mejia, Daniel E. Clark, Jeong Choi, Melissa J. Reimer-Mcatee, Rocio Castro, Jorge Flores, Edward Valencia-Ayala, Faustino Torrico, Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Lance Liotta, Caryn Bern, Alessandra Luchini

Abstract:

Early diagnosis of reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV patients could be lifesaving; however, in Latin American the diagnosis is performed by detection of parasitemia by microscopy which lacks sensitivity. To evaluate if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test) are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. T. cruzi antigens in urine of HIV patients (N=55: 31 T. cruzi infected and 24 T. cruzi serology negative) were concentrated using hydrogel particles and quantified by Western Blot and a calibration curve. The percentage of Chagas positive patients determined by Chunap compared to blood microscopy, qPCR, and ELISA was 100% (6/6), 95% (18/19) and 74% (23/31), respectively. Chunap specificity was 91.7%. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between parasitemia levels (determined by qPCR) and urine T. cruzi antigen concentrations (p<0.001). A cut-off of > 105 pg was chosen to determine patients with reactivation of Chagas disease (6/6). Urine antigen concentration was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mL (p=0.045). Chunap shows potential for early detection of reactivation and with appropriate adaptation can be used for monitoring Chagas disease status in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients.

Keywords: antigenuria, Chagas disease, Chunap, nanoparticles, parasitemia, poly N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)/trypan blue particles (polyNIPAm/TB), reactivation of Chagas disease.

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27 Role of ABC Transporters in Non-Target Site Herbicide Resistance in Black Grass (Alopecurus myosuroides)

Authors: Alina Goldberg Cavalleri, Sara Franco Ortega, Nawaporn Onkokesung, Richard Dale, Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Robert Edwards

Abstract:

Non-target site based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides in weeds is a polygenic trait associated with the upregulation of proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification and translocation we have termed the xenome. Among the xenome proteins, ABC transporters play a key role in enhancing herbicide metabolism by effluxing conjugated xenobiotics from the cytoplasm into the vacuole. The importance of ABC transporters is emphasized by the fact that they often contribute to multidrug resistance in human cells and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. They also play a key role in insecticide resistance in major vectors of human diseases and crop pests. By surveying available databases, transcripts encoding ABCs have been identified as being enhanced in populations exhibiting NTSR in several weed species. Based on a transcriptomics data in black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Am), we have identified three proteins from the ABC-C subfamily that are upregulated in NTSR populations. ABC-C transporters are poorly characterized proteins in plants, but in Arabidopsis localize to the vacuolar membrane and have functional roles in transporting glutathionylated (GSH)-xenobiotic conjugates. We found that the up-regulation of AmABCs strongly correlates with the up-regulation of a glutathione transferase termed AmGSTU2, which can conjugate GSH to herbicides. The expression profile of the ABC transcripts was profiled in populations of black grass showing different degree of resistance to herbicides. This, together with a phylogenetic analysis, revealed that AmABCs cluster in different groups which might indicate different substrate and roles in the herbicide resistance phenotype in the different populations

Keywords: black grass, herbicide, resistance, transporters

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26 Screening of Antiviral Compounds in Medicinal Plants: Non-Volatiles

Authors: Tomas Drevinskas, Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Nicola Tiso, Algirdas Salomskas, Raimundas Lelesius, Agneta Karpovaite, Ona Ragazinskiene, Loreta Kubiliene

Abstract:

Antiviral effect of substances accumulated by plants and natural products is known to ethno-pharmacy and modern day medicine. Antiviral properties are usually assigned to volatile compounds and polyphenols. This research work is divided into several parts and the task of this part was to investigate potential plants, potential substances and potential preparation conditions that can be used for the preparation of antiviral agents. Sixteen different medicinal plants, their parts and two types of propolis were selected for screening. Firstly, extraction conditions of non-volatile compounds were investigated: 3 pre-selected plants were extracted with 5 different ethanol – water mixtures (96%, 75%, 60%, 40%, 20 %, vol.) and bidistilled water. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity was determined. The results indicated that optimal extrahent is 40%, vol. of ethanol – water mixture. Further investigations were performed with the extrahent of 40%, vol. ethanol – water mixture. All 16 of selected plants, their parts and two types of propolis were extracted using selected extrahent. Determined total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity indicated that extracts of Origanum Vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Geranium macrorrhizum L., Melissa officinalis L. and Desmodium canadence L. contains highest amount of extractable phenolic compounds (7.31, 5.48, 7.88, 8.02 and 7.16 rutin equivalents (mg/ ml) respectively), flavonoid content (2.14, 2.23, 2.49, 0.79 and 1.51 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively) and radical scavenging activity (11.98, 8.72, 13.47, 13.22 and 12.22 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively). Composition of the extracts is analyzed using HPLC.

Keywords: antiviral effect, plants, propolis, phenols

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25 Exploring the Link between Intangible Capital and Urban Economic Development: The Case of Three UK Core Cities

Authors: Melissa Dickinson

Abstract:

In the context of intense global competitiveness and urban transformations, today’s cities are faced with enormous challenges. There is increasing pressure among cities and regions to respond promptly and efficiently to fierce market progressions, to offer a competitive advantage, higher flexibility, and to be pro-active in creating future markets. Consequently, competition among cities and regions within the dynamics of a worldwide spatial economic system is growing fiercer, amplifying the importance of intangible capital in shaping the competitive and dynamic economic performance of organisations and firms. Accordingly, this study addresses how intangible capital influences urban economic development within an urban environment. Despite substantial research on the economic, and strategic determinants of urban economic development this multidimensional phenomenon remains to be one of the greatest challenges for economic geographers. The research provides a unique contribution, exploring intangible capital through the lenses of entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital. Drawing on business surveys and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in the case of the three UK Core Cities Birmingham, Bristol and Cardiff. This paper critically considers how entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital is a crucial source of competitiveness and urban economic development. This paper deals with questions concerning the complexity of operationalizing ‘network capital’ in different urban settings and the challenges that reside in characterising its effects. The paper will highlight the role of institutions in facilitating urban economic development. Particular emphasis will be placed on exploring the roles formal and informal institutions have in delivering, supporting and nurturing entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital, to facilitate urban economic development. Discussions will then consider how institutions moderate and contribute to the economic development of urban areas, to provide implications in terms of future policy formulation in the context of large and medium sized cities.

Keywords: urban economic development, network capital, entrepreneurialism, institutions

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