Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 916

Search results for: LEACH protocol

916 Optimized Cluster Head Selection Algorithm Based on LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Wided Abidi, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) has been considered as one of the effective hierarchical routing algorithms that optimize energy and prolong the lifetime of network. Since the selection of Cluster Head (CH) in LEACH is carried out randomly, in this paper, we propose an approach of electing CH based on LEACH protocol. In other words, we present a formula for calculating the threshold responsible for CH election. In fact, we adopt three principle criteria: the remaining energy of node, the number of neighbors within cluster range and the distance between node and CH. Simulation results show that our proposed approach beats LEACH protocol in regards of prolonging the lifetime of network and saving residual energy.

Keywords: wireless sensors networks, LEACH protocol, cluster head election, energy efficiency

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915 O-LEACH: The Problem of Orphan Nodes in the LEACH of Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Wassim Jerbi, Abderrahmen Guermazi, Hafedh Trabelsi

Abstract:

The optimum use of coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important. LEACH protocol called Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, presents a hierarchical clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks. LEACH is a protocol that allows the formation of distributed cluster. In each cluster, LEACH randomly selects some sensor nodes called cluster heads (CHs). The selection of CHs is made with a probabilistic calculation. It is supposed that each non-CH node joins a cluster and becomes a cluster member. Nevertheless, some CHs can be concentrated in a specific part of the network. Thus, several sensor nodes cannot reach any CH. to solve this problem. We created an O-LEACH Orphan nodes protocol, its role is to reduce the sensor nodes which do not belong the cluster. The cluster member called Gateway receives messages from neighboring orphan nodes. The gateway informs CH having the neighboring nodes that not belong to any group. However, Gateway called (CH') attaches the orphaned nodes to the cluster and then collected the data. O-Leach enables the formation of a new method of cluster, leads to a long life and minimal energy consumption. Orphan nodes possess enough energy and seeks to be covered by the network. The principal novel contribution of the proposed work is O-LEACH protocol which provides coverage of the whole network with a minimum number of orphaned nodes and has a very high connectivity rates.As a result, the WSN application receives data from the entire network including orphan nodes. The proper functioning of the Application requires, therefore, management of intelligent resources present within each the network sensor. The simulation results show that O-LEACH performs better than LEACH in terms of coverage, connectivity rate, energy and scalability.

Keywords: WSNs; routing; LEACH; O-LEACH; Orphan nodes; sub-cluster; gateway; CH’

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914 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, K-means clustering, LEACH protocol, wireless sensor network

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913 Energy Efficient Heterogeneous System for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Authors: José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, Jeronimo Silva Rocha

Abstract:

Mobile devices are increasingly occupying sectors of society and one of its most important features is mobility. However, the use of mobile devices is subject to the lifetime of the batteries. Thus, the use of energy batteries has become an important issue in the study of wireless network technologies. In this context, new solutions that enable aggregate energy efficiency not only through energy saving, and principally they are evaluated from a more realistic model of energy discharge, if easy adaptation to existing protocols. This paper presents a study on the energy needed and the lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) using a heterogeneous network and applying the LEACH protocol.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, heterogeneous, LEACH protocol

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912 Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching

Authors: Mehmet Ali Topçu, Aydın Ruşen

Abstract:

Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.

Keywords: hydrometallurgy, leaching, metal extraction, metal recovery

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911 Power Aware Modified I-LEACH Protocol Using Fuzzy IF Then Rules

Authors: Gagandeep Singh, Navdeep Singh

Abstract:

Due to limited battery of sensor nodes, so energy efficiency found to be main constraint in WSN. Therefore the main focus of the present work is to find the ways to minimize the energy consumption problem and will results; enhancement in the network stability period and life time. Many researchers have proposed different kind of the protocols to enhance the network lifetime further. This paper has evaluated the issues which have been neglected in the field of the WSNs. WSNs are composed of multiple unattended ultra-small, limited-power sensor nodes. Sensor nodes are deployed randomly in the area of interest. Sensor nodes have limited processing, wireless communication and power resource capabilities Sensor nodes send sensed data to sink or Base Station (BS). I-LEACH gives adaptive clustering mechanism which very efficiently deals with energy conservations. This paper ends up with the shortcomings of various adaptive clustering based WSNs protocols.

Keywords: WSN, I-Leach, MATLAB, sensor

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910 Hybrid Hierarchical Routing Protocol for WSN Lifetime Maximization

Authors: H. Aoudia, Y. Touati, E. H. Teguig, A. Ali Cherif

Abstract:

Conceiving and developing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks requires considerations on constraints such as network lifetime and energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a hybrid hierarchical routing protocol named HHRP combining both clustering mechanism and multipath optimization taking into account residual energy and RSSI measures. HHRP consists of classifying dynamically nodes into clusters where coordinators nodes with extra privileges are able to manipulate messages, aggregate data and ensure transmission between nodes according to TDMA and CDMA schedules. The reconfiguration of the network is carried out dynamically based on a threshold value which is associated with the number of nodes belonging to the smallest cluster. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach HHRP, a comparative study with LEACH protocol is illustrated in simulations.

Keywords: routing protocol, optimization, clustering, WSN

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909 Energy Balance Routing to Enhance Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Baraneedaran, Deepak Singh, Kollipara Tejesh

Abstract:

The wireless sensors network has been an active research area over the y-ear passed. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively, an energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. A spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for Local topology is designed additionally. In this experiment, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EECU, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EECU, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high Qos of WSN.

Keywords: energy balance, forward-aware factor (FAF), forward energy density, link weight, network performance

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908 The Effect of a Computer-Assisted Glycemic Surveillance Protocol on Nursing Workload

Authors: Özlem Canbolat, Sevgisun Kapucu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol on nursing workload in intensive care unit. The study is completed in an Education and Research Hospital in Ankara with the attendance of volunteered 19 nurse who had been worked in reanimation unit. Nurses used the written protocol and computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol for glycemic follow-up approach of the intensive care patients. Nurses used the written protocol first in the glycemic follow-up of the patient, then used the computer-assisted protocol. (Nurses used the written protocol first, then the computer-assisted protocol in the glycemic follow-up of the patient). Less time was spent in glycemic control with computerized protocol than written protocol and this difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was determined that the computerized protocol application was completed in about 10 seconds (25% shorter) than the written protocol implementation. The computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol was found to be more easy and appropriate by nurses and the satisfaction level of the users was higher than with written protocol. While 79% of the nurses find it confusing to implement the written protocol, 79% were satisfied with the use of computerized protocol.

Keywords: computer-assisted protocol, glycemic control, insulin infusion protocol, intensive care, nursing workload

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907 A Hill Cipher Based on the Kish-Sethuraman Protocol

Authors: Kondwani Magamba

Abstract:

In the idealized Kish-Sethuraman (KS) protocol,messages are sent between Alice and Bob each using a secret personal key. This protocol is said to be perfectly secure because both Bob and Alice keep their keys undisclosed so that at all times the message is encrypted by at least one key, thus no information is leaked or shared. In this paper, we propose a realization of the KS protocol through the use of the Hill Cipher.

Keywords: Kish-Sethuraman Protocol, Hill Cipher, MDS Matrices, encryption

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906 Evaluation of Collect Tree Protocol for Structural Health Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

Routing protocol may enhance the lifetime of sensor network, it has a highly importance, especially in wireless sensor network (WSN). Therefore, routing protocol has a big effect in these networks, thus the choice of routing protocol must be studied before setting up our network. In this work, we implement the routing protocol collect tree protocol (CTP) which is one of the hierarchic protocols used in structural health monitoring (SHM). Therefore, to evaluate the performance of this protocol, we choice to work with Contiki system and Cooja simulator. By throughput and RSSI evaluation of each node, we will deduce about the utility of CTP in structural monitoring system.

Keywords: CTP, WSN, SHM, routing protocol

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905 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: event-B, wireless transaction protocol, proof obligation, refinement, Rodin, ProB

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904 Cryptographic Protocol for Secure Cloud Storage

Authors: Luvisa Kusuma, Panji Yudha Prakasa

Abstract:

Cloud storage, as a subservice of infrastructure as a service (IaaS) in Cloud Computing, is the model of nerworked storage where data can be stored in server. In this paper, we propose a secure cloud storage system consisting of two main components; client as a user who uses the cloud storage service and server who provides the cloud storage service. In this system, we propose the protocol schemes to guarantee against security attacks in the data transmission. The protocols are login protocol, upload data protocol, download protocol, and push data protocol, which implement hybrid cryptographic mechanism based on data encryption before it is sent to the cloud, so cloud storage provider does not know the user's data and cannot analysis user’s data, because there is no correspondence between data and user.

Keywords: cloud storage, security, cryptographic protocol, artificial intelligence

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903 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, sensors, wireless sensor networks

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902 The Study of ZigBee Protocol Application in Wireless Networks

Authors: Ardavan Zamanpour, Somaieh Yassari

Abstract:

ZigBee protocol network was developed in industries and MIT laboratory in 1997. ZigBee is a wireless networking technology by alliance ZigBee which is designed to low board and low data rate applications. It is a Protocol which connects between electrical devises with very low energy and cost. The first version of IEEE 802.15.4 which was formed ZigBee was based on 2.4GHZ MHZ 912MHZ 868 frequency band. The name of system is often reminded random directions that bees (BEES) traversing during pollination of products. Such as alloy of the ways in which information packets are traversed within the mesh network. This paper aims to study the performance and effectiveness of this protocol in wireless networks.

Keywords: ZigBee, protocol, wireless, networks

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901 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Three Different Orthodontic Latex Elastic Bands Leached with NaOH Solution

Authors: Thipsupar Pureprasert, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Surapich Loykulanant, Chaveewan Kongkaew, Wassana Wichai

Abstract:

Objective: Orthodontic elastic bands made from natural rubber continue to be commonly used due to their favorable characteristics. However, there are concerns associated cytotoxicity due to harmful components released during conventional vulcanization (sulfur-based method). With the co-operation of The National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) and Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University, a method was introduced to reduce toxic components by leaching the orthodontic elastic bands with NaOH solution. Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical properties of Thai and commercial orthodontic elastic brands (Ormco and W&H) leached with NaOH solution. Material and methods: Three elastic brands (N =30, size ¼ inch, 4.5 oz.) were tested for mechanical properties in terms of initial extension force, residual force, force loss, breaking strength and maximum displacement using a Universal Testing Machine. Results : Force loss significantly decreased in Thai-LEACH and W&H-LEACH, whereas the values increased in Ormco-LEACH (P < 0.05). The data exhibited a significantly decrease in breaking strength with Thai-LEACH and Ormco-LEACH, whereas all 3 brands revealed a significantly decrease in maximum displacement with the leaching process (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Leaching with NaOH solution is a new method, which can remove toxic components from orthodontic latex elastic bands. However, this process can affect their mechanical properties. Leached elastic bands from Thai had comparable properties with Ormco and have potential to be developed as a promising product.

Keywords: leaching, orthodontic elastics, natural rubber latex, orthodontic

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900 An Incremental Refinement Approach to a Development of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental development of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Event-B. DHCP is widely used communication protocol, which provides a standard mechanism to obtain configuration parameters. The specification is performed in a stepwise manner and verified through a series of refinements. The Event-B formal method uses the Rodin platform to modeling and verifying some properties of the protocol such as safety, liveness and deadlock freedom. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps.

Keywords: DHCP protocol, Event-B, refinement, proof obligation, Rodin

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899 Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Vikram Prabhu, Mohammad Shikh Bahaei

Abstract:

This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.

Keywords: interlock protocol, Diffie-Hellman algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicles, control station, man-in-the-middle attack, Wireshark

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898 Security Analysis of SIMSec Protocol

Authors: Kerem Ok, Cem Cevikbas, Vedat Coskun, Mohammed Alsadi, Busra Ozdenizci

Abstract:

Un-keyed SIM cards do not contain the required security infrastructure to provide end-to-end encryption with Service Providers. Hence, new, emerging, or smart services those require end-to-end encryption between SIM card and a Service Provider is impossible. SIMSec key exchange protocol creates symmetric keys between SIM card and Service Provider. After a successful protocol execution, SIM card and Service Provider creates the symmetric keys and can perform end-to-end data encryption when required. In this paper, our aim is to analyze the SIMSec protocol’s security. According to the results, SIM card and Service Provider can generate keys securely using SIMSec protocol.

Keywords: End-to-end encryption, key exchange, SIM card, smart card

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897 An Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Ahmadu Maidorawa, Kamalrulnizam Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This paper proposed an Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing (ECAR) protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The protocol uses a control broadcast to reduce the number of overhead packets needed in a route discovery process. It is also equipped with an alternative backup route that is used whenever a primary path to destination failed, which highly reduces the frequent launching and re-launching of the route discovery process that waste useful bandwidth and unnecessarily prolonging the average packet delay. NS2 simulation results show that the performance of ECAR protocol outperformed the original connectivity aware routing (CAR) protocol by reducing the average packet delay by 28%, control overheads by 27% and increased the packet delivery ratio by 22%.

Keywords: alternative path, primary path, protocol, routing, VANET, vehicular ad hoc networks

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896 Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Anu Malhotra

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An Ad-hoc network is one that is an autonomous, self configuring network made up of mobile nodes connected via wireless links. Ad-hoc networks often consist of nodes, mobile hosts (MH) or mobile stations (MS, also serving as routers) connected by wireless links. Different routing protocols are used for data transmission in between the nodes in an adhoc network. In this paper two protocols (OLSR and AODV) are analyzed on the basis of two parameters i.e. time delay and throughput with different data rates. On the basis of these analysis, we observed that with same data rate, AODV protocol is having more time delay than the OLSR protocol whereas throughput for the OLSR protocol is less compared to the AODV protocol.

Keywords: routing adhoc, mobile hosts, mobile stations, OLSR protocol, AODV protocol

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895 Multi-Sender MAC Protocol Based on Temporal Reuse in Underwater Acoustic Networks

Authors: Dongwon Lee, Sunmyeng Kim

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic networks (UANs) have become a very active research area in recent years. Compared with wireless networks, UANs are characterized by the limited bandwidth, long propagation delay and high channel dynamic in acoustic modems, which pose challenges to the design of medium access control (MAC) protocol. The characteristics severely affect network performance. In this paper, we study a MS-MAC (Multi-Sender MAC) protocol in order to improve network performance. The proposed protocol exploits temporal reuse by learning the propagation delays to neighboring nodes. A source node locally calculates the transmission schedules of its neighboring nodes and itself based on the propagation delays to avoid collisions. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and confirms that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput.

Keywords: acoustic channel, MAC, temporal reuse, UAN

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894 Secure Network Coding-Based Named Data Network Mutual Anonymity Transfer Protocol

Authors: Tao Feng, Fei Xing, Ye Lu, Jun Li Fang

Abstract:

NDN is a kind of future Internet architecture. Due to the NDN design introduces four privacy challenges,Many research institutions began to care about the privacy issues of naming data network(NDN).In this paper, we are in view of the major NDN’s privacy issues to investigate privacy protection,then put forwards more effectively anonymous transfer policy for NDN.Firstly,based on mutual anonymity communication for MP2P networks,we propose NDN mutual anonymity protocol.Secondly,we add interest package authentication mechanism in the protocol and encrypt the coding coefficient, security of this protocol is improved by this way.Finally, we proof the proposed anonymous transfer protocol security and anonymity.

Keywords: NDN, mutual anonymity, anonymous routing, network coding, authentication mechanism

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893 Cryptanalysis of ID-Based Deniable Authentication Protocol Based On Diffie-Hellman Problem on Elliptic Curve

Authors: Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

Deniable authentication protocol is a new security authentication mechanism which can enable a receiver to identify the true source of a given message, but not to prove the identity of the sender to a third party. In 2013, Kar proposed a secure ID-based deniable authentication protocol whose security is based on computational infeasibility of solving Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Problem (ECDHP). Kar claimed that the proposed protocol achieves properties of deniable authentication, mutual authentication, and message confidentiality. However, this paper points out that Kar's protocol still suffers from sender spoofing attack and message modification attack unlike its claims.

Keywords: deniable authentication, elliptic curve cryptography, Diffie-Hellman problem, cryptanalysis

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892 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen

Abstract:

The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: QKD, BB84, protocol, cryptography, FPGA, key, security, communication

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891 Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Collision Avoidance Multicasting Protocol in VANETs

Authors: Navneet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

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In Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data Dissemination is a challenging task. There are number of techniques, types and protocols available for disseminating the data but in order to preserve limited bandwidth and to disseminate maximum data over networks makes it more challenging. There are broadcasting, multicasting and geocasting based protocols. Multicasting based protocols are found to be best for conserving the bandwidth. One such protocol named BEAM exists that improves the performance of Vehicular Adhoc Networks by reducing the number of in-network message transactions and thereby efficiently utilizing the bandwidth during an emergency situation. But this protocol may result in multicar chain collision as there was no V2V communication. So, this paper proposes a new protocol named Enhanced Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Multicasting Protocol (EBECM) that will overcome the limitations of existing BEAM protocol. And Simulation results will show the improved performance of EBECM in terms of Routing overhead, throughput and PDR when compared with BEAM protocol.

Keywords: BEAM, data dissemination, emergency situation, vehicular adhoc network

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890 Path-Spin to Spin-Spin Hybrid Quantum Entanglement: A Conversion Protocol

Authors: Indranil Bayal, Pradipta Panchadhyayee

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Path-spin hybrid entanglement generated and confined in a single spin-1/2 particle is converted to spin-spin hybrid interparticle entanglement, which finds its important applications in quantum information processing. This protocol uses beam splitter, spin flipper, spin measurement, classical channel, unitary transformations, etc., and requires no collective operation on the pair of particles whose spin variables share complete entanglement after the accomplishment of the protocol. The specialty of the protocol lies in the fact that the path-spin entanglement is transferred between spin degrees of freedom of two separate particles initially possessed by a single party.

Keywords: entanglement, path-spin entanglement, spin-spin entanglement, CNOT operation

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889 Lightweight Cryptographically Generated Address for IPv6 Neighbor Discovery

Authors: Amjed Sid Ahmed, Rosilah Hassan, Nor Effendy Othman

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Limited functioning of the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) has necessitated the development of the Internetworking Protocol next generation (IPng) to curb the challenges. Indeed, the IPng is also referred to as the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and includes the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP). The latter performs the role of Address Auto-configuration, Router Discovery (RD), and Neighbor Discovery (ND). Furthermore, the role of the NDP entails redirecting the service, detecting the duplicate address, and detecting the unreachable services. Despite the fact that there is an NDP’s assumption regarding the existence of trust the links’ nodes, several crucial attacks may affect the Protocol. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) therefore has recommended implementation of Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol (SEND) to tackle safety issues in NDP. The SEND protocol is mainly used for validation of address rights, malicious response inhibiting techniques and finally router certification procedures. For routine running of these tasks, SEND utilizes on the following options, Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA), RSA Signature, Nonce and Timestamp option. CGA is produced at extra high costs making it the most notable disadvantage of SEND. In this paper a clear description of the constituents of CGA, its operation and also recommendations for improvements in its generation are given.

Keywords: CGA, IPv6, NDP, SEND

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888 The Maximum Throughput Analysis of UAV Datalink 802.11b Protocol

Authors: Inkyu Kim, SangMan Moon

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This IEEE 802.11b protocol provides up to 11Mbps data rate, whereas aerospace industry wants to seek higher data rate COTS data link system in the UAV. The Total Maximum Throughput (TMT) and delay time are studied on many researchers in the past years This paper provides theoretical data throughput performance of UAV formation flight data link using the existing 802.11b performance theory. We operate the UAV formation flight with more than 30 quad copters with 802.11b protocol. We may be predicting that UAV formation flight numbers have to bound data link protocol performance limitations.

Keywords: UAV datalink, UAV formation flight datalink, UAV WLAN datalink application, UAV IEEE 802.11b datalink application

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887 A Multilevel Authentication Protocol: MAP in VANET for Human Safety

Authors: N. Meddeb, A. M. Makhlouf, M. A. Ben Ayed

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Due to the real-time requirement of message in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), it is necessary to authenticate vehicles to achieve security, efficiency, and conditional privacy-preserving. Privacy is of utmost relevance in VANETs. For this reason, we have proposed a new protocol called ‘Multilevel Authentication Protocol’ (MAP) that considers different vehicle categories. The proposed protocol is based on our Multilevel Authentication protocol for Vehicular networks (MAVnet). But the MAP leads to human safety, where the priority is given to the ambulance vehicles. For evaluation, we used the Java language to develop a demo application and deployed it on the Network Security Simulation (Nessi2). Compared with existing authentication protocols, MAP markedly enhance the communication overhead and decreases the delay of exchanging messages while preserving conditional privacy.

Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), vehicle categories, safety, databases, privacy, authentication, throughput, delay

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