Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: seasonality

50 Analysing Trends in Rice Cropping Intensity and Seasonality across the Philippines Using 14 Years of Moderate Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

Authors: Bhogendra Mishra, Andy Nelson, Mirco Boschetti, Lorenzo Busetto, Alice Laborte


Rice is grown on over 100 million hectares in almost every country of Asia. It is the most important staple crop for food security and has high economic and cultural importance in Asian societies. The combination of genetic diversity and management options, coupled with the large geographic extent means that there is a large variation in seasonality (when it is grown) and cropping intensity (how often it is grown per year on the same plot of land), even over relatively small distances. Seasonality and intensity can and do change over time depending on climatic, environmental and economic factors. Detecting where and when these changes happen can provide information to better understand trends in regional and even global rice production. Remote sensing offers a unique opportunity to estimate these trends. We apply the recently published PhenoRice algorithm to 14 years of moderate resolution remote sensing (MODIS) data (utilizing 250m resolution 16 day composites from Terra and Aqua) to estimate seasonality and cropping intensity per year and changes over time. We compare the results to the surveyed data collected by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The study results in a unique and validated dataset on the extent and change of extent, the seasonality and change in seasonality and the cropping intensity and change in cropping intensity between 2003 and 2016 for the Philippines. Observed trends and their implications for food security and trade policies are also discussed.

Keywords: rice, cropping intensity, moderate resolution remote sensing (MODIS), phenology, seasonality

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49 The Significance of Seasonality on the Airport Efficiency in Touristic Regions

Authors: Ioanna Pagoni, Annitsa Koumoutsidi


The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of airports that are located in touristic regions. It focuses on the regional airports of Greece, which are located at the mainland and the islands that constitute touristic destinations. Most of these airports share the following characteristics. They operate at levels below capacity with a high level of seasonality to their traffic. In addition, in such airports, the operation of charter and low-cost airlines is significant. The efficiency of the study airports is calculated by using the non-parametric data envelopment analysis during the period of 2010-2016. The selected inputs include several airport infrastructure measures such as passenger terminal size, aircraft parking area, runway length, and the number of check-in counters, while the number of employees in each airport is also used. The number of passengers and aircraft movements are selected as outputs. The effect of seasonality, as well as the operation of charter airlines and low-cost carriers on airport efficiency, is estimated by running proper regression models. Preliminary findings indicate that low-cost and charter airlines contribute to increasing airport efficiency for most of the study airports. The results of this research could be useful for airlines, airport operators, hotel businesses, and other tourism-related operators.

Keywords: airport efficiency, data envelopment analysis, low-cost carriers, charter airlines, seasonality

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
48 Environmental /Occupational Factors and Seasonality of Birth- Male Infertility

Authors: C. Lalitha, R. Sayee, D. Apoorva


Reproductive failure or infertility may be due to several factors that are not limited to one sex. It remains a common problem causing significant psychological distress to those affected individuals and who are increasingly seeking medical advice. Male infertility means inability to induce conception in normal woman within a year. The etiological factors associated with male infertility are anatomical, developmental, seminal, hormonal, immunological and environmental factors. The paper was aimed to highlight the environmental factors and its association to male infertility and seasonality of birth and its influence. The data was collected from the 75 male patients referred with infertility for karyotyping and counseling. Their age ranged from 21 to 45 years. It is opined that certain occupations are preferentially associated with male infertility.

Keywords: environmental, occupational, seasonal, male infertility

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47 Preliminary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Operation and Maintenance Aspects

Authors: Priscila M. Lima, Corine A. P. de Almeida, Muriele R. de Lima, Fernando J. C. Magalhães Filho


This work characterized the preliminary treatment in WWTPs in the state of Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil) and analyzed aspects of operation and maintenance of solid waste retained, and was evaluated the interference of this step in treatment efficiency beyond the relationship between solid waste generation with rainfall and seasonality in the region of each WTPs. The results shown that the standard setting in the preliminary treatment consists of grid along with Sand Trap, followed by Parshall that is used in 94.12% of WWTPs analyzed, and in 5.88% of WWTPs it was added the air-lift to the Sand Trap. Was concluded that the influence of rainfall, flow and seasonality associated with the rate of waste generation in the preliminary treatment, had little relation to the operation and maintenance of the primary treatment. But in some cases, precipitation data showed increased rainfall converging with increased flow and solid waste generation.

Keywords: pretreatment, sewage, solid waste, wastewater

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46 Forecasting Residential Water Consumption in Hamilton, New Zealand

Authors: Farnaz Farhangi


Many people in New Zealand believe that the access to water is inexhaustible, and it comes from a history of virtually unrestricted access to it. For the region like Hamilton which is one of New Zealand’s fastest growing cities, it is crucial for policy makers to know about the future water consumption and implementation of rules and regulation such as universal water metering. Hamilton residents use water freely and they do not have any idea about how much water they use. Hence, one of proposed objectives of this research is focusing on forecasting water consumption using different methods. Residential water consumption time series exhibits seasonal and trend variations. Seasonality is the pattern caused by repeating events such as weather conditions in summer and winter, public holidays, etc. The problem with this seasonal fluctuation is that, it dominates other time series components and makes difficulties in determining other variations (such as educational campaign’s effect, regulation, etc.) in time series. Apart from seasonality, a stochastic trend is also combined with seasonality and makes different effects on results of forecasting. According to the forecasting literature, preprocessing (de-trending and de-seasonalization) is essential to have more performed forecasting results, while some other researchers mention that seasonally non-adjusted data should be used. Hence, I answer the question that is pre-processing essential? A wide range of forecasting methods exists with different pros and cons. In this research, I apply double seasonal ARIMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), considering diverse elements such as seasonality and calendar effects (public and school holidays) and combine their results to find the best predicted values. My hypothesis is the examination the results of combined method (hybrid model) and individual methods and comparing the accuracy and robustness. In order to use ARIMA, the data should be stationary. Also, ANN has successful forecasting applications in terms of forecasting seasonal and trend time series. Using a hybrid model is a way to improve the accuracy of the methods. Due to the fact that water demand is dominated by different seasonality, in order to find their sensitivity to weather conditions or calendar effects or other seasonal patterns, I combine different methods. The advantage of this combination is reduction of errors by averaging of each individual model. It is also useful when we are not sure about the accuracy of each forecasting model and it can ease the problem of model selection. Using daily residential water consumption data from January 2000 to July 2015 in Hamilton, I indicate how prediction by different methods varies. ANN has more accurate forecasting results than other method and preprocessing is essential when we use seasonal time series. Using hybrid model reduces forecasting average errors and increases the performance.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), double seasonal ARIMA, forecasting, hybrid model

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45 The Usage of Bridge Estimator for Hegy Seasonal Unit Root Tests

Authors: Huseyin Guler, Cigdem Kosar


The aim of this study is to propose Bridge estimator for seasonal unit root tests. Seasonality is an important factor for many economic time series. Some variables may contain seasonal patterns and forecasts that ignore important seasonal patterns have a high variance. Therefore, it is very important to eliminate seasonality for seasonal macroeconomic data. There are some methods to eliminate the impacts of seasonality in time series. One of them is filtering the data. However, this method leads to undesired consequences in unit root tests, especially if the data is generated by a stochastic seasonal process. Another method to eliminate seasonality is using seasonal dummy variables. Some seasonal patterns may result from stationary seasonal processes, which are modelled using seasonal dummies but if there is a varying and changing seasonal pattern over time, so the seasonal process is non-stationary, deterministic seasonal dummies are inadequate to capture the seasonal process. It is not suitable to use seasonal dummies for modeling such seasonally nonstationary series. Instead of that, it is necessary to take seasonal difference if there are seasonal unit roots in the series. Different alternative methods are proposed in the literature to test seasonal unit roots, such as Dickey, Hazsa, Fuller (DHF) and Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, Yoo (HEGY) tests. HEGY test can be also used to test the seasonal unit root in different frequencies (monthly, quarterly, and semiannual). Another issue in unit root tests is the lag selection. Lagged dependent variables are added to the model in seasonal unit root tests as in the unit root tests to overcome the autocorrelation problem. In this case, it is necessary to choose the lag length and determine any deterministic components (i.e., a constant and trend) first, and then use the proper model to test for seasonal unit roots. However, this two-step procedure might lead size distortions and lack of power in seasonal unit root tests. Recent studies show that Bridge estimators are good in selecting optimal lag length while differentiating nonstationary versus stationary models for nonseasonal data. The advantage of this estimator is the elimination of the two-step nature of conventional unit root tests and this leads a gain in size and power. In this paper, the Bridge estimator is proposed to test seasonal unit roots in a HEGY model. A Monte-Carlo experiment is done to determine the efficiency of this approach and compare the size and power of this method with HEGY test. Since Bridge estimator performs well in model selection, our approach may lead to some gain in terms of size and power over HEGY test.

Keywords: bridge estimators, HEGY test, model selection, seasonal unit root

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44 Application of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model for Forecasting Monthly Flows in Waterval River, South Africa

Authors: Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse, Megersa Olumana Dinka


Reliable future river flow information is basic for planning and management of any river systems. For data scarce river system having only a river flow records like the Waterval River, a univariate time series models are appropriate for river flow forecasting. In this study, a univariate Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model was applied for forecasting Waterval River flow using GRETL statistical software. Mean monthly river flows from 1960 to 2016 were used for modeling. Different unit root tests and Mann-Kendall trend analysis were performed to test the stationarity of the observed flow time series. The time series was differenced to remove the seasonality. Using the correlogram of seasonally differenced time series, different SARIMA models were identified, their parameters were estimated, and diagnostic check-up of model forecasts was performed using white noise and heteroscedasticity tests. Finally, based on minimum Akaike Information (AIc) and Hannan-Quinn (HQc) criteria, SARIMA (3, 0, 2) x (3, 1, 3)12 was selected as the best model for Waterval River flow forecasting. Therefore, this model can be used to generate future river information for water resources development and management in Waterval River system. SARIMA model can also be used for forecasting other similar univariate time series with seasonality characteristics.

Keywords: heteroscedasticity, stationarity test, trend analysis, validation, white noise

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43 Agroecology and Seasonal Disparity Nexus with Nutritional Status of Children in Ethiopia

Authors: Dagem Alemayehu, Samson Gebersilassie, Jan Frank


Climate change is impacting nutrition through reducing food quantity and access, limiting dietary diversity, and decreased nutritional food content as well as strongly affecting seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, only a few data is available on the impacts of seasonality in Infant, and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices undernutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of poor resource settings of Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometry, and IYCF indicators were assessed in the harvest and lean seasons among children aged 6–23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Results: Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 32.8 % and 23.9 % (lowland &midland respectively) in the lean season to 36.1% and 33.8 % harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in the prevalence of stunting and underweight between harvest and lean seasons was noted in the lowland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% lean to 8.5% harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the midland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet, and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in harvest compared to a lean season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children's age was a predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. Conclusion: There is seasonal variation in undernutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect lowland agro-ecological zone.

Keywords: agroecology, seasonality, stunting, wasting

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42 Land Use and Natal Multimammate Mouse Abundance in Lassa Fever Endemic Villages of Eastern Sierra Leone

Authors: J. T. Koininga, J. E. Teigen, A. Wilkinson, D. Kanneh, F. Kanneh, M. Foday, D. S. Grant, M. Leach, L. M. Moses


Lassa fever (LF) is a severe febrile illness endemic to West Africa. While human-to-human transmission occurs, evidence suggests most LF cases originate from exposure to rodents, particularly the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. Within West Africa, LF occurs primarily in rural communities where agriculture is the main economic activity. Seasonality of LF has also been linked to agricultural cycles, with peak incidence occurring in the dry season when fields are burned and plowed. To investigate this pattern of seasonality, four agricultural communities were selected for this two-year longitudinal study. Each community was to be sampled four times each year, but this was interrupted by the Ebola virus disease outbreak. Agricultural land use, forested, and fallow areas were identified through participatory mapping. Transects were plotted in each area and Sherman traps were set for four nights. Captured small mammals were identified, ear tagged, and released. Mastomys natalensis abundance was found to be highest in areas of converted fallow land and rice swamps in the dry season and upland mixed crop areas toward the onset of the rainy season. All peak times were associated with heavy perturbation of soil. All ages and genders were present during these time points. These results suggest that peak abundance of the Mastomys natalensis in agricultural areas coincides with peak incidence of LF reported in this region. Although contact with rodents may be higher in villages, our study suggests human behaviors in agricultural areas may increase risk of transmission of Lassa virus.

Keywords: agriculture, land use, Lassa Fever, rodent abundance

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41 Visualization of PM₂.₅ Time Series and Correlation Analysis of Cities in Bangladesh

Authors: Asif Zaman, Moinul Islam Zaber, Amin Ahsan Ali


In recent years of industrialization, the South Asian countries are being affected by air pollution due to a severe increase in fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM₂.₅). Among them, Bangladesh is one of the most polluting countries. In this paper, statistical analyses were conducted on the time series of PM₂.₅ from various districts in Bangladesh, mostly around Dhaka city. Research has been conducted on the dynamic interactions and relationships between PM₂.₅ concentrations in different zones. The study is conducted toward understanding the characteristics of PM₂.₅, such as spatial-temporal characterization, correlation of other contributors behind air pollution such as human activities, driving factors and environmental casualties. Clustering on the data gave an insight on the districts groups based on their AQI frequency as representative districts. Seasonality analysis on hourly and monthly frequency found higher concentration of fine particles in nighttime and winter season, respectively. Cross correlation analysis discovered a phenomenon of correlations among cities based on time-lagged series of air particle readings and visualization framework is developed for observing interaction in PM₂.₅ concentrations between cities. Significant time-lagged correlations were discovered between the PM₂.₅ time series in different city groups throughout the country by cross correlation analysis. Additionally, seasonal heatmaps depict that the pooled series correlations are less significant in warmer months, and among cities of greater geographic distance as well as time lag magnitude and direction of the best shifted correlated particulate matter time series among districts change seasonally. The geographic map visualization demonstrates spatial behaviour of air pollution among districts around Dhaka city and the significant effect of wind direction as the vital actor on correlated shifted time series. The visualization framework has multipurpose usage from gathering insight of general and seasonal air quality of Bangladesh to determining the pathway of regional transportation of air pollution.

Keywords: air quality, particles, cross correlation, seasonality

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40 Analysis of Trend and Variability of Rainfall in the Mid-Mahanadi River Basin of Eastern India

Authors: Rabindra K. Panda, Gurjeet Singh


The major objective of this study was to analyze the trend and variability of rainfall in the middle Mahandi river basin located in eastern India. The trend of variation of extreme rainfall events has predominant effect on agricultural water management and extreme hydrological events such as floods and droughts. Mahanadi river basin is one of the major river basins of India having an area of 1,41,589 km2 and divided into three regions: Upper, middle and delta region. The middle region of Mahanadi river basin has an area of 48,700 km2 and it is mostly dominated by agricultural land, where agriculture is mostly rainfed. The study region has five Agro-climatic zones namely: East and South Eastern Coastal Plain, North Eastern Ghat, Western Undulating Zone, Western Central Table Land and Mid Central Table Land, which were numbered as zones 1 to 5 respectively for convenience in reporting. In the present study, analysis of variability and trends of annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall was carried out, using the daily rainfall data collected from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) for 35 years (1979-2013) for the 5 agro-climatic zones. The long term variability of rainfall was investigated by evaluating the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The long term trend of rainfall was analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test on monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. It was found that there is a decreasing trend in the rainfall during the winter and pre monsoon seasons for zones 2, 3 and 4; whereas in the monsoon (rainy) season there is an increasing trend for zones 1, 4 and 5 with a level of significance ranging between 90-95%. On the other hand, the mean annual rainfall has an increasing trend at 99% significance level. The estimated seasonality index showed that the rainfall distribution is asymmetric and distributed over 3-4 months period. The study will help to understand the spatio-temporal variation of rainfall and to determine the correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study region for multifarious use.

Keywords: Eastern India, long-term variability and trends, Mann-Kendall test, seasonality index, spatio-temporal variation

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39 Global Evidence on the Seasonality of Enteric Infections, Malnutrition, and Livestock Ownership

Authors: Aishwarya Venkat, Anastasia Marshak, Ryan B. Simpson, Elena N. Naumova


Livestock ownership is simultaneously linked to improved nutritional status through increased availability of animal-source protein, and increased risk of enteric infections through higher exposure to contaminated water sources. Agrarian and agro-pastoral households, especially those with cattle, goats, and sheep, are highly dependent on seasonally various environmental conditions, which directly impact nutrition and health. This study explores global spatiotemporally explicit evidence regarding the relationship between livestock ownership, enteric infections, and malnutrition. Seasonal and cyclical fluctuations, as well as mediating effects, are further examined to elucidate health and nutrition outcomes of individual and communal livestock ownership. The US Agency for International Development’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund’s Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) provide valuable sources of household-level information on anthropometry, asset ownership, and disease outcomes. These data are especially important in data-sparse regions, where surveys may only be conducted in the aftermath of emergencies. Child-level disease history, anthropometry, and household-level asset ownership information have been collected since DHS-V (2003-present) and MICS-III (2005-present). This analysis combines over 15 years of survey data from DHS and MICS to study 2,466,257 children under age five from 82 countries. Subnational (administrative level 1) measures of diarrhea prevalence, mean livestock ownership by type, mean and median anthropometric measures (height for age, weight for age, and weight for height) were investigated. Effects of several environmental, market, community, and household-level determinants were studied. Such covariates included precipitation, temperature, vegetation, the market price of staple cereals and animal source proteins, conflict events, livelihood zones, wealth indices and access to water, sanitation, hygiene, and public health services. Children aged 0 – 6 months, 6 months – 2 years, and 2 – 5 years of age were compared separately. All observations were standardized to interview day of year, and administrative units were harmonized for consistent comparisons over time. Geographically weighted regressions were constructed for each outcome and subnational unit. Preliminary results demonstrate the importance of accounting for seasonality in concurrent assessments of malnutrition and enteric infections. Household assets, including livestock, often determine the intensity of these outcomes. In many regions, livestock ownership affects seasonal fluxes in malnutrition and enteric infections, which are also directly affected by environmental and local factors. Regression analysis demonstrates the spatiotemporal variability in nutrition outcomes due to a variety of causal factors. This analysis presents a synthesis of evidence from global survey data on the interrelationship between enteric infections, malnutrition, and livestock. These results provide a starting point for locally appropriate interventions designed to address this nexus in a timely manner and simultaneously improve health, nutrition, and livelihoods.

Keywords: diarrhea, enteric infections, households, livestock, malnutrition, seasonality

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
38 Effect of Outliers in Assessing Significant Wave Heights Through a Time-Dependent GEV Model

Authors: F. Calderón-Vega, A. D. García-Soto, C. Mösso


Recorded significant wave heights sometimes exhibit large uncommon values (outliers) that can be associated with extreme phenomena such as hurricanes and cold fronts. In this study, some extremely large wave heights recorded in NOAA buoys (National Data Buoy Center, are used to investigate their effect in the prediction of future wave heights associated with given return periods. Extreme waves are predicted through a time-dependent model based on the so-called generalized extreme value distribution. It is found that the outliers do affect the estimated wave heights. It is concluded that a detailed inspection of outliers is envisaged to determine whether they are real recorded values since this will impact defining design wave heights for coastal protection purposes.

Keywords: GEV model, non-stationary, seasonality, outliers

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37 Improving the Performance of Requisition Document Online System for Royal Thai Army by Using Time Series Model

Authors: D. Prangchumpol


This research presents a forecasting method of requisition document demands for Military units by using Exponential Smoothing methods to analyze data. The data used in the forecast is an actual data requisition document of The Adjutant General Department. The results of the forecasting model to forecast the requisition of the document found that Holt–Winters’ trend and seasonality method of α=0.1, β=0, γ=0 is appropriate and matches for requisition of documents. In addition, the researcher has developed a requisition online system to improve the performance of requisition documents of The Adjutant General Department, and also ensuring that the operation can be checked.

Keywords: requisition, holt–winters, time series, royal thai army

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36 Calendar Anomalies in Islamic Frontier Markets

Authors: Aslam Faheem, Hunjra Ahmed Imran, Tayachi Tahar, Verhoeven Peter, Tariq Yasir


We investigate the evidence of three risk-adjusted calendar anomalies in eight frontier markets. Our sample consists of the daily closing prices of their stock indices for the period of January 2006 to September 2019. We categorize the data with respect to day-of-the-week, Lunar calendar and Islamic calendar. Using Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) eight Markets Index as our proxy of the market portfolio, most of the frontier markets tested exhibit calendar seasonality. We confirm that systematic risk varies with respect to day-of-the-week, Lunar months and Islamic months. After consideration of time-varying risk and applying Bonferroni correction, few frontier markets exhibit profitable investment opportunities from calendar return anomalies for active investment managers.

Keywords: asset pricing, frontier markets, market efficiency, Islamic calendar effects, Islamic stock markets

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35 Epidemiological Analysis of Measles Outbreak in North-Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Fatima Meirkhankyzy Shaizadina, Alua Oralovna Omarova, Praskovya Mikhailovna Britskaya, Nessipkul Oryntayevna Alysheva


In recent years in the Republic of Kazakhstan there have been registered outbreaks of measles among the population. The objective of work was the analysis of outbreak of measles in 2014 among the population of North-Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the analysis of the measles outbreak descriptive and analytical research, techniques were used and threshold levels of morbidity were calculated. The increase of incidence was noted from March to July. The peak was registered in May and made 9.0 per 100000 population. High rates were registered in April – 5.7 per 100000 population, and in June and July they made 5.7 and 3.1 respectively. Duration of the period of increase made 5 months. The analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality. Across the territory it was established that 69.2% of cases were registered in the city, 29.1% in rural areas and 1.7% of cases were brought in from other regions of Kazakhstan. The registered cases and threshold values of measles during the outbreak revealed that from 12 to 24 week, and also during the 40th week the cases exceeding the threshold levels are registered. Thus, for example, for the analyzed 1 week the number of the revealed patients made 4, which exceeds the calculated threshold value (3) by 33.3%. The data exceeding the threshold values confirm the emergence of a disease outbreak or the beginning of epidemic rise in morbidity. Epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed throughout 2014. The risk group includes 0-4 year-old children, who made 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The analysis of measles cases registration by gender revealed that women are registered 1.1 times more often than men. The ratio of women to men made 1:0.87. In social and professional groups often ill are unorganized children – 23.3% and students – 19.8%. Studying clinical manifestations of measles in the hospitalized patients, the typical beginning of a disease with expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established. In individual cases expressed intoxication symptoms, hemorrhagic and dyspeptic syndromes, complications in the form of overlay of a secondary bacterial infection, which defined high severity of the illness, were registered both in adults and in children. The average duration of stay of patients in the hospital made 6.9 days. The average duration of time between date of getting the disease and date of delivery of health care made 3.6 days. Thus, the analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality, the peak of which was registered in May. Urban dwellers are ill more often (69.2%), while in rural areas people are ill more rarely (29.1%). Throughout 2014 an epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed. Risk group includes: children under 4 – 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The ratio of women and men made 1:0.87. The typical beginning of a disease in all hospitalized with the expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established.

Keywords: epidemiological analysis, measles, morbidity, outbreak

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34 Apricot Insurance Portfolio Risk

Authors: Kasirga Yildirak, Ismail Gur


We propose a model to measure hail risk of an Agricultural Insurance portfolio. Hail is one of the major catastrophic event that causes big amount of loss to an insurer. Moreover, it is very hard to predict due to its strange atmospheric characteristics. We make use of parcel based claims data on apricot damage collected by the Turkish Agricultural Insurance Pool (TARSIM). As our ultimate aim is to compute the loadings assigned to specific parcels, we build a portfolio risk model that makes use of PD and the severity of the exposures. PD is computed by Spherical-Linear and Circular –Linear regression models as the data carries coordinate information and seasonality. Severity is mapped into integer brackets so that Probability Generation Function could be employed. Individual regressions are run on each clusters estimated on different criteria. Loss distribution is constructed by Panjer Recursion technique. We also show that one risk-one crop model can easily be extended to the multi risk–multi crop model by assuming conditional independency.

Keywords: hail insurance, spherical regression, circular regression, spherical clustering

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33 Developing Logistics Indices for Turkey as an an Indicator of Economic Activity

Authors: Gizem İntepe, Eti Mizrahi


Investment and financing decisions are influenced by various economic features. Detailed analysis should be conducted in order to make decisions not only by companies but also by governments. Such analysis can be conducted either at the company level or on a sectoral basis to reduce risks and to maximize profits. Sectoral disaggregation caused by seasonality effects, subventions, data advantages or disadvantages may appear in sectors behaving parallel to BIST (Borsa Istanbul stock exchange) Index. Proposed logistic indices could serve market needs as a decision parameter in sectoral basis and also helps forecasting activities in import export volume changes. Also it is an indicator of logistic activity, which is also a sign of economic mobility at the national level. Publicly available data from “Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications” and “Turkish Statistical Institute” is utilized to obtain five logistics indices namely as; exLogistic, imLogistic, fLogistic, dLogistic and cLogistic index. Then, efficiency and reliability of these indices are tested.

Keywords: economic activity, export trade data, import trade data, logistics indices

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32 Forecasting Unemployment Rate in Selected European Countries Using Smoothing Methods

Authors: Ksenija Dumičić, Anita Čeh Časni, Berislav Žmuk


The aim of this paper is to select the most accurate forecasting method for predicting the future values of the unemployment rate in selected European countries. In order to do so, several forecasting techniques adequate for forecasting time series with trend component, were selected, namely: double exponential smoothing (also known as Holt`s method) and Holt-Winters` method which accounts for trend and seasonality. The results of the empirical analysis showed that the optimal model for forecasting unemployment rate in Greece was Holt-Winters` additive method. In the case of Spain, according to MAPE, the optimal model was double exponential smoothing model. Furthermore, for Croatia and Italy the best forecasting model for unemployment rate was Holt-Winters` multiplicative model, whereas in the case of Portugal the best model to forecast unemployment rate was Double exponential smoothing model. Our findings are in line with European Commission unemployment rate estimates.

Keywords: European Union countries, exponential smoothing methods, forecast accuracy unemployment rate

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31 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu


Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies

Keywords: crop yield, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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30 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model 1: Description

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu


Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies.

Keywords: runoff, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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29 The Relationship between Spanish Economic Variables: Evidence from the Wavelet Techniques

Authors: Concepcion Gonzalez-Concepcion, Maria Candelaria Gil-Fariña, Celina Pestano-Gabino


We analyze six relevant economic and financial variables for the period 2000M1-2015M3 in the context of the Spanish economy: a financial index (IBEX35), a commodity (Crude Oil Price in euros), a foreign exchange index (EUR/USD), a bond (Spanish 10-Year Bond), the Spanish National Debt and the Consumer Price Index. The goal of this paper is to analyze the main relations between them by computing the Wavelet Power Spectrum and the Cross Wavelet Coherency associated with Morlet wavelets. By using a special toolbox in MATLAB, we focus our interest on the period variable. We decompose the time-frequency effects and improve the interpretation of the results by non-expert users in the theory of wavelets. The empirical evidence shows certain instability periods and reveals various changes and breaks in the causality relationships for sample data. These variables were individually analyzed with Daubechies Wavelets to visualize high-frequency variance, seasonality, and trend. The results are included in Proceeding 20th International Academic Conference, 2015, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences (IISES), Madrid.

Keywords: economic and financial variables, Spain, time-frequency domain, wavelet coherency

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28 Long Term Changes of Aerosols and Their Radiative Forcing over the Tropical Urban Station Pune, India

Authors: M. P. Raju, P. D. Safai, P. S. P. Rao, P. C. S. Devara, C. V. Naidu


In order to study the Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, samples of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) were collected using a high volume sampler at Pune, a semi-urban location in SW India during March 2009 to February 2010. TSP samples were analyzed for water soluble components like F, Cl, NO3, SO4, NH4, Na, K, Ca, and Mg and acid soluble components like Al, Zn, Fe and Cu using Ion-Chromatograph and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Analysis of the data revealed that the monthly mean TSP concentrations varied between 471.3 µg/m3 and 30.5 µg/m3 with an annual mean value of 159.8 µg/m3. TSP concentrations were found to be less during post-monsoon and winter (October through February), compared to those in summer and monsoon (March through September). Anthropogenic activities like vehicular emissions and dust particles originated from urban activities were the major sources for TSP. TSP showed good correlation with all the major ionic components, especially with SO4 (R= 0.62) and NO3 (R= 0.67) indicating the impact of anthropogenic sources over the aerosols at Pune. However, the overall aerosol nature was alkaline (Ave pH = 6.17) mainly due to the neutralizing effects of Ca and NH4. SO4 contributed more (58.8%) to the total acidity as compared to NO3 (41.1%) where as, Ca contributed more (66.5%) to the total alkalinity than NH4 (33.5%). Seasonality of acid soluble component Al, Fe and Cu showed remarkable increase, indicating the dominance of soil source over the man-made activities. Overall study on TSP indicated that aerosols at Pune were mainly affected by the local sources.

Keywords: chemical composition, acidic and neutralization potential, radiative forcing, urban station

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27 Impact of Extension Services Pastoralists’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Jubril O. Animashaun


Pastoralists in Nigeria are situated in dry regions - where water and pasture for livestock are particularly scarce, as well as areas with poor availability of social amenities and infrastructure. This study therefore explored how extension service could be used to reduce the exposure of nomads to effects of seasonality, climate change, and the poor environmental conditions. The study was carried out in Northern guinea Savannah region of Nigeria because pastoralists have settled there in large numbers due to desertification and low rainfall in the arid regions. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to arrive at the selection of two states (Kwara and Nassarawa) in the region. A total of 63 respondents were randomly chosen using simple random sampling. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to gather information while the data was analysed using content analysis. The facilities required by the sampled households are milking machine, cheese making machine, and preservatives to increase the shelf life of cheese. Whilst, the extension service required are demonstration on cheese making, training and seminars on animal husbandry. Additionally, livestock of pastoralists often encroach on farmers’ plots which usually result in pastoralist-farmer conflicts. The study thus recommends diversification of economic activity from livestock to non-livestock related activities as well as creation of grazing routes to reduce pastoralist/farmer conflict.

Keywords: arid region, coping strategies, livestock, livelihood

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26 [Keynote Talk]: Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment to Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Basin of South India

Authors: K. Shimola, M. Krishnaveni


This paper examines vulnerability assessment of water resources in a semi-arid basin using the 4-step approach. The vulnerability assessment framework is developed to study the water resources vulnerability which includes the creation of GIS-based vulnerability maps. These maps represent the spatial variability of the vulnerability index. This paper introduces the 4-step approach to assess vulnerability that incorporates a new set of indicators. The approach is demonstrated using a framework composed of a precipitation data for (1975–2010) period, temperature data for (1965–2010) period, hydrological model outputs and the water resources GIS data base. The vulnerability assessment is a function of three components such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The current water resources vulnerability is assessed using GIS based spatio-temporal information. Rainfall Coefficient of Variation, monsoon onset and end date, rainy days, seasonality indices, temperature are selected for the criterion ‘exposure’. Water yield, ground water recharge, evapotranspiration (ET) are selected for the criterion ‘sensitivity’. Type of irrigation and storage structures are selected for the criterion ‘Adaptive capacity’. These indicators were mapped and integrated in GIS environment using overlay analysis. The five sub-basins, namely Arjunanadhi, Kousiganadhi, Sindapalli-Uppodai and Vallampatti Odai, fall under medium vulnerability profile, which indicates that the basin is under moderate stress of water resources. The paper also explores prioritization of sub-basinwise adaptation strategies to climate change based on the vulnerability indices.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, exposure, overlay analysis, sensitivity, vulnerability

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25 Impact of Climate Variability on Dispersal and Distribution of Airborne Pollen and Fungal Spores in Nsukka, South-East Nigeria: Implication on Public Health

Authors: Dimphna Ezikanyi, Gloria Sakwari


Airborne pollen and fungal spores are major triggers of allergies, and their abundance and seasonality depend on plant responses to climatic and meteorological variables. A survey of seasonal prevalence of airborne pollen and fungal spores in Nsukka, Enugu, South- East Nigeria and relationship to climatic variables were carried out from Jan-June, 2017. The aim of the study was to access climate change and variability over time in the area and their accrued influence on modern pollen and spores rain. Decadal change in climate was accessed from variables collected from meteorological centre in the study area. Airborne samples were collected monthly using a modified Tauber-like pollen samplers raised 5 ft above ground level. Aerosamples collected were subjected to acetolysis. Dominant pollen recorded were those of Poaceae, Elaeis guinensis Jacq. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. Change in weather brought by onset of rainfall evoked sporulation and dispersal of diverse spores into ambient air especially potent allergenic spores with the spores of Ovularia, Bispora, Curvularia, Nigrospora, Helminthosporium preponderant; these 'hydrophilic fungi' were abundant in the rainy season though in varying quantities. Total fungal spores correlated positively with monthly rainfall and humidity but negatively with temperature. There was a negative though not significant correlation between total pollen count and rainfall. The study revealed a strong influence of climatic variables on abundance and spatial distribution of pollen and fungal spores in the ambient atmosphere.

Keywords: allergy, fungal spores, pollen, weather parameters

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24 Oestrous Synchronization: A Technical Note for Nepalese Goat Farmers

Authors: Pravin Mishra, Ajeet K. Jha, Pankaj K. Jha


This technical note is aimed at providing a brief information on goat breeds, its breeding seasonality and different methods of oestrous synchronization for Nepalese goat farmers. It was observed that, these goats are seasonal breeder and showed oestrous during mainly two season; December- February and March-May. This leads to an irregular supply of goat to market and a wide variations in market price. Oestrus synchronization is only an alternative reproductive tool to overcome this scarcity by enhancing production and productivity. This technique enables goat producers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period and permits breeding round the year. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is based on controlling of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. There are two basic mechanisms; one by shortening the luteal life (premature luteolysis) using prostaglandins or its analogues and the other by prolonging the luteal life (simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum) using exogenous progesterone source. The former is easy to apply and only effective during breeding season, whereas the latter is advantageous when the reproductive status of the goat flock is unknown. The common hormonal products easily available in Nepal includes; prostaglandins or its analogues (Oviprost® Dinoprost® Lutalyse® and Estrumate®), exogenous progesterone (Fluorogestone acetate® and Controlled Internal Drug Release®, CIDR) devices). However, before practicing the oestrous synchronization protocol, it needs to be validated for oestrous response rate, time to onset of oestrous, duration of oestrous and pregnancy rates at farmer’s field. In conclusion, application of oestrus synchronisation practice enhanced goat production and surplus the goat meat demand in Nepal.

Keywords: goat, Nepal, oestrous, synchronization

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23 Efficacy of Conservation Strategies for Endangered Garcinia gummi gutta under Climate Change in Western Ghats

Authors: Malay K. Pramanik


Climate change is continuously affecting the ecosystem, species distribution as well as global biodiversity. The assessment of the species potential distribution and the spatial changes under various climate change scenarios is a significant step towards the conservation and mitigation of habitat shifts, and species' loss and vulnerability. In this context, the present study aimed to predict the influence of current and future climate on an ecologically vulnerable medicinal species, Garcinia gummi-gutta, of the southern Western Ghats using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling. The future projections were made for the period of 2050 and 2070 with RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenario of 4.5 and 8.5 using 84 species occurrence data, and climatic variables from three different models of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment. Climatic variables contributions were assessed using jackknife test and AOC value 0.888 indicates the model perform with high accuracy. The major influencing variables will be annual precipitation, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest quarter. The model result shows that the current high potential distribution of the species is around 1.90% of the study area, 7.78% is good potential; about 90.32% is moderate to very low potential for species suitability. Finally, the results of all model represented that there will be a drastic decline in the suitable habitat distribution by 2050 and 2070 for all the RCP scenarios. The study signifies that MaxEnt model might be an efficient tool for ecosystem management, biodiversity protection, and species re-habitation planning under climate change.

Keywords: Garcinia gummi gutta, maximum entropy modeling, medicinal plants, climate change, western ghats, MaxEnt

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22 A Trend Based Forecasting Framework of the ATA Method and Its Performance on the M3-Competition Data

Authors: H. Taylan Selamlar, I. Yavuz, G. Yapar


It is difficult to make predictions especially about the future and making accurate predictions is not always easy. However, better predictions remain the foundation of all science therefore the development of accurate, robust and reliable forecasting methods is very important. Numerous number of forecasting methods have been proposed and studied in the literature. There are still two dominant major forecasting methods: Box-Jenkins ARIMA and Exponential Smoothing (ES), and still new methods are derived or inspired from them. After more than 50 years of widespread use, exponential smoothing is still one of the most practically relevant forecasting methods available due to their simplicity, robustness and accuracy as automatic forecasting procedures especially in the famous M-Competitions. Despite its success and widespread use in many areas, ES models have some shortcomings that negatively affect the accuracy of forecasts. Therefore, a new forecasting method in this study will be proposed to cope with these shortcomings and it will be called ATA method. This new method is obtained from traditional ES models by modifying the smoothing parameters therefore both methods have similar structural forms and ATA can be easily adapted to all of the individual ES models however ATA has many advantages due to its innovative new weighting scheme. In this paper, the focus is on modeling the trend component and handling seasonality patterns by utilizing classical decomposition. Therefore, ATA method is expanded to higher order ES methods for additive, multiplicative, additive damped and multiplicative damped trend components. The proposed models are called ATA trended models and their predictive performances are compared to their counter ES models on the M3 competition data set since it is still the most recent and comprehensive time-series data collection available. It is shown that the models outperform their counters on almost all settings and when a model selection is carried out amongst these trended models ATA outperforms all of the competitors in the M3- competition for both short term and long term forecasting horizons when the models’ forecasting accuracies are compared based on popular error metrics.

Keywords: accuracy, exponential smoothing, forecasting, initial value

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21 Linking Temporal Changes of Climate Factors with Staple Cereal Yields in Southern Burkina Faso

Authors: Pius Borona, Cheikh Mbow, Issa Ouedraogo


In the Sahel, climate variability has been associated with a complex web of direct and indirect impacts. This natural phenomenon has been an impediment to agro-pastoral communities who experience uncertainty while involving in farming activities which is also their key source of livelihood. In this scenario, the role of climate variability in influencing the performance, quantity and quality of staple cereals yields, vital for food and nutrition security has been a topic of importance. This response of crops and subsequent yield variability is also a subject of immense debate due to the complexity of crop development at different stages. This complexity is further compounded by influence of slowly changing non-climatic factors. With these challenges in mind, the present paper initially explores the occurrence of climate variability at an inter annual and inter decadal level in South Burkina Faso. This is evidenced by variation of the total annual rainfall and the number of rainy days among other climatic descriptors. Further, it is shown how district-scale cereal yields in the study area including maize, sorghum and millet casually associate variably to the inter-annual variation of selected climate variables. Statistical models show that the three cereals widely depict sensitivity to the length of the growing period and total dry days in the growing season. Maize yields on the other hand relate strongly to the rainfall amount variation (R2=51.8%) showing high moisture dependence during critical growth stages. Our conclusions emphasize on adoption of efficient water utilization platforms especially those that have evidently increased yields and strengthening of forecasts dissemination.

Keywords: climate variability, cereal yields, seasonality, rain fed farming, Burkina Faso, rainfall

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