Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3254

Search results for: cultural tourism

3254 Event-Led Strategy for Cultural Tourism Development: The Case of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture

Authors: Yi-De Liu

Abstract:

Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets and the cultures are increasingly being used to promote cities and to increase their competitiveness and attractiveness. One of the major forms of cultural tourism development undertaken throughout Europe has been the staging of a growing number of cultural events. The event of European Capitals of Culture (ECOC) is probably the best example of the new trends of cultural tourism in Europe, which is therefore used in this article to demonstrate some of the key issues surrounding the event-led strategy for cultural tourism development. Based on the experience of the 2008 ECOC Liverpool, UK, the study’s findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constitutes a boost for the development of cultural tourism in terms of realising experience economy, enhancing city image, facilitating urban regeneration, promoting cultural production and consumption, as well as establishing partnerships. This study is concluded by drawing some critical factors that event and tourism organisers should consider.

Keywords: cultural tourism, event tourism, cultural event, European capital of culture, Liverpool

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3253 Analyzing the Relationship between the Spatial Characteristics of Cultural Structure, Activities, and the Tourism Demand

Authors: Deniz Karagöz

Abstract:

This study is attempt to comprehend the relationship between the spatial characteristics of cultural structure, activities and the tourism demand in Turkey. The analysis divided into four parts. The first part consisted of a cultural structure and cultural activity (CSCA) index provided by principal component analysis. The analysis determined four distinct dimensions, namely, cultural activity/structure, accessing culture, consumption, and cultural management. The exploratory spatial data analysis employed to determine the spatial models of cultural structure and cultural activities in 81 provinces in Turkey. Global Moran I indices is used to ascertain the cultural activities and the structural clusters. Finally, the relationship between the cultural activities/cultural structure and tourism demand was analyzed. The raw/original data of the study official databases. The data on the cultural structure and activities gathered from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the data related to the tourism demand was provided by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Keywords: cultural activities, cultural structure, spatial characteristics, tourism demand, Turkey

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3252 Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo: Heritage, Tourism, and Traditions

Authors: Camila Dazzi, Crisitiane Passos de Mattos, Thiago Leite

Abstract:

The paper discusses the cultural identity of the communities located in Environmental Protection Area (APAs), in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro, constituted almost entirely by descendants of Swiss immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The communication is the result of an extension project named "Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo." The objectives of this project were framed in the identification of local history, cultural demonstrations, crafts, religious events, festivals, the "know-how" and traditions. While an extension project, developed by students and teachers of a Bachelor of Tourism Management program, the work provided a more practical action: awareness the communities that inhabit the APAs on the possible implementation of the cultural community-based tourism, a sustainable alternative for economic development, involving local people as propagators of local culture, and tourism as a way of valuing and safeguarding of Intangible Heritage.

Keywords: tourism and cultural heritage, tourism and cultural impacts, tourism and cultural change, cultural identity

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3251 Cultural Tourism, The Gateway to Socioeconomic Development in Nigeria: Case Study on Osun State Nigeria

Authors: Osinubi Olufemi Bankole

Abstract:

Cultural tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment, locale culture, festival, etc. while helping to generate income and employment opportunities for the locale. Tourists who promote cultural tourism are sensitive to the cultural belief and norms that are gradually going into extinction and the rich cultural resources that abound in Nigeria. The paper focus on culture been a unique way of life of particular people that differentiates them from their neighbors. It examined the socioeconomic roles of cultural tourism to the development of Nigeria using Osun state as case study. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage method, result shows that 35 respondents representing 87.5% agreed that cultural tourism has a significant role to play in the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. The study concluded that cultural tourism is an important aspect of the nation’s economic sector that should be given adequate consideration for economic sustainability. The researcher recommended that various investment opportunities abound in the nation’s cultural resources if well developed and maintained.

Keywords: culture, development, industry, tourism

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3250 The Sustainable Cultural Tourism of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Thailand

Authors: Narong Anurak

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to determine the factors influencing tourists’ destination decision making for cultural tourism in the southern provinces, to examine the potential for developing cultural tourism and to guideline for marketing strategy for cultural tourism in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Both quantitative and qualitative data were applied in this study. The samples of 400 cases for quantitative analysis were tourists who were interested in cultural tourism in the southern provinces, and traveled to cultural sites in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Surat Thani, and Phuket, and 14 representatives from provincial tourism committee of Nakhon Si Thammarat. The study found that Thai and foreign tourists are influenced by different important marketing mix factors (7Ps) when making decisions for cultural tourism in southern provinces. The important factors for Thai respondents were physical evidence, price, people, and place at high importance level, whereas, product, process, and promotion were moderate importance level as well.

Keywords: marketing mix factors, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, sustainable cultural tourism, tourists decision making

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3249 Relationship between Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Tourism Product Satisfaction

Authors: Thanawit Buafai, Siyathorn Khunon

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the satisfaction levels of tourism product components on the island of Samui by studying the cultural dimension relationships of Hofsted’s classic theory. Both the six Hofsted cultural dimensions and tourism production satisfaction measures have been of interest worldwide. Therefore, the challenge of this study is to re-confirm previous research results in the ever-changing current contexts of the modern globalized business era. Self-rated questionnaires were employed to collect data from six nationalities of tourists in Samui, totaling 386 samples. The reliability of this research methodology was 0.967. Correlation was applied to analyze the relationships. The results indicate that Masculinity is significantly related to tourism destination satisfaction for every factor, while the other five cultural dimensions are related to some factors of tourism satisfaction. Surprisingly, tourist satisfaction toward the bar/restaurant factor is significantly correlated with all six cultural dimensions.

Keywords: cultural dimensions, tourism products, Samui, Thailand

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3248 Experience Modularization for New Value of Evanescent Cultural Communities: Developing Creative Tourism Services in Bangkok

Authors: Wuttigrai Ngamsirijit

Abstract:

Creative tourism is an ongoing development in many countries as an attempt to moving away from serial reproduction of culture and reviving the culture. Despite, in the destinations with diverse and potential cultural resources, creating new tourism services can be vague. This paper presents how tourism experiences are modularized and consolidated in order to form new creative tourism service offerings in evanescent cultural communities of Bangkok, Thailand. The benefits from data mining in accommodating value co-creation are discussed, and implication of experience modularization to national creative tourism policy is addressed.

Keywords: co-creation, creative tourism, new service design, experience modularization

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3247 Potentials and Impediments in the Development of Ikeji Festival for Cultural Tourism

Authors: Ifegbo Lawrencia Ifegbo

Abstract:

Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups and therefore endowed with festival of different types and nature, yet no concerted effort is committed towards their development for cultural tourism. This paper assessed the adequacy of tourism potential of the festivals, and most importantly investigated the impediments surrounding their non-development. Ikeji, a masquerade festival of the people of Arondizuogu clan in Imo State of Nigeria was selected for the study. Ethnographic research using observer-as-participant technique was used for conducting the study. This was supplemented by focused group discussion (FGD), key informant and unstructured interviews. The result revealed that there exist so much potentials like masquerading, cultural dances, native and highlife music, drumming, role reversals and traditional dishes in the festival. It was further deduced that poor supply of amenities and infrastructural facilities, insecurity of life, lack of trained indigenous experts in tourism, lack of awareness and publicity for the festival on the part of the host communities were responsible for the non-development into tourism destinations. The implication of this is that unless the government resolves to provide the needed resources for the development of the enormous festivals, and restores security and peace in the country, cultural tourism will rarely thrive in Nigeria.

Keywords: festivals, cultural tourism, tourism potential, cultural resources, tourism development

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3246 The Tourism Pattern Based on Lifestyle: A Case Study of Suzhou City in China

Authors: Ling Chen, Lanyan Peng

Abstract:

In the new round of institutional reform of the State Council, Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Tourism were formed into a new department, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, which embodied the idea of the fusion development of cultural and tourism industries. At the same time, domestic tourists pay more attention to the tourism experience and tourism quality. The tourism patterns have been changed from the sightseeing mode of the individual scenic spot to the lifestyle mode of feeling the cultural atmosphere of the tourist destination. Therefore, this paper focuses on the tourism pattern based on lifestyle, studies the development status, content, and implementation measures of the tourism pattern. As the tourism pattern based on lifestyle integrating cultural and tourism industries in-depth, tourists can experience the living atmosphere, living conditions and living quality of the tourist destination, and deeply understand the urban cultural connotation during the trip. Suzhou has taken a series of measures to build up a tourism pattern based on lifestyle-'Suzhou life' tourism, including regional planning of tourism, integration of cultural resources, construction of urban atmosphere, and upgrading infrastructure. 'Suzhou life' tourism is based on the Suzhou food (cooked wheaten food, dim sum, specialty snacks), tourist attractions (Suzhou gardens, the ancient city) and characteristic recreational ways (appreciating Kun opera, enjoying Suzhou Pingtan, tea drinking). And the continuous integration of the three components above meet the spiritual, cultural needs of tourists and upgrade the tourism pattern based on lifestyle. Finally, the paper puts forward the tourism pattern planning suggestions.

Keywords: tourism pattern, lifestyle, integration of cultural and tourism industries, Suzhou life

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3245 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

Abstract:

Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: urban planning, tourism, cultural heritage, intermediate cities

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3244 Community Based Heritage Tourism in the Old City of Nazareth

Authors: Alon Gelbman, Daniel Laven

Abstract:

The paper focuses on a case study of a small-scale heritage tourism venture that seeks to influence tourism development in Nazareth’s old city. This is an exploratory case study that uses qualitative research methods including extensive participant observation and in-depth interviews with the venture’s senior management group and selected employees. Study findings indicate a model of the relationship between community-based tourism development, heritage, and peace-building in a city that has experienced a wide range of cross-cultural conflicts. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict.

Keywords: cultural heritage tourism, tourism and peace, community-based tourism, sustainable tourism, cross-cultural conflict, Nazareth historic city

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3243 A Guideline of Development of Suansunandha Rajabhat University in Order to Promote the Cultural Tourism

Authors: Weera Weerasophon

Abstract:

This research aims to study and survey a potential in the areas affecting development and study of management factors affecting cultural tourism for Suansunandha Rajabhat University in a model of a qualitative research as a survey research. The sample population includes executives, faculty members, and persons related to university management of Suansunandha Rajabhat University, the total number is 5 persons. The researcher distributed in-depth interview form for tools used in the research. The obtained data was brought to conduct content analysis by brainstorming from expert academician to persons related to university management of Suansunandha Rajabhat University in order to consider readiness in cultural tourism management for Suansunandha Rajabhat University, to analyze and develop to be a guideline for the development of Suansunandha Rajabhat University for promoting cultural tourism. From the study results, it is found that the factors of readiness in management, planning, organizing, personnel management, leadership and guiding, coordination, controlling, budgeting and marketing could influence to be a guideline for development of Suansunandha Rajabhat Universiy in order to promote cultural tourism; therefore, the university should prepare more plans concerning related matters, as well as development, determining form and policy of Suansunandha Rajabhat University.

Keywords: cultural tourism, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, tourism management, guideline of development

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3242 Significance of Preservation of Cultural Resources: A Case of Walled City of Lahore as a Micro-Destination

Authors: Menaahyl Seraj, Gokce Ozdemir

Abstract:

Tourism at destinations is dependent on various resources such as archeology and architecture. The need to preserve those resources is of the utmost importance when long-term tourism development is aimed. Shahi Guzargah (Royal Trail) was subject to a preservation project that is a linear historical passage within the Walled City of Lahore. Even though Lahore with its congested streets, lacks proper infrastructure and economically weak but yet it has the potential of transforming it into a tourist destination. This study highlights the potential hidden in the preservation of cultural resources through proper and concrete planning of living heritage city, and how it improves socio-economic standards of the community and affects tourism. Semi-structured open-ended interview question-forms were used to collect qualitative data from 14 respective stakeholders of the walled city and 10 concerned officials. The results of the study show that the preservation of cultural resources impacts and accelerates positively the development process of a destination. All opinions and gathered information reflect the importance of cultural preservation and its effect on increasing tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, cultural resources, destination, preservation

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3241 International Tourism Development in Georgia: Problems and Challenges

Authors: Merabi Khokhobaia

Abstract:

The aim of the investigation is definition of economic importance of tourism, evaluation of tourism’s influence on the economy of Georgia. Tourism in the world, as well, as in Georgia became one of the most significant activities. The outlook for the international arrivals in Georgia is highly optimistic. Increase of international travelers is an additional opportunity for Georgia in case of creating more jobs and generate incomes. The country has unique cultural heritage and traditions, there are many cultural monuments in Georgia which are significant precondition for the development of tourism. Despite the factors mentioned above, there are challenges and problems, development of infrastructure, quality of services, development of tourist products and etc. In the work has been used induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, quantitative-based research technique.

Keywords: culture, development, economy, industry, tourism

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3240 The Importance of Conserving Pre-Historical, Historical and Cultural Heritage and Its Tourist Exploitation

Authors: Diego Renan G. Tudela, Veruska C. Dutra, Mary Lucia Gomes Silveira de Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

Tourism in the present is the largest industry in the world, being an important global activity that has grown a lot in recent times. In this context, the activity of cultural tourism is growing, being seen as an important source of knowledge and information enjoyed by visitors. This article aims to discuss the cultural tourism, archaeological records and indigenous communities and the importance of preserving these invaluable sources of information, focusing on the records of the first peoples inhabiting the South American and North American lands. The study was based on discussions, theoretical studies, bibliographical research. Archaeological records are an important source of knowledge and information. Indigenous ethnic tourism represents a rescue of the authenticity of indigenous traditional cultures and their relation to the natural habitat. Cultural and indigenous tourism activity requires long-term planning to make it a sustainable activity.

Keywords: tourism, culture, preservation, discussions

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3239 Cultural Heritage Resources for Tourism, Two Countries – Two Approaches: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Tourism Products in Turkey and Austria

Authors: Irfan Arikan, George Christian Steckenbauer

Abstract:

Turkey and Austria are examples for highly developed tourism destinations, where tourism providers use cultural heritage and regional natural resources to develop modern tourism products in order to be successful on increasingly competitive international tourism markets. The use and exploitation of these resources follow on the one hand international standards of tourism marketing (as ‘sustainability’). Therefore, we find highly comparable internationalized products in these destinations (like hotel products, museums, spas etc.). On the other hand, development standards and processes strongly depend on local, regional and national cultures, which influence the way how people work, cooperate, think and create. Thus, cultural factors also influence the attitude towards cultural heritage and natural resources and the way, how these resources are used for the creation of tourism products. This leads to differences in the development of tourism products on several levels: 1. In the selection of cultural heritage and natural resources for the product development process 2. In the processes, how tourism products are created 3. In the way, how providers and marketing organisations work with tourism products based on cultural heritage or natural resources. Aim of this paper is to discover differences in these dimensions by analysing and comparing examples of tourism products in Turkey and Austria, both countries with a highly developed, high professional tourism industry and rich experience of stakeholders in tourism industry in the field of product development and marketing. The cases are selected from the following fields: + Cultural tourism / heritage tourism + City tourism + Industrial heritage tourism + Nature and outdoor tourism + Health tourism The cases are analysed based on available secondary data (as several cases are scientifically described) and expert interviews with local and regional stakeholders of tourism industry and tourism experts. The available primary and secondary data will be analysed and displayed in a comparative structure that allows to derive answers to the above stated research question. The result of the project therefore will be a more precise picture about the influence of cultural differences on the use and exploitation of resources in the field of tourism that allows developing recommendations for tourism industry, which must be taken into consideration to assure cultural and natural resources are treated in a sustainable and responsible way. The authors will edit these culture-cross recommendations in form of a ‘check-list’ that can be used as a ‘guideline’ for tourism professionals in the field of product development and marketing and therefore connects theoretical research to the field of practical application and closes the gap between academic research and the field of tourism practice.

Keywords: cultural heritage, natural resources, Austria, Turkey

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3238 The Water-Way Route Management for Cultural Tourism Promotion at Angsila District: Challenge and Opportunity

Authors: Teera Intararuang

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study on the challenge and opportunity for waterway route management for promoting cultural tourism in Angsila District, Chonburi Province. To accomplish the goals and objectives, qualitative research will be applied. The research instruments used are observation, basic interviews, in-depth interviews, and interview key local performance. The study also uses both primary data and secondary data. From research result, it is revealed that all respondents had appreciated and strongly agree to promote their waterway route tourism as an intend for further increase for their income. However, it has some challenges to success this project due to natural obstacles such as water level, seasons and high temperature. Moreover, they lack financial support from government sectors also.

Keywords: Angsila community, waterway tourism route, cultural tourism, way of life

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3237 Study of Residents' Perception of Tourism: The Case Study of Chabahar City, Iran

Authors: Majid Omidikhankahdani, Maryam Omidikhankahdani

Abstract:

Chabahar city located southeast of Iran and is one of strategic regional port in Oman sea aim of this study was measuring Chabahar city resident perceptions about tourism positive and negative effect. 322 participants selected via random sampling and fill questionnaire about their attitude toward tourism economic, social cultural and environment positive and negative impact. the result showed perspective of resident tourism have more positive effect than negative effect, also pair sample t test showed significant difference between positive and negative effect of tourism in favor positive effect.

Keywords: tourism economic effect, tourism environment, residents attitude, tourism social-cultural

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3236 The Interior Design Proposals of Buildings for Tourism Purposes

Authors: Şebnem Ertaş

Abstract:

“Architecture” is one component of sustainable cultural tourism. The sustainability of architecture is possible through preservation and restoration activities. In Turkey, which has an important place in the world’s cultural heritage, several studies focused on the sustainability of the cultural heritage were done in terms of the principles of “preserve-use-sustain”. Within the scope of this study, a methodology will be proposed in order to obtain the development of different scenarios supporting sustainable tourism. Sille is an ancient village located on the Spice Road and Silk Road dating back to the Ottoman and Seljuk eras. However, in recent years it is protected as an archeological site. In the “Alternative Project Phase”, the streets and buildings which bring dynamism to trade are determined; among these, 10 major buildings in Hacı Ali Ağa Street are studied.

Keywords: cultural tourism, interior design, sustainability of architecture, Sille

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3235 Enabling Socio Cultural Sustainability of the "Thousand and One Churches" Archaeological Site

Authors: E. Erdogan, M. Ulusoy

Abstract:

In terms of tourism, the concept of sustainability can be defined as preserving and developing natural, historical, cultural, social, and aesthetic values and enabling their permanency. Sustainable tourism aims to preserve natural, historical, cultural, and social resources, also by supporting economic progress protecting economic development and environmental values that emerge as a consequence of tourism activities. Cultural tourism feeds on sustainable cultural treasures inherently and is the most effective touristic activity. Traditional configurations and structural characteristics play an important role in generating cultural tourism in a region. Sustainable cultural tourism is related to trips upon people who embark with the aim of visiting culturally rich regions, learning about and observing fast-disappearing lifestyles and collecting cultural values as memories. With its huge tourism potential, Karadağ is the most significant cultural asset of the Karaman province, possessing unique riches in terms of cultural world history. Host to one of the most important Byzantine cities in Anatolia, Karadağ is like an open-air museum with its unparalleled architectural structures. There is a village named Madenşehir in the plain at the outskirts of Karadağ, near to which are located the “Thousand and One Churches” ruins. The 80-household house is located near the ruins in an area that been declared a 1st degree historic preservation district. stones gathered from local churches were used in the construction of these households. A ministry has assigned a new residential site near the boundaries of the 2nd degree preservation district, and the decision has been made to move the occupants to this area. The most important issue here is to enable locals’ sociocultural and socioeconomic sustainability. It is also important to build these structures in a manner compatible with the historical visual look, ecological system and environmental awareness. Therefore this new site will be planned as touristic area in terms of sustainable cultural tourism and in these new plans, shall fulfill functions oriented toward both tourists and locals. It is very important that this change be sustainable and also support cultural tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, new village settlement, socio cultural sustainability, “thousand and one churches” site

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3234 Marketing Mix for Tourism in the Chonburi Province

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to determine the marketing mix factors that influencing tourist’s destination decision making for cultural tourism in the Chonburi province. Both quantitative and qualitative data were applied in this study. The samples of 400 cases for quantitative analysis were tourists (both Thai and foreign) who were interested in cultural tourism in the Chonburi province, and traveled to cultural sites in Chonburi and 14 representatives from provincial tourism committee of Chonburi and local tourism experts. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and multiple regression analysis. The study found that Thai and foreign tourists are influenced by different important marketing mix factors. The important factors for Thai respondents were physical evidence, price, people, and place at high importance level. For foreign respondents, physical evidence, price, people, and process were high importance level, whereas, product, place, and promotion were moderate importance level.

Keywords: Chonburi Province, decision making, cultural tourism, marketing mixed

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3233 Impact of Storytelling for Effective Marketing and Reputation Management of Heritage Tourism Destination with Special Reference to Haflong (Assam, India)

Authors: Rohit Sarin

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to prove the impact of storytelling for effective marketing and maintaining the reputation of the destination for long run. This notable aspect of heritage tourism is cultural exchange among the various communities who visit our country India. Every destination has a life cycle like the product known as destination life cycle. India is considered to be the hub of cultural heritage tourism; its cultural heritage tourism can be traced back to several centuries. Heritage tourism has gained the popularity of global cuisine activity. The statistics of 2014 reveals 903 million International Tourist in heritage tourism destination is done to know the impact of storytelling for their visit to particulars heritage tourism destination. SWOT analysis of the destination is undertaken for the research purpose. A collection of data from the travel agency was taken who visited the heritage tourism destination and were asked to fill questionnaire for the research purpose to know the impact of storytelling for their visit to destination. A total of 100 respondents filled the questionnaire. Likert scale was used in the paper also highlighted the scope, advantage and disadvantage of storytelling for effective marketing and reputation management.

Keywords: destination life cycle, heritage tourism, random sampling, reputation management, storytelling

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3232 Tourist Cultural Literacy: Scale Development and Validation

Authors: Yun-Ru Tsai, Jo-Hui Lin

Abstract:

The cultural interactions between tourists and destination communities have received increased attention. Tourists play an important role in constructing a rewarding intercultural experience and cultural understanding. Cultural literacy is the ability for tourists to negotiate different cultures, this research aimed to develop a measurement of Tourist Cultural Literacy (TCL), the result provides a theoretical framework to assess how tourists interact with different cultural destinations. A pilot qualitative research was conducted in order to generate the initial items. In this study, the procedure of developing the TCL scale was divided into two parts. First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, a 25-item TCL scale was developed and six factors were identified: cultural sensitivity, appreciation of the culture, respect for the culture, knowledge of the culture, participate in the culture, and empathy for the culture. Second, confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were employed, the six-factor model was verified, and was proven to have good fit, reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. The study provides managerial implications for tourist management and education, the popularization of TCL might increase the respect and understanding between tourists and local societies as well as decrease the cultural shocks and negative social-cultural impacts derived from tourism activities, thereby reducing the maintenance cost of management and allowing tourists to obtain a better cultural experience. Future research suggestions are also provided.

Keywords: cultural literacy, cultural tourism, scale development, tourism contact

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3231 Analyzing the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Indigenous Tourism on the Indigenous Communities: Case Study of the Nubian Community in Egypt

Authors: M. Makary

Abstract:

Indigenous tourism is nowadays one of the fastest growing sections of the tourism industry. Nevertheless, it does not yet receive attention on the agenda of public tourism policies in Egypt; however, there are various tourism initiatives in indigenous areas throughout the country mainly in the Nubia region, which located in Upper Egypt, where most of Egypt's indigenous Nubians are concentrated. Considering indigenous tourism can lead to both positive and negative impacts on the indigenous communities the main aim of this study is to analyze the socio-cultural and economic impacts of the indigenous tourism on the indigenous communities in Egypt: the case study of Nubians. Qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection were designed and applied in conducting this study. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and the observations are the main preliminary data collection techniques used in this study while, the secondary data were sourced from articles, statistics, dissertations, and websites. The research concludes that indigenous tourism offers a strong motivation to save the identity of the indigenous communities and to foster their economic development. However, it also has negative impacts on their society.

Keywords: indigenous tourism, sustainable tourism, Indigenous communities, Nubians

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3230 Cultural Identity and Differentiation: Linguistic Landscape in Multilingual Tourist Community of Hangzhou

Authors: Qianqian Chen

Abstract:

The article intends to design a new research perspective on a linguistic landscape with the research background on multilingual urban tourism by analyzing the collected data, including a number of surveys on current urban tourism and the possibility of internationalization. The language usage analysis focuses on terms of English, Japanese and Spanish, which is based on the previous investigations. The analysis highlights the fact that contemporary tourism management and planning emphasizes cultural memories and heritage, and the combination between culture and tourism recalls the importance of "re-humanity" inhuman activities.

Keywords: multilingualism, culture, linguistic landscape, Hangzhou

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3229 Entrepreneurship And Heritage Tourism: Identifying Opportunities Around Tsodilo Hills World Heritage Site

Authors: O. Nthoi-Molefe, V. Makwinja

Abstract:

In the North West district of Botswana, Heritage tourism has the potential to offer tremendous economic and social opportunities for local communities in terms of supporting Tourism product development and entrepreneurship. This paper Identifies that Cultural Heritage Entrepreneur brings to the market goods and services, organizes and runs cultural heritage in a commercial or non-profit manner depending on characteristics of cultural resources identified. Data was collected through a series of focus group discussions that included sixteen village community members within the region. Data collected was transcribed and then further analyzed thematically to bring forward results to be analysed. Using Tsodilo Hills World Heritage Site as a case study, the researchers acknowledged that Cultural Heritage Entrepreneurs in that area should use a creative approach in order toidentify suitable solutions for financing different tourism activities starting with sponsored events, grant funds, donations, including the benefits of financial opportunities brough be foreign visitors and domestic tourists alike. The researchers also identified a need for specialized training for the identified entrepreneurs in order to maintain quality services of tourism products and sites (interpretation), information for tourists, visitation services, diversification, and upgrading of the heritage experience. The research reveals that the identified Cultural Heritage Entrepreneurs prefer economic motivation, exploitation over the cultural value of their resources, further calling for recommendations of the research that emphasize on the need for detailed training on how to valorize their cultural resources for the growth of Tourism in the area.

Keywords: education, community development, entrepreneurship, cultural tourism

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3228 Innovative Communication for Promoting Tourism in Southern Thailand

Authors: Pitimanus Bunlue

Abstract:

This research aim (1) to determine the content of communication, social capital and cultural capital to promote tourism in the province to create awareness, motivation and desire to tourists visiting Thailand (2) to evaluate the performance of innovation communication social capital and cultural capital to promote tourism southern of Thailand. This research is a qualitative research. A research synthesis projects on social capital and cultural capital by use focus group discussions with media professionals and academics to communicate using a random sample specific. The result show that (1) Innovative communication, social capital and cultural capital and effective communication innovations after everyone wants to travel to Ranong province is the very highest level. (2) Information and experience about Ranong at a high level. (3) The data shows the strengths of each of the attractions at a high level. (4) The data shows a lifestyle that is unique to the province is moderate.

Keywords: innovative communication, promoting tourism, southern of Thailand, social capital

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3227 Tourism Oriented Planning Experience in the Historical City Center of Trabzon (Turkey) with Strategic Spatial Planning Approach: Evaluation of Approach and Process

Authors: Emrehan Ozcan, Dilek Beyazlı

Abstract:

The development of tourism depends on an accurate planning approach as well as on the right planning process. This dependency is also a key factor in ensuring sustainability of tourism. The types of tourism, social expectations, planning practice, the socio-economic and the cultural structure of the region are determinants of planning approaches for tourism development. The tourism plans prepared for the historic city centers are usually based on the revitalization of cultural and historical values. The preservation and development of the tourism potentials of the historic city centers are important for providing an economic contribution to the locality, creating livable solutions for local residents and also the sustainability of tourism. This research is about experiencing and discussing a planning approach that will provide tourism development based on historical and cultural values. Historical and cultural values in the historical city center of Trabzon -which has a settlement history of approximately 4000 years, is located on the Black Sea coast of Turkey- wear out over years and lose their tourism potential. A planning study has been experienced with strategic spatial planning approach for Trabzon, which has not done a tourism-oriented planning study until now. The stages of the planning process provided by strategic spatial planning approach are an assessment of the current situation; vision, strategies, and actions; action planning; designing and implementation of actions and monitoring-evaluation. In the discussion section, the advantages, planning process, methods and techniques of the approach are discussed for the possibilities and constraints in terms of tourism planning. In this context, it is aimed to put forth tourism planning process, stages, and implementation tools within the scope of strategic spatial planning approach by comparing approaches used in the tourism-oriented/priority planning of historical city centers. Suggestions on the position and effect of the preferred planning approach in the existing spatial planning practice are the outputs of the study.

Keywords: cultural heritage, tourism oriented planning, Trabzon, strategic spatial Planning

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3226 The Role of Health Tourism in Enhancing the Quality of life and Cultural Transmission in Developing Countries

Authors: Fatemeh Noughani, Seyd Mehdi Sadat

Abstract:

Medical tourism or travel therapy is travelling from one country to another to be under medical treatment, utilizing the health factors of natural sector like mineral water springs and so on. From 1990s medical tourism around the world developed and grew because of different factors like globalization and free trade in the fields of health services, changes in exchange rates in the world economy (which caused the desirability of Asian countries as a medical tourist attraction) in a way that currently there is a close competition in this field among famous countries in medical services to make them find a desirable place in medical tourism market of the world as a complicated and growing industry in a short time. Perhaps tourism is an attractive industry and a good support for the economy of Iran, if we try to merge oil earnings and tourism industry it would be better and more constructive than putting them in front of each other. Moving from oil toward tourism economy especially medical tourism, must be one of the prospects of Iran's government for the oil industry to provide a few percent of the yearly earnings of the country. Among the achievements in medical tourism we can name the prevention of brain drain to other countries and an increase in employment rate for healthcare staff, increase in foreign exchange earnings of the country because of the tourists' staying and followed by increasing the quality of life and cultural transmission as well as empowering the medical human resources.

Keywords: developing countries, health tourism, quality of life, cultural transmission

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3225 Fostering Involvement of Local Inhabitants in Participatory Governance of Cultural Patrimony in Cameroon

Authors: Asah Nelson Asoh, Wanie Clarkson Mvo

Abstract:

Given the diverse nature of cultural diversity in Cameroon from the forested south to the sudano-sahelian north regions, Cameroon is aptly described as 'Africa in Miniature', which simply means all of Africa in a single country-Cameroon. Cameroon possesses all that can be attractive to the eyes in Africa. Yet, there is a microscopic involvement of the local inhabitants in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development, which greatly jeopardizes conservation endeavors because the community fails to trust governing authorities. This study delves into the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research design and semi-structured interviews with experts in the collection of primary data blended with secondary materials from published sources, including textbooks, scientific journal articles, dissertations, reports, and internet websites. The collected data was presented and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, photographic illustrations, and through intuition. The study fosters the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. This is to ensure community support for the conservation of tourism cultural patrimony in Cameroon in particular and the world at large.

Keywords: participatory governance, cultural patrimony, tourism, socio-economic development, Cameroon

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