Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: greywater

8 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, ammonium, NH₄-N, chemical oxygen demand, COD, greywater, nitrate, NO₃-N, total suspended solids, TSS

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7 Overview of Constructed Wetlands System for Greywater Treatment: Challenges, Advantages, and Sustainable Analysis

Authors: Iga Maliga

Abstract:

As developing country, Indonesia, retreatment for greywater is an important factor that guaranteeing water sustainability? But, its still not familiar in Indonesian society. Because they still use their old habit for wasting the water without retreatment. Differently, with industry wastewater, effect of domestic wastewater is not directly looked with naked eyes. Domestic wastewater that not gets treatment directly can affect pollution in water body or river. Its affected by accumulation many pollutants that include on water. This paper is trying to analyze the challenges and advantages on greywater treatment system based on Constructed Wetlands (CWs) system in Bandung, one of the biggest cities in Indonesia. Aside that, this paper also is trying to analyze sustainability aspects. There is economic, social and of course environment with two methods. The first, study literature is used to see the advantages and challenges that faced by Indonesia when CWs are applied. Secondly, quantitative method is used to get the society perception about retreatment of greywater. Then, it will get a conclusion that this technique not only good in theoretically but also practically.

Keywords: greywater, constructed wetlands, advantages, challenges, Bandung, sustainability analysis

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6 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed

Abstract:

Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

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5 An Experimental Study on Greywater Reuse for Irrigating a Green Wall System

Authors: Mishadi Herath, Amin Talei, Andreas Hermawan, Clarina Chua

Abstract:

Green walls are vegetated structures on building’s wall that are considered as part of sustainable urban design. They are proved to have many micro-climate benefits such as reduction in indoor temperature, noise attenuation, and improvement in air quality. On the other hand, several studies have also been conducted on potential reuse of greywater in urban water management. Greywater is relatively clean when compared to blackwater; therefore, this study was aimed to assess the potential reuse of it for irrigating a green wall system. In this study, the campus of Monash University Malaysia located in Selangor state was considered as the study site where total 48 samples of greywater were collected from 7 toilets hand-wash and 5 pantries during 3 months period. The samples were tested to characterize the quality of greywater in the study site and compare it with local standard for irrigation water. PH and concentration of heavy metals, nutrients, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total Coliform and E.coli were measured. Results showed that greywater could be directly used for irrigation with minimal treatment. Since the effluent of the system was supposed to be drained to stormwater drainage system, the effluent needed to meet certain quality requirement. Therefore, a biofiltration system was proposed to host the green wall plants and also treat the greywater (which is used as irrigation water) to the required level. To assess the performance of the proposed system, an experimental setup consisting of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) soil columns with sand-based filter media were prepared. Two different local creeper plants were chosen considering several factors including fast growth, low maintenance requirement, and aesthetic aspects. Three replicates of each plants were used to ensure the validity of the findings. The growth of creeping plants and their survivability was monitored for 6 months while monthly sampling and testing of effluent was conducted to evaluate effluent quality. An analysis was also conducted to estimate the potential cost and benefit of such system considering water and energy saving in the system. Results showed that the proposed system can work efficiently throughout a long period of time with minimal maintenance requirement. Moreover, the biofiltration-green wall system was found to be successful in reusing greywater as irrigating water while the effluent was meeting all the requirements for being drained to stormwater drainage system.

Keywords: biofiltration, green wall, greywater, sustainability

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4 Evaluation of Combined System of Constructed Wetland/Expended Clay Aggregate in Greywater Treatment

Authors: Eya Hentati, Mona Lamine, Jalel Bouzid

Abstract:

In this study, a laboratory-scale was designed and fabricated to treat single house greywater in the north of Tunisia with a combination of physical and natural treatments systems. The combined system includes a bio-filter composed of LECA® (lightweight expanded clay aggregate) followed by a vertical up-flow constructed wetland planted with Iris pseudacorus and Typha Latifolia. Applied two hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with two different plants types showed that a bio-filter planted with Typha Latifolia has an optimum removal efficiency for degradation of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen and phosphate at HRT of 30 h. The optimum removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) ranged between 48-65%, between while the nutrients removal was in the range of 70% to 90%. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration, but this steel does not meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. Hence further improvement procedures are suggested.

Keywords: constructed wetland, greywater treatment, nutriments, organics

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3 Greywater Water Reuse in South Africa

Authors: Onyeka Nkwonta, Christopher Iheukwumere

Abstract:

It is a waste to irrigate with great quantities of drinking water when plants thrive on used water containing small bits of compost. Unlike a lot of ecological stopgap measures, greywater reuse is a part of the fundamental solution to many ecological problems and will probably remain essentially unchanged in the distant future. Water is abused and wasted by both the wealthy and the poor. Education about water conservation is also needed. This study gives an outline of the sources of grey water in our home and provides a process of creating awareness on the importance of re-using grey water in our home, in order to achieve the 7th aim of the millennium development goals by 2015, which is ensuring environmental sustainability.

Keywords: tickling filter, education, grey water, environmental sustainability

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2 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye

Abstract:

Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, greywater, bacterial, fungi, microbial load, bioreactor, biodegradation, purification, organic matter and filtration

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1 Water Harvest and Recycling with Principles of Permaculture in Rural Buildings in Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey

Authors: Muhammed Gündoğan

Abstract:

Permaculture is an important source of science and experience that can ensure the integration of sustainable architecture with nature. Since the past, many applications have been applied in rural areas for generations with the principle of benefiting from the self-renewal potential of nature. This culture, which has been transferred from generation to generation with architectural disciplines, has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability of the rural area and is an important guide with its nature-based solution proposals. Şanlıurfa has arid and semi-arid climate characteristics. Although it has substantial agricultural potential, water is limited, especially in rural areas. In the region, rainwater harvesting practices such as artificial water canals and cisterns have been used for a long time. However, these solutions remained mostly at the urban scale, and their reflections at the building scale were restricted and inadequate solutions. Impermeable surfaces are required for water harvesting, but water harvesting is not possible as rural buildings are mostly surrounded by cultivated land. Therefore, existing structures are important in terms of applicability. In this context, considering the typology of Traditional Şanlıurfa Houses, the aim of the project was to create a proposal for limited potable and utility water, which is a serious problem, especially for rural buildings in Şanlıurfa. In the project proposal, roof systems that can work integrated with the structural shape of Traditional Şanlıurfa Houses, rainwater collection systems in the inner courtyard, and greywater recycling were provided. While the average precipitation amount was 453.7 kg/m3 between 1929 and 2012, this value was measured as 622.7 kg/m3 in 2012. Greywater was used to produce natural fertilizers and compost for small-scale fruit and vegetable gardens, and it was combined with the principles of Permaculture to make it a lifestyle. As a result, it has been estimated that a total of 976.4 m3 kg of water can be saved, with an annual average of 158.8 m3 of rainwater recycling and 817.6 m3 of greywater recycling within the scope of the project.

Keywords: rural, traditional residential building, permaculture, rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling

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