Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1498

Search results for: ultrafine particles

1498 Ultrafine Non Water Soluble Drug Particles

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, David Martin, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo


Ultrafine hydrophobic and non-water-soluble drugs can increase the percentage of absorbed compared to their initial dosage. This paper provides a scalable new method of making ultrafine particles of substantially insoluble water compounds specifically, submicron particles of ethanol soluble and water insoluble pharmaceutical materials by steaming an ethanol droplet to prepare a suspension and then followed by immediate drying. This suspension is formed by adding evaporated water molecules as an anti-solvent to the solute of the samples and in early stage of precipitation continued to dry by evaporating both solvent and anti-solvent. This fine particle formation has produced fast dispersion powder in water. The new method is an extension of the antisolvent vapour precipitation technique which exposes a droplet to an antisolvent vapour with reference to the dissolved materials within the droplet. Ultrafine vitamin D3 and ibuprofen particles in the submicron ranges were produced. This work will form the basis for using spray dryers as high-throughput scalable micro-precipitators.

Keywords: single droplet drying, nano size particles, non-water-soluble drugs, precipitators

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1497 Murine Pulmonary Responses after Sub-Chronic Exposure to Environmental Ultrafine Particles

Authors: Yara Saleh, Sebastien Antherieu, Romain Dusautoir, Jules Sotty, Laurent Alleman, Ludivine Canivet, Esperanza Perdrix, Pierre Dubot, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Guillaume Garcon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice


Air pollution is one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk factor, through the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancers. They are composed of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1 respectively). Ultrafine particles are emerging unregulated pollutants that might have greater toxicity than larger particles, since they are more abundant and consequently have higher surface area per unit of mass. Our project aims to develop a relevant in vivo model of sub-chronic exposure to atmospheric particles in order to elucidate the specific respiratory impact of ultrafine particles compared to fine particulate matter. Quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) and fine (PM2.5) particles have been collected in the urban industrial zone of Dunkirk in north France during a 7-month campaign, and submitted to physico-chemical characterization. BALB/c mice were then exposed intranasally to 10µg of PM0.18 or PM2.5 3 times a week. After 1 or 3-month exposure, broncho alveolar lavages (BAL) were performed and lung tissues were harvested for histological and transcriptomic analyses. The physico-chemical study of the collected particles shows that there is no major difference in elemental and surface chemical composition between PM0.18 and PM2.5. Furthermore, the results of the cytological analyses carried out show that both types of particulate fractions can be internalized in lung cells. However, the cell count in BAL and preliminary transcriptomic data suggest that PM0.18 could be more reactive and induce a stronger lung inflammation in exposed mice than PM2.5. Complementary studies are in progress to confirm these first data and to identify the metabolic pathways more specifically associated with the toxicity of ultrafine particles.

Keywords: environmental pollution, lung affect, mice, ultrafine particles

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1496 Research on Ultrafine Particles Classification Using Hydrocyclone with Annular Rinse Water

Authors: Tao Youjun, Zhao Younan


The separation effect of fine coal can be improved by the process of pre-desliming. It was significantly enhanced when the fine coal was processed using Falcon concentrator with the removal of -45um coal slime. Ultrafine classification tests using Krebs classification cyclone with annular rinse water showed that increasing feeding pressure can effectively avoid the phenomena of heavy particles passing into overflow and light particles slipping into underflow. The increase of rinse water pressure could reduce the content of fine-grained particles while increasing the classification size. The increase in feeding concentration had a negative effect on the efficiency of classification, meanwhile increased the classification size due to the enhanced hindered settling caused by high underflow concentration. As a result of optimization experiments with response indicator of classification efficiency which based on orthogonal design using Design-Expert software indicated that the optimal classification efficiency reached 91.32% with the feeding pressure of 0.03MPa, the rinse water pressure of 0.02MPa and the feeding concentration of 12.5%. Meanwhile, the classification size was 49.99 μm which had a good agreement with the predicted value.

Keywords: hydrocyclone, ultrafine classification, slime, classification efficiency, classification size

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1495 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe


It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

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1494 Short-Term Association of In-vehicle Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon Concentrations with Respiratory Health in Parisian Taxi Drivers

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Maxime Loizeau, Nadine Saleh, Isabelle Momas, Lynda Bensefa-Colas


Professional drivers are exposed inside their vehicles to high levels of air pollutants due to the considerable time they spend close to motor vehicle emissions. Little is known about ultrafine particles (UFP) or black carbon (BC) adverse respiratory health effects compared to the regulated pollutants. We aimed to study the short-term associations between UFP and BC concentrations inside vehicles and (1) the onset of mucosal irritation and (2) the acute changes in lung function of Parisian taxi drivers during a working day. An epidemiological study was carried out on 50 taxi drivers in Paris. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively. On the same day, the frequency and the severity of nose, eye, and throat irritations were self-reported by each participant and a spirometry test was performed before and after the work shift. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the associations between in-taxis UFP and BC concentrations and mucosal irritation and lung function, after adjustment for potential confounders. In-taxis UFP concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 37.9 × 103 particles/cm³ and BC concentrations from 2.2 to 3.9 μg/m³, during a mean of 9 ± 2 working hours. Significant dose-response relationships were observed between in-taxis UFP concentrations and both nasal irritation and lung function. The increase of in-taxis UFP (for an interquartile range of 20 × 103 particles/cm3) was associated to an increase in nasal irritation (adjusted OR = 6.27 [95% CI: 1.02 to 38.62]) and to a reduction in forced expiratory flow at 25–75% by −7.44% [95% CI: −12.63 to −2.24], forced expiratory volume in one second by −4.46% [95% CI: −6.99 to −1.93] and forced vital capacity by −3.31% [95% CI: −5.82 to −0.80]. Such associations were not found with BC. Incident throat and eye irritations were not related to in-vehicle particles exposure; however, they were associated with outdoor air quality (estimated by the Atmo index) and in-vehicle humidity, respectively. This study is the first to show a significant association, within a short-period of time, between in-vehicle UFP exposure and acute respiratory effects in professional drivers.

Keywords: black carbon, lung function, mucosal irritation, taxi drivers, ultrafine particles

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1493 Influence of Smoking on Fine And Ultrafine Air Pollution Pm in Their Pulmonary Genetic and Epigenetic Toxicity

Authors: Y. Landkocz, C. Lepers, P.J. Martin, B. Fougère, F. Roy Saint-Georges. A. Verdin, F. Cazier, F. Ledoux, D. Courcot, F. Sichel, P. Gosset, P. Shirali, S. Billet


In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and fine particles as carcinogenic to humans. Causal relationships exist between elevated ambient levels of airborne particles and increase of mortality and morbidity including pulmonary diseases, like lung cancer. However, due to a double complexity of both physicochemical Particulate Matter (PM) properties and tumor mechanistic processes, mechanisms of action remain not fully elucidated. Furthermore, because of several common properties between air pollution PM and tobacco smoke, like the same route of exposure and chemical composition, potential mechanisms of synergy could exist. Therefore, smoking could be an aggravating factor of the particles toxicity. In order to identify some mechanisms of action of particles according to their size, two samples of PM were collected: PM0.03 2.5 and PM0.33 2.5 in the urban-industrial area of Dunkerque. The overall cytotoxicity of the fine particles was determined on human bronchial cells (BEAS-2B). Toxicological study focused then on the metabolic activation of the organic compounds coated onto PM and some genetic and epigenetic changes induced on a co-culture model of BEAS-2B and alveolar macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages performed in smokers and non-smokers. The results showed (i) the contribution of the ultrafine fraction of atmospheric particles to genotoxic (eg. DNA double-strand breaks) and epigenetic mechanisms (eg. promoter methylation) involved in tumor processes, and (ii) the influence of smoking on the cellular response. Three main conclusions can be discussed. First, our results showed the ability of the particles to induce deleterious effects potentially involved in the stages of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. The second conclusion is that smoking affects the nature of the induced genotoxic effects. Finally, the in vitro developed cell model, using bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages can take into account quite realistically, some of the existing cell interactions existing in the lung.

Keywords: air pollution, fine and ultrafine particles, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations, smoking

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1492 [Keynote Talk]: Monitoring of Ultrafine Particle Number and Size Distribution at One Urban Background Site in Leicester

Authors: Sarkawt M. Hama, Paul S. Monks, Rebecca L. Cordell


Within the Joaquin project, ultrafine particles (UFP) are continuously measured at one urban background site in Leicester. The main aims are to examine the temporal and seasonal variations in UFP number concentration and size distribution in an urban environment, and to try to assess the added value of continuous UFP measurements. In addition, relations of UFP with more commonly monitored pollutants such as black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter (PM2.5), and the lung deposited surface area(LDSA) were evaluated. The effects of meteorological conditions, particularly wind speed and direction, and also temperature on the observed distribution of ultrafine particles will be detailed. The study presents the results from an experimental investigation into the particle number concentration size distribution of UFP, BC, and NOX with measurements taken at the Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN) monitoring site in Leicester. The monitoring was performed as part of the EU project JOAQUIN (Joint Air Quality Initiative) supported by the INTERREG IVB NWE program. The total number concentrations (TNC) were measured by a water-based condensation particle counter (W-CPC) (TSI model 3783), the particle number concentrations (PNC) and size distributions were measured by an ultrafine particle monitor (UFP TSI model 3031), the BC by MAAP (Thermo-5012), the NOX by NO-NO2-NOx monitor (Thermos Scientific 42i), and a Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM, TSI 3550) was used to measure the LDSA (reported as μm2 cm−3) corresponding to the alveolar region of the lung between November 2013 and November 2015. The average concentrations of particle number concentrations were observed in summer with lower absolute values of PNC than in winter might be related mainly to particles directly emitted by traffic and to the more favorable conditions of atmospheric dispersion. Results showed a traffic-related diurnal variation of UFP, BC, NOX and LDSA with clear morning and evening rush hour peaks on weekdays, only an evening peak at the weekends. Correlation coefficients were calculated between UFP and other pollutants (BC and NOX). The highest correlation between them was found in winter months. Overall, the results support the notion that local traffic emissions were a major contributor of the atmospheric particles pollution and a clear seasonal pattern was found, with higher values during the cold season.

Keywords: size distribution, traffic emissions, UFP, urban area

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1491 Estimation of Particle Number and Mass Doses Inhaled in a Busy Street in Lublin, Poland

Authors: Bernard Polednik, Adam Piotrowicz, Lukasz Guz, Marzenna Dudzinska


Transportation is considered to be responsible for increased exposure of road users – i.e., drivers, car passengers, and pedestrians as well as inhabitants of houses located near roads - to pollutants emitted from vehicles. Accurate estimates are, however, difficult as exposure depends on many factors such as traffic intensity or type of fuel as well as the topography and the built-up area around the individual routes. The season and weather conditions are also of importance. In the case of inhabitants of houses located near roads, their exposure depends on the distance from the road, window tightness and other factors that decrease pollutant infiltration. This work reports the variations of particle concentrations along a selected road in Lublin, Poland. Their impact on the exposure for road users as well as for inhabitants of houses located near the road is also presented. Mobile and fixed-site measurements were carried out in peak (around 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.) and off-peak (12 a.m., 4 a.m., and 12 p.m.) traffic times in all 4 seasons. Fixed-site measurements were performed in 12 measurement points along the route. The number and mass concentration of particles was determined with the use of P-Trak model 8525, OPS 3330, DustTrak DRX model 8533 (TSI Inc. USA) and Grimm Aerosol Spectrometer 1.109 with Nano Sizer 1.321 (Grimm Aerosol Germany). The obtained results indicated that the highest concentrations of traffic-related pollution were measured near 4-way traffic intersections during peak hours in the autumn and winter. The highest average number concentration of ultrafine particles (PN0.1), and mass concentration of fine particles (PM2.5) in fixed-site measurements were obtained in the autumn and amounted to 23.6 ± 9.2×10³ pt/cm³ and 135.1 ± 11.3 µg/m³, respectively. The highest average number concentration of submicrometer particles (PN1) was measured in the winter and amounted to 68 ± 26.8×10³ pt/cm³. The estimated doses of particles deposited in the commuters’ and pedestrians’ lungs within an hour near 4-way TIs in peak hours in the summer amounted to 4.3 ± 3.3×10⁹ pt/h (PN0.1) and 2.9 ± 1.4 µg/h (PM2.5) and 3.9 ± 1.1×10⁹ pt/h (PN0.1) or 2.5 ± 0.4 µg/h (PM2.5), respectively. While estimating the doses inhaled by the inhabitants of premises located near the road one should take into account different fractional penetration of particles from outdoors to indoors. Such doses assessed for the autumn and winter are up to twice as high as the doses inhaled by commuters and pedestrians in the summer. In the winter traffic-related ultrafine particles account for over 70% of all ultrafine particles deposited in the pedestrians’ lungs. The share of traffic-related PM10 particles was estimated at approximately 33.5%. Concluding, the results of the particle concentration measurements along a road in Lublin indicated that the concentration is mainly affected by the traffic intensity and weather conditions. Further detailed research should focus on how the season and the metrological conditions affect concentration levels of traffic-related pollutants and the exposure of commuters and pedestrians as well as the inhabitants of houses located near traffic routes.

Keywords: air quality, deposition dose, health effects, vehicle emissions

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1490 Ferro-Substituted Silicate Calcium Materials, a Novel Bio-Ceramic Using Hyperthermia for Bone Cancer Therapy

Authors: Hassan Gheisari


Ferro silicate calcium nano particles are prepared through the sol-gel method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a chelating agent. The powder as prepared is annealed at three different temperatures (900 ºC, 1000 ºC and 1100 ºC) for 3 h. The XRD patterns of the samples indicate broad peaks and the full width at half maximum decreased with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectra of the samples confirm the presence of metal - oxygen complexes within the structure. The average particle size obtained from PSA curve demonstrates ultrafine particles. SEM micrographs indicate the particles synthesized have spherical morphology. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of the samples show dependence on particle size and crystallinity of the samples. The highest saturation magnetization is achieved for the sample annealed at 1100 ºC having maximum average particle size. The high saturation magnetization of the samples suggests the present method is suitable for obtaining nano particles magnetic ferro bioceramic which is desirable for practical applications such as hyperthermia bone cancer therapy.

Keywords: hyperthermia, bone cancer, bio ceramic, magnetic materials, sol– gel, silicate calcium

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1489 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko


COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: CONFORM, ECAP, rotary swaging, titanium

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1488 Association between Noise Levels, Particulate Matter Concentrations and Traffic Intensities in a Near-Highway Urban Area

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Vahid Hosseini, Jason S. Olfert


Both traffic-generated particles and noise have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially in near-highway environments. Although noise and particulate matters (PM) have different mechanisms of dispersion, sharing the same emission source in urban areas (road traffics) can result in a similar degree of variability in their levels. This study investigated the temporal variation of and correlation between noise levels, PM concentrations and traffic intensities near a major highway in Tehran, Iran. Tehran particulate concentration is highly influenced by road traffic. Additionally, Tehran ultrafine particles (UFP, PM<0.1 µm) are mostly emitted from combustion processes of motor vehicles. This gives a high possibility of a strong association between traffic-related noise and UFP in near-highway environments of this megacity. Hourly average of equivalent continuous sound pressure level (Leq), total number concentration of UFPs, mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10, as well as traffic count and speed were simultaneously measured over a period of three days in winter. Additionally, meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were collected in a weather station, located 3 km from the monitoring site. Noise levels showed relatively low temporal variability in near-highway environments compared to PM concentrations. Hourly average of Leq ranged from 63.8 to 69.9 dB(A) (mean ~ 68 dB(A)), while hourly concentration of particles varied from 30,800 to 108,800 cm-3 for UFP (mean ~ 64,500 cm-3), 41 to 75 µg m-3 for PM2.5 (mean ~ 53 µg m-3), and 62 to 112 µg m-3 for PM10 (mean ~ 88 µg m-3). The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed strong relationship between noise and UFP (r ~ 0.61) overall. Under downwind conditions, UFP number concentration showed the strongest association with noise level (r ~ 0.63). The coefficient decreased to a lesser degree under upwind conditions (r ~ 0.24) due to the significant role of wind and humidity in UFP dynamics. Furthermore, PM2.5 and PM10 correlated moderately with noise (r ~ 0.52 and 0.44 respectively). In general, traffic counts were more strongly associated with noise and PM compared to traffic speeds. It was concluded that noise level combined with meteorological data can be used as a proxy to estimate PM concentrations (specifically UFP number concentration) in near-highway environments of Tehran. However, it is important to measure joint variability of noise and particles to study their health effects in epidemiological studies.

Keywords: noise, particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, ultrafine particle

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1487 Microstructures Evolution of a Nano/Ultrafine Grained Low Carbon Steel Produced by Martensite Treatment Using Accumulative Roll Bonding

Authors: Mehdi Salari


This work introduces a new experimental method of martensite treatment contains accumulative roll-bonding used for producing the nano/ultrafine grained structure in low carbon steel. The ARB process up to 4 cycles was performed under unlubricated conditions, while the annealing process was carried out in the temperature range of 450–550°C for 30–100 min. The microstructures of the deformed and annealed specimens were investigated. The results showed that in the annealed specimen at 450°C for 30 or 60 min, recrystallization couldn’t be completed. Decrease in time and temperature intensified the volume fraction of the martensite cell blocks. Fully equiaxed nano/ultrafine grained ferrite was developed from the martensite cell blocks during the annealing at temperature around 500°C for 100 min.

Keywords: martensite process, accumulative roll bonding, recrystallization, nanostructure, plain carbon steel

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1486 Synthesis and Characterization of Amino-Functionalized Polystyrene Nanoparticles as Reactive Filler

Authors: Yaseen Elhebshi, Abdulkareem Hamid, Nureddin Bin Issa, Xiaonong Chen


A convenient method of preparing ultrafine polystyrene latex nano-particles with amino groups on the surface is developed. Polystyrene latexes in the size range 50–400 nm were prepared via emulsion polymerization, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Polystyrene with amino groups on the surface will be fine to use as organic filler to modify rubber. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silicon dioxide and functionalized polystyrene nano-particles. The nature of bonding between the polymer and the reactive groups on the filler surfaces was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the filler surface.

Keywords: reactive filler, emulsion polymerization, particle size, polystyrene nanoparticles

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1485 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov, Mikhail Sverdlik


Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet

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1484 Nanoparticle Exposure Levels in Indoor and Outdoor Demolition Sites

Authors: Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Shane Lewis, Jefferson Doehling, Alexis Pawlak, Jacob Schwartz, Imaobong Ekpo, Atin Adhikari


Working or living close to demolition sites can increase risks of dust-related health problems. Demolition of concrete buildings may produce crystalline silica dust, which can be associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases including silicosis and lung cancers. Previous studies demonstrated significant associations between demolition dust exposure and increase in the incidence of mesothelioma or asbestos cancer. Dust is a generic term used for minute solid particles of typically <500 µm in diameter. Dust particles in demolition sites vary in a wide range of sizes. Larger particles tend to settle down from the air. On the other hand, the smaller and lighter solid particles remain dispersed in the air for a long period and pose sustained exposure risks. Submicron ultrafine particles and nanoparticles are respirable deeper into our alveoli beyond our body’s natural respiratory cleaning mechanisms such as cilia and mucous membranes and are likely to be retained in the lower airways. To our knowledge, how various demolition tasks release nanoparticles are largely unknown and previous studies mostly focused on course dust, PM2.5, and PM10. General belief is that the dust generated during demolition tasks are mostly large particles formed through crushing, grinding, or sawing of various concrete and wooden structures. Therefore, little consideration has been given to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels. These data are, however, critically important because recent laboratory studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on lung epithelial cells. The above-described knowledge gaps were addressed in this study by a novel newly developed nanoparticle monitor, which was used for nanoparticle monitoring at two adjacent indoor and outdoor building demolition sites in southern Georgia. Nanoparticle levels were measured (n = 10) by TSI NanoScan SMPS Model 3910 at four different distances (5, 10, 15, and 30 m) from the work location as well as in control sites. Temperature and relative humidity levels were recorded. Indoor demolition works included acetylene torch, masonry drilling, ceiling panel removal, and other miscellaneous tasks. Whereas, outdoor demolition works included acetylene torch and skid-steer loader use to remove a HVAC system. Concentration ranges of nanoparticles of 13 particle sizes at the indoor demolition site were: 11.5 nm: 63 – 1054/cm³; 15.4 nm: 170 – 1690/cm³; 20.5 nm: 321 – 730/cm³; 27.4 nm: 740 – 3255/cm³; 36.5 nm: 1,220 – 17,828/cm³; 48.7 nm: 1,993 – 40,465/cm³; 64.9 nm: 2,848 – 58,910/cm³; 86.6 nm: 3,722 – 62,040/cm³; 115.5 nm: 3,732 – 46,786/cm³; 154 nm: 3,022 – 21,506/cm³; 205.4 nm: 12 – 15,482/cm³; 273.8 nm: Keywords: demolition dust, industrial hygiene, aerosol, occupational exposure

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1483 Microscopic Visualization of the Ice Slurry Ice Particles

Authors: Juan José Milón Guzmán, Herbert Jesús Del Carpio Beltrán, Sergio Leal Braga


Visualizations of ice particles of ice slurry are performed. The form and size of ice particles is investigated by optical microscopy. It permits to evaluate statistically the geometrical shapes of the ice crystals. The observed particle size corresponds with the different solutes (sugar, salt, propylene glycol).

Keywords: ice slurry, visualization, ice particles, solutes

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1482 Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass

Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Mujahid Kamran


It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.

Keywords: causality, gauge particles, material particles, special relativity

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1481 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel


This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: acoustic emissions, particle sizing, process monitoring, signal processing

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1480 Self-Assembled Tin Particles Made by Plasma-Induced Dewetting

Authors: Han Joo Choe, Soon-Ho Kwon, Jung-Joong Lee


Tin particles of various size and distribution were self-assembled by plasma treating tin film deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Plasma treatment was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. A range of ICP power and topographic templated substrates were evaluated to observe changes in particle size and particle distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the particles were analyzed using computer software. The evolution of tin film dewetting into particles initiated from the hole nucleation in grain boundaries. Increasing ICP power during plasma treatment produced larger number of particles per area and smaller particle size and particle-size distribution. Topographic templates were also effective in positioning and controlling the size of the particles. By combining the effects of ICP power and topographic templates, particles of similar size and well-ordered distribution were obtained.

Keywords: dewetting, particles, plasma, tin

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1479 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh


Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

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1478 Changes in Air Quality inside Vehicles and in Working Conditions of Professional Drivers during COVID-19 Pandemic in Paris Area

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Lynda Bensefa-Colas, Isabelle Momas


We evaluated the impact of the first lockdown restriction measures (March-May 2020) in the Paris area on (1) the variation of in-vehicle ultrafine particle (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between pre-and post-lockdown period and (2) the professional drivers working conditions and practices. The study was conducted on 33 Parisian taxi drivers. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively, on two typical working days before and after the first lockdown. The job-related characteristics were self-reported. Our results showed that after the first lockdown, the number of clients significantly decreased as well as the taxi driver's journey duration. Taxi drivers significantly opened their windows more and reduced the use of air recirculation. UFP decreased significantly by 32% and BC by 31% after the first lockdown, with a weaker positive correlation compared to before the lockdown. The reduction of in-vehicle UFP was explained mainly by the reduction of traffic flow and ventilation settings, though the latter probably varied according to the traffic condition. No predictor explained the variation of in-vehicle BC concentration between pre-and post-lockdown periods, suggesting different sources of UFP and BC. The road traffic was not anymore the dominant source of BC post-lockdown. We emphasize the role of traffic emissions on in-vehicle air pollution and that preventive measures such as ventilation settings will help to better manage air quality inside a vehicle in order to minimize exposure of professional drivers, as well as passengers, to air pollutants.

Keywords: black carbon, COVID-19, France, lockdown, taxis, ultrafine particles

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1477 Preparation of Alumina (Al2O3) Particles and MMCS of (Al-7% Si– 0.45% Mg) Alloy Using Vortex Method

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi


The aim of this research is to study the manner of alumina (Al2O3) particles dispersion with (2-10) mm size in (Al-7%Si-0.45% Mg) base of alloy melt employing of classical casting method. The mechanism of particles diffusions by melt turning and stirring that makes vortexes help the particles entrance in the matrix of base alloy also has been studied. The samples of metallic composites (MMCs) with dispersed particles percentages (4% - 6% - 8% - 10% - 15% and 20%) are prepared. The effect of the particles dispersion on the mechanical properties of produced samples were carried out by tension & hardness tests. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength of the produced composites can be increased by increasing the percentages of alumina particles in the matrix of the base alloy. It becomes (232 Mpa) at (20%) of added particles. The results showed that the average hardness of prepared samples increasing with increases the alumina content. Microstructure study of prepared samples was carried out. The results showed particles location and distribution of it in the matrix of base alloy. The dissolution of Alumina particles into liquid base alloy was clear in some cases.

Keywords: base alloy, matrix, hardness, thermal properties, base metal MMCs

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1476 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi


In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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1475 Residual Stress Around Embedded Particles in Bulk YBa2Cu3Oy Samples

Authors: Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, Michael R. Koblischka


To increase the flux pinning performance of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO or Y-123) superconductors, it is common to employ secondary phase particles, either Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) particles created during the growth of the samples or additionally added (nano)particles of various types, embedded in the superconducting Y-123 matrix. As the crystallographic parameters of all the particles indicate a misfit to Y-123, there will be residual strain within the Y-123 matrix around such particles. With a dedicated analysis of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data obtained on various bulk, Y-123 superconductor samples, the strain distribution around such embedded secondary phase particles can be revealed. The results obtained are presented in form of Kernel Average Misorientation (KAM) mappings. Around large Y-211 particles, the strain can be so large that YBCO subgrains are formed. Therefore, it is essential to properly control the particle size as well as their distribution within the bulk sample to obtain the best performance. The impact of the strain distribution on the flux pinning properties is discussed.

Keywords: Bulk superconductors, EBSD, Strain, YBa2Cu3Oy

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1474 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Calcium Mixed Ferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: Sijo S. Thomas, S. Hridya, Manoj Mohan, Bibin Jacob, Hysen Thomas


Ferrites are iron based oxides with technologically significant magnetic properties and have widespread applications in medicine, technology, and industry. There has been a growing interest in the study of magnetic, electrical and structural properties of mixed ferrites. In the present work, structural and magnetic properties of Nickel and Calcium substituted Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were investigated. NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the samples were subsequently sintered at 900°C. The magnetic and structural properties of NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and X-Ray diffraction. The XRD results revealed that the synthesized particles have nanometer size and it varies from 46-72 nm as the calcium concentration diminishes. The variation is explained based on the increase in the reaction rate with Ni concentration which favors the formation of ultrafine particles of mixed ferrites. VSM results show pure CaFe₂O₄ exhibit paramagnetic behavior with low saturation value. As the concentration of Ca decreases, a transition occurs from paramagnetic state to ferromagnetic state. When the concentration of Ni becomes dominant, magnetic saturation, coercivity, and retentivity become high, indicating near ferromagnetic behavior of the compound.

Keywords: co-precipitation, ferrites, magnetic behavior, structure

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1473 Effect of Al Particles on Corrosion Resistance of Electrodeposited Ni-Al Composite Coatings

Authors: M. Adabi, A. Amadeh


Electrodeposition is known as a relatively economical and simple technique commonly used for preparation of metallic and composite coatings. Electrodeposited composite coatings produced by dispersion of particles into the metal matrix show better properties than pure metallic coatings. In recent years, many researches were carried out on Ni matrix coatings reinforced by ceramic particles such as Ni-SiC, Ni-Al2O3, Ni-WC, Ni-CeO2, Ni-ZrO2, Ni-TiO2 to improve their corrosion and wear resistance. However, little effort has been made on incorporation of metal particles into Ni matrix. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce Ni–Al composite coating on 6061 aluminum alloy by pulse plating and to investigate the effects of electrodeposition parameters, e.g. concentration Al particles in the electrolyte and current density, on composition and corrosion resistance of the composite coatings. The morphology and corrosion behavior of the coated 6061 Al alloys were studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and potentiodynamic polarization method, respectively. The results indicated that the addition of Al particles up to 50 g L-1 increased the amount of co-deposited Al particles in nickel matrix. It is also observed that the incorporation of Al particles decreased with increasing current density. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the coatings shows an increment by increasing the content of Al particles into nickel matrix.

Keywords: Ni-Al composite coating, current density, corrosion resistance

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1472 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: Nour Hassan Ismail, Abdelmonem Nassar, Khaled Baz


Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper, new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: quantum dots, nano-particles, LSPR

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1471 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet


Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

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1470 Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

Authors: Merve Küçük, M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu


Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution resulted in a narrow size distribution at submicron levels. The deposit of ZnO on polyester fabrics yielded a homogeneous spread of spherical particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also affirmed the presence of ZnO particles on the polyester fabrics.

Keywords: dip coating, polyester fabrics, sol gel, zinc oxide

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1469 Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf


Synthesis of gold nano particles has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nano particles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite for gold nanoparticles stabilization; different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nano particles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nano particles Au-mont stabilized in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nano particles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed the formation of gold nano particles in the pores of montmorillonite with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2%Au-mont. The gold particles size increased with the increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Na-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 9 min for 1Au-mont and within 3 min for 2Au-mont.

Keywords: chemical reduction, gold, montmorillonite, nano particles, 4-nitrophenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 240