Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2783

Search results for: black carbon

2783 Using Pyrolitic Carbon Black Obtained from Scrap Tires as an Adsorbent for Chromium (III) Removal from Water

Authors: Mercedeh Malekzadeh


Scrap tires are the source of wastes that cause the environmental problems. The major components of these tires are rubber and carbon black. These components can be used again for different applications by utilizing physical and chemical processes. Pyrolysis is a way that converts rubber portion of scrap tires to oil and gas and the carbon black recovers to pyrolytic carbon black. This pyrolytic carbon black can be used to reinforce rubber and metal, coating preparation, electronic thermal manager and so on. The porous structure of this carbon black also makes it as a suitable choice for heavy metals removal from water. In this work, the application of base treated pyrolytic carbon black was studied as an adsorbent for chromium (III) removal from water in a batch process. Pyrolytic carbon blacks in two natural and base treated forms were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis x-ray. The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration of chromium (III) and pH were considered on the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity was 19.76 mg/g. Maximum adsorption was seen after 120 min at pH=3. The equilibrium data were considered and better fitted to Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetic was evaluated and confirmed with the pseudo second order kinetic. Results have shown that the base treated pyrolytic carbon black obtained from scrap tires can be used as a cheap adsorbent for removal of chromium (III) from the water.

Keywords: chromium (III), pyrolytic carbon, scrap tire, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2782 Improvement of Heat Dissipation Ability of Polyimide Composite Film

Authors: Jinyoung Kim, Jinuk Kwon, Haksoo Han


Polyimide is widely used in electronic industries, and heat dissipation of polyimide film is important for its application in electric devices for high-temperature resistance heat dissipation film. In this study, we demonstrated a new way to increase heat dissipating rate by adding carbon black as filler. This type of polyimide composite film was produced by pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4’-oxydianiline (ODA). Carbon black (CB) is added in different loading, shows increasing heat dissipation rate for increase of Carbon black. The polyimide-carbon black composite film is synthesized with high dissipation rate to ~8W∙m−1K−1. Its high thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature were maintained with carbon filler verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), the polyimidization reaction of polyi(amide-mide) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The polyimide composite film with carbon black with high heat dissipating rate could be used in various applications such as computers, mobile phone industries, integrated circuits, coating materials, semiconductor etc.

Keywords: polyimide, heat dissipation, electric device, filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
2781 Si3N4-SiC Composites Produced by Using C Black and Sic Powder

Authors: Nilgun Kuskonmaz, Zeynep Taslıcukur Ozturk, Cem Sahin


In this study, Si3N4-SiC composites were synthesized by using different raw materials. In the first method, Si3N4 and C black powder mixtures were used to fabricate Si3N4-SiC composites by in-situ carbothermal reduction process. The percentage of C black was only changed. The effects of carbon black percentage in the mixtures were analysed by characterization of SiC particles which were obtained in the Si3N4 matrix. In the second method, SiC particles were added to the matrix in different weight ratios. The composites were pressed by cold isostatic method under 150 MPa pressure and pressureless sintered at 1700-1850 °C during 1 hour in the argon atmosphere. AlN and Y2O3 were used as sintering additives. Sintering temperature, time and all the effects on in-situ reaction were studied. The densification and microstructure properties of the produced ceramics were analysed. Density was one of the main subjects in these reactions. It is very important during porous SiC sintering. Green density and relative density were measured higher for CIP samples. Samples which were added carbon black were more porous than SiC added samples. The increase in the carbon black, makes increase in porosity. The outcome of the experiments was SiC powders which were obtained at the grain boundries of β-Si3N4 particles.

Keywords: silicon nitride, silicon carbide, carbon black, cold isostatic press, sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2780 The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber

Authors: Abu Hasan, Rochmadi, Hary Sulistyo, Suharto Honggokusumo


This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.

Keywords: bound-rubber, cross-link density, natural rubber, rubber mixing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2779 Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor

Authors: K. Hamdi, Z. Aboura, W. Harizi, K. Khellil


Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.

Keywords: carbon fibers composites, nano-fillers, strain-sensors, auto-instrumented

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2778 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat


There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
2777 BaFe12O19/Polythiophene Nanocomposite as Electrochemical Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: H. Farokhi, A. Bahadoran


This paper is focused on the absorbance and magnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite based on conducting polymer, carbon black and barium hexaferrite in epoxy resin on the E-glass fibre substrate. The highly conductive nanocomposite was provided by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of carbon black (C) and barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) as electromagnetic absorbance material. The structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). SEM images showed the uniformly coated PAni on the surface of carbon black and barium hexaferrite. XRD peaks also verified the presence of carbon black and barium hexaferrite in the nanocomposite. The microwave characteristics determined from the magnetic and dielectric properties of the elastomeric composites obtained from scattering data by fitting the samples in a waveguide, where measured in the frequency in X-band frequency range, the range of 8 to 12 GHz. The reflection losses were evaluated to be less than −5dB over the whole X-band frequency (8–12 GHz) for the thickness of 1.4mm.

Keywords: conductive polymer, magnetic materials, capacitance, electrochemical cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
2776 Pyrolysis of the Reed (Phragmites australis) and Evaluation of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Ahmet Helvaci, Selcuk Dogan


Reed in especially almost all the lakes in Western Anatolia grows naturally. Due to the abundance of reed, pyrolysis of reed is very economical and practical application. In this study, it is aimed to determine the optimum conditions for the pyrolysis of the reed which is a cheap and abundant raw material and to evaluate pyrolysis products. For this purpose, reed was used obtained from Eber Lake located in the borders of Bolvadin county of Afyonkarahisar. Optimum pyrolysis conditions have been determined by examining the effects of changes in pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time. The evaluation of the obtained liquid and solid pyrolysis products has been investigated. Especially evaluability of solid carbon black production of tires has been investigated. Tire samples were prepared with carbon black samples obtained as a result of the pyrolysis process at different temperatures. Then, performance tests were made and compared with reference carbon blacks, used in the market and standards. At the same time, surface area measurement analysis of carbon black samples was made and compared again with reference carbon blacks. In addition, the fuel values of liquid products were also determined by calorimeter. It has been determined that the best surface area (about 370 m²/g) for carbon black samples, for tire production is 40 minutes at 500ᵒC. It was also found that the best result for evaluation studies in tire production was carbon black samples obtained at 450ᵒC pyrolysis temperature. In addition, it was seen that the calorimetry results of the liquid product obtained during 60 minutes of pyrolysis were quite good (around 5500 kcal/kg).

Keywords: evaluation of products, optimization, pyrolysis, reed

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2775 Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

Authors: Petarpa Boonserm, Tritos Ngampitipan, Matt Visser


A 'clean' black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a 'dirty black hole'. In this paper, The effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the greybody factor of a dirty black hole to be less than that of a clean black hole.

Keywords: dirty black hole, greybody factor, hawking radiation, matter fields.

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2774 Magnetic (Ethylene-Octene) Polymer Composites Reinforced With Carbon Black

Authors: Marcin Maslowski, Marian Zaborski


The aim of the study was to receive magnetorheological elastomer composites (MRE) with the best mechanical characteristics. MRE based on different magnetoactive fillers in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. To improve mechanical properties of polymer mixtures, also carbon black (N550) was added during the composites preparation process. Micro and nan-sized magnetites (Fe3O4), as well as gamma iron oxide (gamma-Fe2O3) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP) are added together with carbon black (N550) were found to be an active fillers systems improving both static and dynamic mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Reinforcing character of applied different fillers systems results in an increased stress at 100% elongation, tensile strength and cross-linking density of the vulcanizates. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: carbon black, mechanical properties, magnetorheological composites, magnetic fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2773 Development of Adsorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black form Waste Tires

Authors: Yang Gon Seo, Chang-Joon Kim, Dae Hyeok Kim


It is estimated that 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year which will eventually end up as waste tires representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. Pyrolysis has been great interest in alternative treatment processes for waste tires to produce valuable oil, gas and solid products. The oil and gas products may be used directly as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. The solid produced from the pyrolysis of tires ranges typically from 30 to 45 wt% and have high carbon contents of up to 90 wt%. However, most notably the solid have high sulfur contents from 2 to 3 wt% and ash contents from 8 to 15 wt% related to the additive metals. Upgrading tire pyrolysis products to high-value products has concentrated on solid upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are one of the common malodorous compounds that can be found in emissions from many sewages treatment plants and industrial plants. Therefore, removing these harmful gasses from emissions is of significance in both life and industry because they can cause health problems to human and detrimental effects on the catalysts. In this work, pyrolytic carbon black from waste tires was used to develop adsorbent with good adsorption capacity for removal of hydrogen and ammonia. Pyrolytic carbon blacks were prepared by pyrolysis of waste tire chips ranged from 5 to 20 mm under the nitrogen atmosphere at 600℃ for 1 hour. Pellet-type adsorbents were prepared by a mixture of carbon black, metal oxide and sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid, and their adsorption capacities were estimated by using the breakthrough curve of a continuous fixed bed adsorption column at ambient condition. The adsorbent was manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, iron oxide(III), and sodium hydroxide showed the maximum working capacity of hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, maximum working capacity was obtained by the adsorbent manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, copper oxide(II), and hydrochloric acid.

Keywords: adsorbent, ammonia, pyrolytic carbon black, hydrogen sulfide, metal oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2772 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom


This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, Gel Electrolyte, screen printing, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2771 Evaluation of Automated Analyzers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Black Carbon in a Coke Oven Plant by Comparison with Analytical Methods

Authors: L. Angiuli, L. Trizio, R. Giua, A. Digilio, M. Tutino, P. Dambruoso, F. Mazzone, C. M. Placentino


In the winter of 2014 a series of measurements were performed to evaluate the behavior of real-time PAHs and black carbon analyzers in a coke oven plant located in Taranto, a city of Southern Italy. Data were collected both insides than outside the plant, at air quality monitoring sites. Contemporary measures of PM2.5 and PM1 were performed. Particle-bound PAHs were measured by two methods: (1) aerosol photoionization using an Ecochem PAS 2000 analyzer, (2) PM2.5 and PM1 quartz filter collection and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Black carbon was determined both in real-time by Magee Aethalometer AE22 analyzer than by semi-continuous Sunset Lab EC/OC instrument. Detected PM2.5 and PM1 levels were higher inside than outside the plant while PAHs real-time values were higher outside than inside. As regards PAHs, inside the plant Ecochem PAS 2000 revealed concentrations not significantly different from those determined on the filter during low polluted days, but at increasing concentrations the automated instrument underestimated PAHs levels. At the external site, Ecochem PAS 2000 real-time concentrations were steadily higher than those on the filter. In the same way, real-time black carbon values were constantly lower than EC concentrations obtained by Sunset EC/OC in the inner site, while outside the plant real-time values were comparable to Sunset EC values. Results showed that in a coke plant real-time analyzers of PAHs and black carbon in the factory configuration provide qualitative information, with no accuracy and leading to the underestimation of the concentration. A site specific calibration is needed for these instruments before their installation in high polluted sites.

Keywords: black carbon, coke oven plant, PAH, PAS, aethalometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2770 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai


In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds—the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content—much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: antioxidant, stearate, carbon black, polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2769 Electromagnetic Radiation Absorbers on the Basis of Fibrous Materials with the Content of Allotropic Carbon Forms

Authors: Elena S. Belousova, Olga V. Boiprav


A technique for incorporating particles of allotropic forms of carbon into a fibrous material has been developed. It can be used for the manufacture of composite electromagnetic radiation absorbers. The frequency characteristics of electromagnetic radiation reflection and transmission coefficients in the microwave range of absorbers on the basis of powdered carbon black, activated carbon, shungite, graphite, manufactured in accordance with the developed technique, have been studied.

Keywords: carbon, graphite, electromagnetic radiation absorber, shungite

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
2768 Formation of in-situ Ceramic Phase in N220 Nano Carbon Containing Low Carbon Mgo-C Refractory

Authors: Satyananda Behera, Ritwik Sarkar


In iron and steel industries, MgO–C refractories are widely used in basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces and steel ladles due to their excellent corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and other excellent hot properties. Conventionally magnesia carbon refractories contain about 8-20 wt% of carbon but the use of carbon is also associate with disadvantages like oxidation, low fracture strength, high heat loss and higher carbon pick up in steel. So, MgO-C refractory having low carbon content without compromising the beneficial properties is the challenge. Nano carbon, having finer particles, can mix and distribute within the entire matrix uniformly and can result in improved mechanical, thermo-mechanical, corrosion and other refractory properties. Previous experiences with the use of nano carbon in low carbon MgO-C refractory have indicated an optimum range of use of nano carbon around 1 wt%. This optimum nano carbon content was used in MgO-C compositions with flaky graphite followed by aluminum and silicon metal powder as an anti-oxidant. These low carbon MgO-C refractory compositions were prepared by conventional manufacturing techniques. At the same time 16 wt. % flaky graphite containing conventional MgO-C refractory was also prepared parallel under similar conditions. The developed products were characterized for various refractory related properties. Nano carbon containing compositions showed better mechanical, thermo-mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance compared to that of conventional composition. Improvement in the properties is associated with the formation of in-situ ceramic phase-like aluminum carbide, silicon carbide, and magnesium aluminum spinel. Higher surface area and higher reactivity of N220 nano carbon black resulted in greater formation in-situ ceramic phases, even at a much lower amount. Nano carbon containing compositions were found to have improved properties in MgO-C refractories compared to that of the conventional ones at much lower total carbon content.

Keywords: N220nano carbon black, refractory properties, conventionally manufacturing techniques, conventional magnesia carbon refractories

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2767 Dispersions of Carbon Black in Microemulsions

Authors: Mohamed Youssry, Dominique Guyomard, Bernard Lestriez


In order to enhance the energy and power densities of electrodes for energy storage systems, the formulation and processing of electrode slurries proved to be a critical issue in determining the electrode performance. In this study, we introduce novel approach to formulate carbon black slurries based on microemulsion and lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (namely, lamellar phase) composed of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100), decanol and water. Simultaneous measurements of electrical properties of slurries under shear flow (rheology) have been conducted to elucidate the microstructure evolution with the surfactant concentration and decanol/water ratio at rest, as well as, the structural transition under steady-shear which has been confirmed by rheo-microscopy. Interestingly, the carbon black slurries at low decanol/water ratio are weak-gel (flowable) with higher electrical conductivity than those at higher ratio which behave strong-gel viscoelastic response. In addition, the slurries show recoverable electrical behaviour under shear flow in tandem with the viscosity trend. It is likely that oil-in-water microemulsion enhances slurries’ stability without affecting on the percolating network of carbon black. On the other hand, the oil-in-water analogous and bilayer structure of lamellar phase cause the slurries less conductive as a consequence of losing the network percolation. These findings are encouraging to formulate microemulsion-based electrodes for energy storage system (lithium-ion batteries).

Keywords: electrode slurries, microemulsion, microstructure transition, rheo-electrical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2766 Relation of Black Carbon Aerosols and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height during Wet Removal Processes over a Semi Urban Location

Authors: M. Ashok Williams, T. V. Lakshmi Kumar


The life cycle of Black carbon aerosols depends on their physical removal processes from the atmosphere during the precipitation events. Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration has been analysed during rainy and non-rainy days of Northeast (NE) Monsoon months of the years 2015 and 2017 over a semi-urban environment near Chennai (12.81 N, 80.03 E), located on the east coast of India. BC, measured using an Aethalometer (AE-31) has been related to the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from the ERA Interim Reanalysis data during rainy and non-rainy days on monthly mean basis to understand the wet removal of BC over the study location. The study reveals that boundary layer height has a profound effect on the BC concentration on rainy days and non rainy days. It is found that the BC concentration in the night time is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days owing to wash out on rainy days and the boundary layer height remaining nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days. On the other hand, in the daytime, it is found that the BC concentration remains nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days whereas the boundary layer height is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days. This reveals that in daytime, lower boundary layer heights compensate for the wet removal effect on BC concentration on rainy days. A quantitative relation is found between the product of BC and BLH during rainy and non-rainy days which indicates the extent of redistribution of BC during non-rainy days when compared to the rainy days. Further work on the wet removal processes of the BC is in progress considering the individual rain events and other related parameters like wind speed.

Keywords: black carbon aerosols, atmospheric boundary layer, scavenging processes, tropical coastal location

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
2765 Analysis of the Black Sea Gas Hydrates

Authors: Sukru Merey, Caglar Sinayuc


Gas hydrate deposits which are found in deep ocean sediments and in permafrost regions are supposed to be a fossil fuel reserve for the future. The Black Sea is also considered rich in terms of gas hydrates. It abundantly contains gas hydrates as methane (CH4~80 to 99.9%) source. In this study, by using the literature, seismic and other data of the Black Sea such as salinity, porosity of the sediments, common gas type, temperature distribution and pressure gradient, the optimum gas production method for the Black Sea gas hydrates was selected as mainly depressurization method. Numerical simulations were run to analyze gas production from gas hydrate deposited in turbidites in the Black Sea by depressurization.

Keywords: CH4 hydrate, Black Sea hydrates, gas hydrate experiments, HydrateResSim

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2764 Reclaimed Tire and Carbon Black Mixture Effect on Mechanical Properties of Rubber Blends SBR/NR/BRcis Uses as Damping Materials

Authors: Samir Hassan AL-Nesrawy, Mohammed Al-Maamori, A. S. Hassani


Rebound resilience for various elastomeric composites has been measured by Tripsometer devise, in order to investigate the effect of mix of C.B & Reclaim loading on elastomeric materials to absorb or damping vibration or shocks by fenders uses in the Iraqi berths. After having been certain about attaining the physical and mechanical properties of the new samples which are similar to the levels of their standard ones, damping properties for the new samples have been measured and compared with those of the standard fenders. The new samples included four rubber blends from (SBR/NR/BR-cis) and four loading levels of mix carbon black (type N-375) and reclaim to become sixteen compound contain SBR(100,60,60,60), NR(0,10,20,30), BRcis(30,20,10,0) and loading level for C.B, Reclaim (10,20,30,40). Damping measurements have been carried out by the method Free Vibration Resilience Pendulum method (by using Wallace R2-Dunlop Tripsometer) and from this Resilience Pendulum method, both the resilience percentage value (R%) and time decay (t0) have been measured at 50oC. We found that the results of this method proved that the increment of C.B, Reclaim level in these robber composite lead to decreasing the resiliency (R%) and damping time.

Keywords: damping materials, carbon black mixture effect, mechanical properties, rubber blends SBR/NR/BRcis

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
2763 Relationship of Indoor and Outdoor Levels of Black Carbon in an Urban Environment

Authors: Daria Pashneva, Julija Pauraite, Agne Minderyte, Vadimas Dudoitis, Lina Davuliene, Kristina Plauskaite, Inga Garbariene, Steigvile Bycenkiene


Black carbon (BC) has received particular attention around the world, not only for its impact on regional and global climate change but also for its impact on air quality and public health. In order to study the relationship between indoor and outdoor BC concentrations, studies were carried out in Vilnius, Lithuania. The studies are aimed at determining the relationship of concentrations, identifying dependencies during the day and week with a further opportunity to analyze the key factors affecting the indoor concentration of BC. In this context, indoor and outdoor continuous real-time measurements of optical BC-related light absorption by aerosol particles were carried out during the cold season (from October to December 2020). The measurement venue was an office located in an urban background environment. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentration was measured by an Aethalometer (Magee Scientific, model AE-31). The optical transmission of carbonaceous aerosol particles was measured sequentially at seven wavelengths (λ= 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm), where the eBC mass concentration was derived from the light absorption coefficient (σab) at 880 nm wavelength. The diurnal indoor eBC mass concentration was found to vary in the range from 0.02 to 0.08 µgm⁻³, while the outdoor eBC mass concentration - from 0.34 to 0.99 µgm⁻³. Diurnal variations of eBC mass concentration outdoor vs. indoor showed an increased contribution during 10:00 and 12:00 AM (GMT+2), with the highest indoor eBC mass concentration of 0.14µgm⁻³. An indoor/outdoor eBC ratio (I/O) was below one throughout the entire measurement period. The weekend levels of eBC mass concentration were lower than in weekdays for indoor and outdoor for 33% and 28% respectively. Hourly mean mass concentrations of eBC for weekdays and weekends show diurnal cycles, which could be explained by the periodicity of traffic intensity and heating activities. The results show a moderate influence of outdoor eBC emissions on the indoor eBC level.

Keywords: black carbon, climate change, indoor air quality, I/O ratio

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2762 Electrochemical Deposition of Pb and PbO2 on Polymer Composites Electrodes

Authors: A. Merzouki, N. Haddaoui


Polymers have a large reputation as electric insulators. These materials are characterized by weak weight, reduced price and a large domain of physical and chemical properties. They conquered new application domains that were until a recent past the exclusivity of metals. In this work, we used some composite materials (polymers/conductive fillers), as electrodes and we try to cover them with metallic lead layers in order to use them as courant collector grids in lead-acid battery plates.

Keywords: electrodeposition, polymer composites, carbon black, acetylene black

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2761 Impacts of Racialization: Exploring the Relationships between Racial Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Activism

Authors: Brianna Z. Ross, Jonathan N. Livingston


Given that discussions of racism and racial tensions have become more salient, there is a need to evaluate the impacts of racialization among Black individuals. Racial discrimination has become one of the most common experiences within the Black American population. Likewise, Black individuals have indicated a need to address their racial identities at an earlier age than their non-Black peers. Further, Black individuals have been found at the forefront of multiple social and political movements, including but not limited to the Civil Rights Movement, Black Lives Matter, MeToo, and Say Her Name. Moreover, the present study sought to explore the predictive relationships that exist between racial discrimination, racial identity, and activism in the Black community. The results of standard and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that racial discrimination and racial identity significantly predict each other, but only racial discrimination is a significant predictor for the relationship to activism. Nonetheless, the results from this study will provide a basis for social scientists to better understand the impacts of racialization on the Black American population.

Keywords: activism, racialization, racial discrimination, racial identity

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2760 High-Pressure CO₂ Adsorption Capacity of Selected Unusual Porous Materials and Rocks

Authors: Daniela Rimnacova, Maryna Vorokhta, Martina Svabova


CO₂ adsorption capacity of several materials - waste (power fly ash, slag, carbonized sewage sludge), rocks (Czech Silurian shale, black coal), and carbon (synthesized carbon, activated carbon as a reference material) - were measured on dry samples using a unique hand-made manometric sorption apparatus at a temperature of 45 °C and pressures of up to 7 MPa. The main aim was finding utilization of the waste materials and rocks for removal of the air or water pollutants caused by anthropogenic activities, as well as for the carbon dioxide storage. The equilibrium amount of the adsorbate depends on temperature, gas saturation pressure, porosity, surface area and volume of pores, and last but not least, on the composition of the adsorbents. Given experimental conditions can simulate in-situ situations in the rock bed and can be achieved just by a high-pressure apparatus. The CO₂ excess adsorption capacities ranged from 0.018 mmol/g (ash) to 13.55 mmol/g (synthesized carbon). The synthetized carbon had the highest adsorption capacity among all studied materials as well as the highest price. This material is usually used for the adsorption of specific pollutants. The excess adsorption capacity of activated carbon was 9.19 mmol/g. It is used for water and air cleaning. Ash can be used for chemisorption onto ash particle surfaces or capture of special pollutants. Shale is a potential material for enhanced gas recovery or CO₂ sequestration in-situ. Slag is a potential material for capture of gases with a possibility of the underground gas storage after the adsorption process. The carbonized sewage sludge is quite a good adsorbent for the removal and capture of pollutants, as well as shales or black coal which show an interesting relationship between the price and adsorption capacity.

Keywords: adsorption, CO₂, high pressure, porous materials

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2759 Black Bodies Matter: The Contemporary Manifestation of Saartjie Baartman

Authors: Rokeshia Renné Ashley


The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of historical figure Saartjie 'Sara/Sarah' Baartman from a cross cultural perspective of black women in the United States and black women in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) uncover that many women in both countries did not have an accurate representation, recollection, or have been exposed to the story of Baartman. Nonetheless, those who were familiar with Baartman’s story, those participants compared her to modern examples of black women who are showcased in a contemporary familiarity. The women are described by participants as women who reveal their bodies in a sexualized manner and have the curves that are similar to Baartman’s historic figure. This comparison emphasized a connection to popular images of black women who represent the curvaceous ideal. Findings contribute to social comparison theory by providing a lens for examining black women’s body image.

Keywords: black women, body modification, media, South Africa

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2758 Occurrence and Geological Setting of the Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia

Authors: Hassan M. Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa


Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: black shales, energy, mineralization, Malaysia

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2757 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir


The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

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2756 Simulation of Reflection Loss for Carbon and Nickel-Carbon Thin Films

Authors: M. Emami, R. Tarighi, R. Goodarzi


Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials such as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were obtained by simulation. The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by MATLAB software; the simulation was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for carbon black (C), and carbon coated nickel (Ni(C)) with different thicknesses. In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-mm thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. We found out that, in all cases, using nanocomposites as absorbance cannot get better results relative to pure nanoparticles. The frequency where absorption is maximum can determine the best choice between nanocomposites and pure nanoparticles. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.

Keywords: absorbing, carbon, carbon nickel, frequency, thicknesses

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2755 Precious and Rare Metals in Overburden Carbonaceous Rocks: Methods of Extraction

Authors: Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov, Nadezhda Nikolaeva


A problem of complex mineral resources development is urgent and priority, it is aimed at realization of the processes of their ecologically safe development, one of its components is revealing the influence of the forms of element compounds in raw materials and in the processing products. In view of depletion of the precious metal reserves at the traditional deposits in the XXI century the large-size open cast deposits, localized in black shale strata begin to play the leading role. Carbonaceous (black) shales carry a heightened metallogenic potential. Black shales with high content of carbon are widely distributed within the scope of Bureinsky massif. According to academician Hanchuk`s data black shales of Sutirskaya series contain generally PGEs native form. The presence of high absorptive towards carbonaceous matter gold and PGEs compounds in crude ore results in decrease of valuable components extraction because of their sorption into dissipated carbonaceous matter.

Keywords: сarbonaceous rocks, bitumens, precious metals, concentration, extraction

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2754 The Diversity of Black Flies in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: C. D. Chen, H. Takaoka, Z. Ya’cob, V. L. Low, K. W. Lau, M. Sofian-Azirun


Adult black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are small (1.5-6.0 mm long), two-winged insects, and are well known as one of the biting flies of medical and veterinary importance. Female of certain species, when they bite and take blood, not only cause severe skin diseases to human and cattle but also play a role as vectors of viral, protozoan and filarial diseases in humans and animals. Black flies also attract environmental biologist and ecologist because their immature states breed only in clean running fresh waters, and larvae are one of the principal processors of plant debris in streams. All these researches on medical and ecological aspects of black flies could not be reliably proceeded without sufficient basic knowledge of the fauna of black flies established by traditional but still important morphotaxonomy. Previously, only 39 species of black flies were recorded from Peninsular Malaysia, all of which are classified into four subgenus (Daviesellum, Gomphostilbia, Nevermannia and Simulium) of the genus Simulium. We carried out faunal surveys and taxonomic works of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia since November 2010. A total of 17 new species and 4 newly recorded species were collected. This increased the number of the described species of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia from 39 to 60. Our results suggest that a much higher diverse nature of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia will be clarified by further extensive surveys.

Keywords: black flies, Simulium, Nevermannia, feuerborni species-group

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