Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: Mauricio Pacio Castillo

90 Solar Cell Using Chemical Bath Deposited PbS:Bi3+ Films as Electron Collecting Layer

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Chemical bath deposited PbS:Bi3+ as an electron collection layer is introduced between the silicon wafer and the Ag electrode the performance of the PbS heterojunction thin film solar thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area. We employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. The experimental results reveal that the cell response parameters depend critically on the deposition procedures in terms of bath temperature, deposition time. The device achieves an open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Bi doping, PbS, thin films, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
89 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: doping, quantum confinement, optical band gap, PbS

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
88 Low Temperature Solution Processed Solar Cell Based on ITO/PbS/PbS:Bi3+ Heterojunction

Authors: M. Chavez, H. Juarez, M. Pacio, O. Portillo

Abstract:

PbS chemical bath heterojunction sollar cells have shown significant improvements in performance. Here we demonstrate a solar cell based on the heterojunction formed between PbS layer and PbS:Bi3+ thin films that are deposited via solution process at 40°C. The device achieve an current density of 4 mA/cm2. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: PbS doped, Bismuth, solar cell, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
87 Didactics of Literature within the Brechtian Theatre in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and Ernest Lehman's Screenplay Adaptation from an Audiovisual Perspective

Authors: Angel Mauricio Castillo

Abstract:

The background to the way theatrical performances and music dramas- as they were known in the mid-nineteenth century, provided the audience with a complete immersion into the feelings of the characters through poetry, music and other artistic representations which create a false sense of reality. However, a novel representation on stage some eighty years later, which is non-cathartic, is significant because it represents the antithesis to the common creations of the period and is originated by the separation of the elements as a dominant. A succinct description of the basic methodologies includes the sense of defamiliarization that results as a near translation of the German word Verfremdung will be referred to along this work as the V-effect (also known as the ‘alienation effect’) and will embody the representation of the performing techniques that enables the audience to watch a play being fully aware of its nature. A play might sometimes present the audience with a constant reminder that it is only a play; therefore, all elements will be introduced to provoke dissimilar reactions and opinions. A clear indication of the major findings of the study is that there is a strong correlation between Hegel, Marx and Brecht as it is disclosed how the didactics of Literature have been influencing not only Brecht’s productions but also every educational context in which these ideas are intertwined. The result is a new dialectical process that is to say, a new thesis that creates independent thinking skills on the part of the audience. Therefore, this model opposes to the Hegelian formula thesis-antithesis-synthesis in that the synthesis in the Brechtian theatre will inevitably fall into the category of a different thesis within an enlightening type of discourse. The confronting ideas of illusion versus reality will create a new dialectical thesis instead of resulting into a synthesis.

Keywords: Brechtian theatre, didactics, literature, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
86 Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Quantum Dots Functionalized with 3-Aminopropylsiloxane Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: M. Pacio, H. Juárez, R. Pérez-Cuapio E. Rosendo, T. Díaz, G. García

Abstract:

In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by a simple route. The growth parameters for ZnO QDs were systematically studied inside a SiO2 shell; this shell acts as a capping agent and also enhances stability of the nanoparticles in water. ZnO QDs in silica shell could be produced by initially synthesizing a ZnO colloid (containing ZnO nanoparticles in methanol solution) and then was mixed with 3-aminopropylsiloxane used as SiO2 precursor. ZnO QDs were deposited onto silicon substrates (100) orientation by spin-coating technique. ZnO QDs into a SiO2 shell were pre-heated at 300 °C for 10 min after each coating, that procedure was repeated five times. The films were subsequently annealing in air atmosphere at 500 °C for 2 h to remove the trapped fluid inside the amorphous silica cage. ZnO QDs showed hexagonal wurtzite structure and about 5 nm in diameter. The composition of the films at the surface and in the bulk was obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), the spectra revealed the presence of Zn- and Si- related clusters associated to the chemical species in the solid matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra under 325 nm of excitation only show a strong UV emission band corresponding to ZnO QDs, such emission is enhanced with annealing. Our results showed that the method is appropriate for the preparation of ZnO QDs films embedded in a SiO2 shell with high UV photoluminescence.

Keywords: ZnO QDs, sol gel, functionalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
85 Key Transfer Protocol Based on Non-invertible Numbers

Authors: Luis A. Lizama-Perez, Manuel J. Linares, Mauricio Lopez

Abstract:

We introduce a method to perform remote user authentication on what we call non-invertible cryptography. It exploits the fact that the multiplication of an invertible integer and a non-invertible integer in a ring Zn produces a non-invertible integer making infeasible to compute factorization. The protocol requires the smallest key size when is compared with the main public key algorithms as Diffie-Hellman, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman or Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Since we found that the unique opportunity for the eavesdropper is to mount an exhaustive search on the keys, the protocol seems to be post-quantum.

Keywords: invertible, non-invertible, ring, key transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
84 Civic Participation in Context of Political Transformation: Case of Argentina

Authors: Kirill Neverov

Abstract:

In the paper is considered issues of civic participation in context of changing political landscape of Argentina. Last two years, this South American country faced a drastic change of political course. Pro-peronist, left-oriented administration of Christina Fernandez de Kirchner were replaced by right of center Mauricio Macri's one. The study is focused on inclusive policy in conditions of political transformations. We use network analysis to figure out which actors are involved in participation and to describe connections between them. As a resuflt, we plan to receive map of transactions which form inclusive policy in Argentina.

Keywords: civic participation, Argentina, political transformation, network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
83 Fuzzy Logic in Detecting Children with Behavioral Disorders

Authors: David G. Maxinez, Andrés Ferreyra Ramírez, Liliana Castillo Sánchez, Nancy Adán Mendoza, Carlos Aviles Cruz

Abstract:

This research describes the use of fuzzy logic in detection, assessment, analysis and evaluation of children with behavioral disorders. It shows how to acquire and analyze ambiguous, vague and full of uncertainty data coming from the input variables to get an accurate assessment result for each of the typologies presented by children with behavior problems. Behavior disorders analyzed in this paper are: hyperactivity (H), attention deficit with hyperactivity (DAH), conduct disorder (TD) and attention deficit (AD).

Keywords: alteration, behavior, centroid, detection, disorders, economic, fuzzy logic, hyperactivity, impulsivity, social

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
82 Urban Form, Heritage, and Disaster Prevention: What Do They Have in Common?

Authors: Milton Montejano Castillo, Tarsicio Pastrana Salcedo

Abstract:

Based on the hypothesis that disaster risk is constructed socially and historically, this article shows the importance of keeping alive the historical memory of disaster by means of architectural and urban heritage conservation. This is illustrated with three examples of Latin American World Heritage cities where disasters like floods and earthquakes have shaped urban form. Therefore, the study of urban form or ‘Urban Morphology’ is proposed as a tool to understand and analyze urban transformations with the documentation of the occurrence of disasters. Lessons learned from such cities may be useful to reduce disasters risk in contemporary built environments.

Keywords: conservation, disaster risk reduction, urban morphology, World Heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
81 Prosthesis Design for Bilateral Hip Disarticulation Management

Authors: Mauricio Plaza, Willian Aperador

Abstract:

Hip disarticulation is an amputation through the hip joint capsule, removing the entire lower extremity, with a closure of the remaining musculature over the exposed acetabulum. Tumors of the distal and proximal femur were treated by total femur resection; a hip disarticulation sometimes is a performance for massive trauma with crush injuries to the lower extremity. This article discusses the design a system for rehabilitation of a patient with bilateral hip disarticulations. The prosthetics designed allowed the patient to do natural gait suspended between parallel articulate crutches with the body weight support between the crutches. The care of this patient was a challenge due to bilateral amputations at such a high level and the special needs of a patient mobility.

Keywords: amputation, prosthesis, mobility, hemipelvectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
80 Effect of 8-OH-DPAT on the Behavioral Indicators of Stress and on the Number of Astrocytes after Exposure to Chronic Stress

Authors: Ivette Gonzalez-Rivera, Diana B. Paz-Trejo, Oscar Galicia-Castillo, David N. Velazquez-Martinez, Hugo Sanchez-Castillo

Abstract:

Prolonged exposure to stress can cause disorders related with dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex such as generalized anxiety and depression. These disorders involve alterations in neurotransmitter systems; the serotonergic system—a target of the drugs that are commonly used as a treatment to these disorders—is one of them. Recent studies suggest that 5-HT1A receptors play a pivotal role in the serotonergic system regulation and in stress responses. In the same way, there is increasing evidence that astrocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8-OH-DPAT, a selective agonist of 5-HT1A receptors, in the behavioral signs of anxiety and anhedonia as well as in the number of astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after exposure to chronic stress. They used 50 male Wistar rats of 250-350 grams housed in standard laboratory conditions and treated in accordance with the ethical standards of use and care of laboratory animals. A protocol of chronic unpredictable stress was used for 10 consecutive days during which the presentation of stressors such as motion restriction, water deprivation, wet bed, among others, were used. 40 rats were subjected to the stress protocol and then were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats each, which were administered 8-OH-DPAT (Tocris, USA) intraperitoneally with saline as vehicle in doses 0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg respectively. Another 10 rats were not subjected to the stress protocol or the drug. Subsequently, all the rats were measured in an open field test, a forced swimming test, sucrose consume, and a cero maze test. At the end of this procedure, the animals were sacrificed, the brain was removed and the tissue of the mPFC (Bregma: 4.20, 3.70, 2.70, 2.20) was processed in immunofluorescence staining for astrocytes (Anti-GFAP antibody - astrocyte maker, ABCAM). Statistically significant differences were found in the behavioral tests of all groups, showing that the stress group with saline administration had more indicators of anxiety and anhedonia than the control group and the groups with administration of 8-OH-DPAT. Also, a dose dependent effect of 8-OH-DPAT was found on the number of astrocytes in the mPFC. The results show that 8-OH-DPAT can modulate the effect of stress in both behavioral and anatomical level. Also they indicate that 5-HT1A receptors and astrocytes play an important role in the stress response and may modulate the therapeutic effect of serotonergic drugs, so they should be explored as a fundamental part in the treatment of symptoms of stress and in the understanding of the mechanisms of stress responses.

Keywords: anxiety, prefrontal cortex, serotonergic system, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
79 Experimental Networks Synchronization of Chua’s Circuit in Different Topologies

Authors: Manuel Meranza-Castillon, Rolando Diaz-Castillo, Adrian Arellano-Delgado, Cesar Cruz-Hernandez, Rosa Martha Lopez-Gutierrez

Abstract:

In this work, we deal with experimental network synchronization of chaotic nodes with different topologies. Our approach is based on complex system theory, and we use a master-slave configuration to couple the nodes in the networks. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by nine coupled chaotic Chua’s circuits with topologies: in nearest-neighbor, small-world, open ring, star, and global. Also, network synchronization is evaluated according to a particular coupling strength for each topology. This study is important by the possible applications to private transmission of information in a chaotic communication network of multiple users.

Keywords: complex networks, Chua's circuit, experimental synchronization, multiple users

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
78 An Analysis of Motorcycle Accidents in Spain (2006-2011)

Authors: Francisco Toledo-Castillo, María Josefa Sospedra-Baeza, Sergio Hidalgo-Fuentes

Abstract:

Motorcycles constitute about 9% of all motorized vehicles in Spain and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 21% of total accidents. Six years of motorcycle accident data were obtained through the national accident database of Spain (Dirección General de Tráfico). Some of the studied factors are age, gender, helmet wearing, alcohol consumption, speeding, subject’s driving license and for how long it has been held, the trip purpose, and the presence of a passenger on the vehicle. Key findings show helmet use, unsafe speed, the trip purpose, weather, distraction, collision type and other variables play significant roles in crash-injury outcomes. Finally, we examine evolution of mortality and severity from 2006 to 2011.

Keywords: motorcycle accidents, risk factors, statistics, Spain

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
77 Dynamic Performance Analysis of Distribution/ Sub-Transmission Networks with High Penetration of PV Generation

Authors: Cristian F.T. Montenegro, Luís F. N. Lourenço, Maurício B. C. Salles, Renato M. Monaro

Abstract:

More PV systems have been connected to the electrical network each year. As the number of PV systems increases, some issues affecting grid operations have been identified. This paper studied the impacts related to changes in solar irradiance on a distribution/sub-transmission network, considering variations due to moving clouds and daily cycles. Using MATLAB/Simulink software, a solar farm of 30 MWp was built and then implemented to a test network. From simulations, it has been determined that irradiance changes can have a significant impact on the grid by causing voltage fluctuations outside the allowable thresholds. This work discussed some local control strategies and grid reinforcements to mitigate the negative effects of the irradiance changes on the grid.

Keywords: reactive power control, solar irradiance, utility-scale PV systems, voltage fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
76 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman

Abstract:

Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
75 Economic Growth and Total Factor Productivity by the Use of Rail Way Transport in the City of Medellín - Colombia in the Period 2012-2016

Authors: Mauricio Molina

Abstract:

The present research project aims to determine whether it is possible to have a statement, allowing you to have an economic model to establish clearly if the population that uses the rail system underground in the city of Medellin with an increase in productivity total factor. The present project aims to concentrate on the surroundings to the system underground for a period of 60 months in the city of Medellin. According to the review bibliographic is can establish that in it most of them cases, the cities that have with systems of transport rail are more productive. And should to its time present is an analysis that may lead to determine if effectively the use of the transport railway improves the productivity of a city and its inhabitants.

Keywords: economic growth, mobility urban, total factor productivity, rail transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
74 Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Tests Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs

Authors: Maria Fernanda Ordoñez Martinez, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro

Abstract:

This work presents a statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Semantic Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations present on Item Response Theory. More precisely, we propose initially reducing dimensionality with specific use of Principal Component Analysis for the linguistic data and then, producing axes of groups made from a clustering analysis of the semantic data. This approach allows the user to give meaning to previous clusters and found the real latent structure presented by data. The methodology is applied in a set of real semantic data presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision.

Keywords: semantic analysis, factorial analysis, dimension reduction, penalized logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
73 Economic and Ecological Implications in Agricultural Production Within the Strong and Weak Sustainability Framework

Authors: Mauricio Quintero Angel, Andrés A. Duque Nivia, Carlos H. Fajardo Toro

Abstract:

This paper analyzes two approaches of sustainability, the weak and strong, considering a case of study of oil palm production for an industry of biodegradable detergent. In this case, a company demand the oil palm as the active element for washing and through its trademark aims to supply 10% of the Colombian market of washing powders. Under each approach the economic and ecological implications of the palm oil production and especially the implications for crop management are described. The crop production under the weak sustainability implies plantations, intensive use of agrochemicals and the inclusion of new areas of cultivation as the market grows. Under the strong sustainability the production system is limited by the productive vocation of the ecosystem, so that new approaches and creativity for making viable the nature conservancy and the business development are require.

Keywords: agriculture, environmental impacts, oil palm, strong sustainability, weak sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
72 Numerical Analysis of a Mechanism for the Morphology in the Extrados of an Airfoil

Authors: E. R. Jimenez Barron, M. Castillo Morales, D. F. Ramírez Morales

Abstract:

The study of the morphology (shape change) in wings leads to the optimization of aerodynamic characteristics in an aircraft, so for the development and implementation of a change in the structure and shape of an airfoil, in this case the extrados, helps to increase the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft at different operating velocities, according to the required mission profile. A previous work on morphology is continued where the 'initial' profile is the NACA 4415 and as a new profile 'objective' the FUSION. The objective of this work is the dimensioning of the elements of the mechanism used to achieve the required changes. We consulted the different materials used in the aeronautics industry, as well as new materials in this area that could contribute to the good performance of the mechanism without negatively affecting the aerodynamics. These results allow evaluating the performance of a wing with variable extrados with respect to the defined morphology.

Keywords: numerical analysis, mechanisms, morphing airfoil, morphing wings

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
71 Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic

Authors: Elena Castillo-López, Raúl Pereda, Julio Manuel de Luis, Rubén Pérez, Felipe Piña

Abstract:

Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.

Keywords: remote sensing, intertidal sediment, airborne sensors, heavy metals, eTOCoxicity, robust statistic, estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
70 Development of Cross Curricular Competences in University Classrooms: Public Speaking

Authors: M. T. Becerra, F. Martín, P. Gutiérrez, S. Cubo, E. Iglesias, A. A. Sáenz del Castillo, P. Cañamero

Abstract:

The consolidation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in universities has led to significant changes in student training. This paper, part of a Teaching Innovation Project, starts from new training requirements that are fit within Undergraduate Thesis Project, a subject that culminate student learning. Undergraduate Thesis Project is current assessment system that weigh the student acquired training in university education. Students should develop a range of cross curricular competences such as public presentation of ideas, problems and solutions both orally and writing in Undergraduate Thesis Project. Specifically, we intend with our innovation proposal to provide resources that enable university students from Teacher Degree in Education Faculty of University of Extremadura (Spain) to develop the cross curricular competence of public speaking.

Keywords: interaction, public speaking, student, university

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
69 Regionalization of IDF Curves, by Interpolating Intensity and Adjustment Parameters - Application to Boyacá, Colombia

Authors: Pedro Mauricio Acosta, Carlos Andrés Caro

Abstract:

This research presents the regionalization of IDF curves for the department of Boyacá, Colombia, which comprises 16 towns, including the provincial capital, Tunja. For regionalization adjustment parameters (U and alpha) of the IDF curves stations referred to in the studied area were used. Similar regionalization is used by the interpolation of intensities. In the case of regionalization by parameters found by the construction of the curves intensity, duration and frequency estimation methods using ordinary moments and maximum likelihood. Regionalization and interpolation of data were performed with the assistance of Arcgis software. Within the development of the project the best choice to provide a level of reliability such as to determine which of the options and ways to regionalize is best sought. The resulting isolines maps were made in the case of regionalization intensities, each map is associated with a different return period and duration in order to build IDF curves in the studied area. In the case of the regionalization maps parameters associated with each parameter were performed last.

Keywords: intensity duration, frequency curves, regionalization, hydrology

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
68 A Cheap Mesoporous Silica from Fly Ash as an Adsorbent for Sulfate in Water

Authors: Ximena Castillo, Jaime Pizarro

Abstract:

This research describes the development of a very cheap mesoporous silica material similar to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) and using a silicate extract as precursor. This precursor is obtained from cheap fly ash by an easy calcination process at 850 °C and a green extraction with water. The obtained mesoporous fly ash material had a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a pore size of 5.7 nm. It was functionalized with ethylene diamino moieties via the well-known SAMMS method, followed by a DRIFT analysis that clearly showed the successful functionalization. An excellent adsorbent was obtained for the adsorption of sulfate anions by the solid’s modification with copper forming a copper-ethylenediamine complex. The adsorption of sulfates was studied in a batch system ( experimental conditions: pH=8.0; 5 min). The kinetics data were adjusted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model. The maximum sulfate adsorption capacity of this very cheap fly ash based adsorbent was 146.1 mg g-1, 3 times greater than the values reported in literature and commercial adsorbent materials.

Keywords: fly ash, mesoporous materials, SAMMS, sulfate

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
67 Reference Model for the Implementation of an E-Commerce Solution in Peruvian SMEs in the Retail Sector

Authors: Julio Kauss, Miguel Cadillo, David Mauricio

Abstract:

E-commerce is a business model that allows companies to optimize the processes of buying, selling, transferring goods and exchanging services through computer networks or the Internet. In Peru, the electronic commerce is used infrequently. This situation is due, in part to the fact that there is no model that allows companies to implement an e-commerce solution, which means that most SMEs do not have adequate knowledge to adapt to electronic commerce. In this work, a reference model is proposed for the implementation of an e-commerce solution in Peruvian SMEs in the retail sector. It consists of five phases: Business Analysis, Business Modeling, Implementation, Post Implementation and Results. The present model was validated in a SME of the Peruvian retail sector through the implementation of an electronic commerce platform, through which the company increased its sales through the delivery channel by 10% in the first month of deployment. This result showed that the model is easy to implement, is economical and agile. In addition, it allowed the company to increase its business offer, adapt to e-commerce and improve customer loyalty.

Keywords: e-commerce, retail, SMEs, reference model

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
66 Bioproduction of Phytohormones by Liquid Fermentation Using a Mexican Strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Hernandez Castillo Daniel, Martinez Hernandez José Luis, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Anguiano Cabello Julia Cecilia

Abstract:

Plant hormones are a group of molecules that control different processes ranging from the growth and development of the plant until their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the capacity of production of various phytohormones was evaluated from a strain of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid fermentation system using the modified Mierch medium added with a hydrolyzate compound of mead all in a reactor without agitation at 28 °C for 15 days. Quantification of the metabolites was performed using high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results showed that a microbial broth with at least five different types of plant hormones was obtained: gibberellic acid, zeatin, kinetin, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid, the last one was higher than the others metabolites produced. The production of such hormones using a single type of microorganism could be in the future a great alternative to reduce production costs and similarly reduce the use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: biosystem, plant hormones, Botryodiplodia theobromae, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
65 Chitin Crystalline Phase Transition Promoted by Deep Eutectic Solvent

Authors: Diana G. Ramirez-Wong, Marius Ramirez, Regina Sanchez-Leija, Adriana Rugerio, R. Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Martin A. Hernandez-Landaverde, Arturo Carranza, John A. Pojman, Josue D. Mota-Morales, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas

Abstract:

Chitin films were prepared using alpha-chitin from shrimp shells as raw material and a simple method of precipitation-evaporation. Choline chloride: urea Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) was used to disperse chitin and compared against hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). A careful analysis of the chemical and crystalline structure was followed along the synthesis of the films, revealing crystalline-phase transitions. The full conversion of alpha- to beta-, or alpha- to gamma-chitin structure were detected by XRD and NMR on the films. The synthesis of highly crystalline monophasic gamma-chitin films was achieved using a DES; whereas HFIP helps to promote the beta-phase. These results are encouraging to continue in the study of DES as good processing media to control the final properties of chitin based materials.

Keywords: chitin, deep eutectic solvent, polymorph, phase transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
64 Solving Dimensionality Problem and Finding Statistical Constructs on Latent Regression Models: A Novel Methodology with Real Data Application

Authors: Sergio Paez Moncaleano, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Regression Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations on Item Response Theory (IRT). In addition, based on the fundamentals of submodel theory and with a convergence of many ideas of IRT, we propose an algorithm not just to solve the dimensionality problem (nowadays an open discussion) but a new research field that promises more fear and realistic qualifications for examiners and a revolution on IRT and educational research. In the end, the methodology is applied to a set of real data set presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision. Acknowledgments: This research was financed by Colciencias through the project: 'Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Test Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs' and both authors belong to SICS Research Group from Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Keywords: item response theory, dimensionality, submodel theory, factorial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
63 Detection of Biomechanical Stress for the Prevention of Disability Derived from Musculoskeletal Disorders

Authors: Leydi Noemi Peraza Gómez, Jose Álvarez Nemegyei, Damaris Francis Estrella Castillo

Abstract:

In order to have an epidemiological tool to detect biomechanical stress (ERGO-Mex), which impose physical labor or recreational activities, a questionnaire is constructed in Spanish, validated and culturally adapted to the Mayan indigenous population of Yucatan. Through the seven steps proposed by Guillemin and Beaton the procedure was: initial translation, synthesis of the translations, feed back of the translation. After that review by a committee of experts, pre-test of the preliminary version, and presentation of the results to the committee of experts and members of the community. Finally the evaluation of its internal validity (Cronbach's α coefficient) and external (intraclass correlation coefficient). The results for the validation in Spanish indicated that 45% of the participants have biomechanical stress. The ERGO-Mex correlation was 0.69 (p <0.0001). Subjects with high biomechanical stress had a higher score than subjects with low biomechanical stress (17.4 ± 8.9 vs.9.8 ± 2.8, p = 0.003). The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.92; and for validation in Cronbach's α maya it was 0.82 and CCI = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.58-0.79; p˂0.0001); ERGO-Mex is suitable for performing early detection of musculoskeletal diseases and helping to prevent disability.

Keywords: biomechanical stress, disability, musculoskeletal disorders, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
62 Relocation of the Air Quality Monitoring Stations Network for Aburrá Valley Based on Local Climatic Zones

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, José F. Jiménez, Mauricio Ramiréz, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

The majority of the urban areas in Latin America face the challenges associated with city planning and development problems, attributed to human, technical, and economical factors; therefore, we cannot ignore the issues related to climate change because the city modifies the natural landscape in a significant way transforming the radiation balance and heat content in the urbanized areas. These modifications provoke changes in the temperature distribution known as “the heat island effect”. According to this phenomenon, we have the need to conceive the urban planning based on climatological patterns that will assure its sustainable functioning, including the particularities of the climate variability. In the present study, it is identified the Local Climate Zones (LCZ) in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (Colombia) with the objective of relocate the air quality monitoring stations as a partial solution to the problem of how to measure representative air quality levels in a city for a local scale, but with instruments that measure in the microscale.

Keywords: air quality, monitoring, local climatic zones, valley, monitoring stations

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
61 Local Radial Basis Functions for Helmholtz Equation in Seismic Inversion

Authors: Hebert Montegranario, Mauricio Londoño

Abstract:

Solutions of Helmholtz equation are essential in seismic imaging methods like full wave inversion, which needs to solve many times the wave equation. Traditional methods like Finite Element Method (FEM) or Finite Differences (FD) have sparse matrices but may suffer the so called pollution effect in the numerical solutions of Helmholtz equation for large values of the wave number. On the other side, global radial basis functions have a better accuracy but produce full matrices that become unstable. In this research we combine the virtues of both approaches to find numerical solutions of Helmholtz equation, by applying a meshless method that produce sparse matrices by local radial basis functions. We solve the equation with absorbing boundary conditions of the kind Clayton-Enquist and PML (Perfect Matched Layers) and compared with results in standard literature, showing a promising performance by tackling both the pollution effect and matrix instability.

Keywords: Helmholtz equation, meshless methods, seismic imaging, wavefield inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 403