Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2264

Search results for: base station

2264 Cooperative Scheme Using Adjacent Base Stations in Wireless Communication

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Seung-Jun Yu, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In a wireless communication system, the failure of base station can result in a communication disruption in the cell. This paper proposes a way to deal with the failure of base station in a wireless communication system based on OFDM. Cooperative communication of the adjacent base stations can be a solution of the problem. High performance is obtained by the configuration of transmission signals which is applied CDD scheme in the cooperative communication. The Cooperative scheme can be a effective solution in case of the particular situation.

Keywords: base station, CDD, OFDM, diversity gain, MIMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
2263 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah

Abstract:

This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2262 A Multiple Beam LTE Base Station Antenna with Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Sectorization

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A low wind-load light-weight broad-band multi-beam base station antenna has been developed. It can generate any required number of beams with the required beamwidths. It can have horizontal and vertical sectorization at the same time. Vertical sectorization doubles the overall number of beams. It will be very valuable in LTE-A and 5G. It can be used to serve vertically split inner and outer cells, which improves system performance. The intersection between the beams of the proposed multi-beam antenna can be controlled by optimizing the design parameters of the antenna. The gain at the points of intersection between the beams, the null filling and the overlap between the beams can all be modified. The proposed multi-beam base station antenna can cover an unlimited number of wireless applications, regardless of their frequency bands. It can simultaneously cover all, current and future, wireless technology generations such as 2G, 3G, 4G (LTE), --- etc. For example, in LTE, it covers the bands 450-470 MHz, 690-960 MHz, 1.4-2.7 GHz and 3.3-3.8 GHz. It has at least 2 ports for each band in each beam for ±45° polarizations. It can include up to 72 ports or even more, which could facilitate any further needed capacity expansions.

Keywords: base station antenna, multi-beam antenna, smart antenna, vertical sectorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2261 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
2260 High Gain Mobile Base Station Antenna Using Curved Woodpile EBG Technique

Authors: P. Kamphikul, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

This paper presents the gain improvement of a sector antenna for mobile phone base station by using the new technique to enhance its gain for microstrip antenna (MSA) array without construction enlargement. The curved woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) has been utilized to improve the gain instead. The advantages of this proposed antenna are reducing the length of MSAs array but providing the higher gain and easy fabrication and installation. Moreover, it provides a fan-shaped radiation pattern, wide in the horizontal direction and relatively narrow in the vertical direction, which appropriate for mobile phone base station. The paper also presents the design procedures of a 1x8 MSAs array associated with U-shaped reflector for decreasing their back and side lobes. The fabricated curved woodpile EBG exhibits bandgap characteristics at 2.1 GHz and is utilized for realizing a resonant cavity of MSAs array. This idea has been verified by both the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and experimental results. As the results, the fabricated proposed antenna achieves a high gain of 20.3 dB and the half-power beam widths in the E- and H-plane of 36.8 and 8.7 degrees, respectively. Good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna was obtained.

Keywords: gain improvement, microstrip antenna array, electromagnetic band gap, base station

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2259 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: cognitive radio, base station, best effort, MLPNN, prediction, real time

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2258 A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station

Authors: Naoya Ozaki, Takuya Watanabe, Ryosuke Matsumoto, Noriko Fukasawa

Abstract:

In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.

Keywords: attractiveness of the station, estimation method, number of passengers of the station, redevelopment around the station, renovation of the station

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2257 Adaptive Certificate-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol for Mobile Grid Infrastructure

Authors: H. Parveen Begam, M. A. Maluk Mohamed

Abstract:

Mobile Grid Computing is an environment that allows sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in dynamic, heterogeneous and distributed environment using different types of electronic portable devices. In a grid environment the security issues are like authentication, authorization, message protection and delegation handled by GSI (Grid Security Infrastructure). Proving better security between mobile devices and grid infrastructure is a major issue, because of the open nature of wireless networks, heterogeneous and distributed environments. In a mobile grid environment, the individual computing devices may be resource-limited in isolation, as an aggregated sum, they have the potential to play a vital role within the mobile grid environment. Some adaptive methodology or solution is needed to solve the issues like authentication of a base station, security of information flowing between a mobile user and a base station, prevention of attacks within a base station, hand-over of authentication information, communication cost of establishing a session key between mobile user and base station, computing complexity of achieving authenticity and security. The sharing of resources of the devices can be achieved only through the trusted relationships between the mobile hosts (MHs). Before accessing the grid service, the mobile devices should be proven authentic. This paper proposes the dynamic certificate based mutual authentication protocol between two mobile hosts in a mobile grid environment. The certificate generation process is done by CA (Certificate Authority) for all the authenticated MHs. Security (because of validity period of the certificate) and dynamicity (transmission time) can be achieved through the secure service certificates. Authentication protocol is built on communication services to provide cryptographically secured mechanisms for verifying the identity of users and resources.

Keywords: mobile grid computing, certificate authority (CA), SSL/TLS protocol, secured service certificates

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2256 Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Station's Accessibility Reliability: A Case Study of Hangzhou Metro, China

Authors: Jin-Qu Chen, Jie Liu, Yong Yin, Zi-Qi Ju, Yu-Yao Wu

Abstract:

Increase in travel fare and station’s failure will have huge impact on passengers’ travel. The Urban Rail Transit (URT) station’s accessibility reliability under increasing travel fare and station failure are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the passenger’s travel path is resumed based on stochastic user equilibrium and Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) data. Secondly, calculating station’s importance by combining LeaderRank algorithm and Ratio of Station Affected Passenger Volume (RSAPV), and then the station’s accessibility evaluation indicators are proposed based on the analysis of passenger’s travel characteristic. Thirdly, station’s accessibility under different scenarios are measured and rate of accessibility change is proposed as station’s accessibility reliability indicator. Finally, the accessibility of Hangzhou metro stations is analyzed by the formulated models. The result shows that Jinjiang station and Liangzhu station are the most important and convenient station in the Hangzhou metro, respectively. Station failure and increase in travel fare and station failure have huge impact on station’s accessibility, except for increase in travel fare. Stations in Hangzhou metro Line 1 have relatively worse accessibility reliability and Fengqi Road station’s accessibility reliability is weakest. For Hangzhou metro operational department, constructing new metro line around Line 1 and protecting Line 1’s station preferentially can effective improve the accessibility reliability of Hangzhou metro.

Keywords: automatic fare collection data, AFC, station’s accessibility reliability, stochastic user equilibrium, urban rail transit, URT

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2255 A Study on Using Network Coding for Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rei-Heng Cheng, Wen-Pinn Fang

Abstract:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed by a large number of sensors and one or a few base stations, where the sensor is responsible for detecting specific event information, which is sent back to the base station(s). However, how to save electricity consumption to extend the network lifetime is a problem that cannot be ignored in the wireless sensor networks. Since the sensor network is used to monitor a region or specific events, how the information can be reliably sent back to the base station is surly important. Network coding technique is often used to enhance the reliability of the network transmission. When a node needs to send out M data packets, it encodes these data with redundant data and sends out totally M + R packets. If the receiver can get any M packets out from these M + R packets, it can decode and get the original M data packets. To transmit redundant packets will certainly result in the excess energy consumption. This paper will explore relationship between the quality of wireless transmission and the number of redundant packets. Hopefully, each sensor can overhear the nearby transmissions, learn the wireless transmission quality around it, and dynamically determine the number of redundant packets used in network coding.

Keywords: energy consumption, network coding, transmission reliability, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2254 Using Deep Learning for the Detection of Faulty RJ45 Connectors on a Radio Base Station

Authors: Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok, Marrone Silvério Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner

Abstract:

A radio base station (RBS), part of the radio access network, is a particular type of equipment that supports the connection between a wide range of cellular user devices and an operator network access infrastructure. Nowadays, most of the RBS maintenance is carried out manually, resulting in a time consuming and costly task. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. This paper proposes and compares two deep learning solutions to identify attached RJ45 connectors on network ports. We named connector detection, the solution based on object detection, and connector classification, the one based on object classification. With the connector detection, we get an accuracy of 0:934, mean average precision 0:903. Connector classification, get a maximum accuracy of 0:981 and an AUC of 0:989. Although connector detection was outperformed in this study, this should not be viewed as an overall result as connector detection is more flexible for scenarios where there is no precise information about the environment and the possible devices. At the same time, the connector classification requires that information to be well-defined.

Keywords: radio base station, maintenance, classification, detection, deep learning, automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
2253 Environmental Impact Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Base Station in Central Area of KSA

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Alrajhi

Abstract:

The rapid growth in the number of mobile phone subscribers has resulted in an increased number of mobile base stations all over the world. Generally, mobile base stations are existing in huge numbers in populated areas than in non-populated ones to serve the largest number of users. The total number of mobile subscriptions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reached around 50 million at the end of 2014, with a penetration rate of 165.1% according to the quarterly electronic newsletter issued by the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The current investigation was conducted primarily to measure the level of electromagnetic fields emitted from 400 mobile base stations for the purpose of environmental safety and radiation protection in light of national guidelines for public exposure as well as the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcomes of this investigation provide valuable comments and recommendation for safety and protection of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile base stations.

Keywords: electromagnetic fields, mobile, safety, protection, ICNIRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2252 Cellular Mobile Telecommunication GSM Radio Base Station Network Planning

Authors: Saeed Alzahrani, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The project involves the design and simulation of a Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Network using the software tool CelPlanner. The design is mainly concerned with Global System for Mobile Communications . The design and simulation of the network is done for a small part of the area allocated for us in the terrain area of Shreveport city .The project is concerned with designing a network that is cost effective and which also efficiently meets the required Grade of Service (GOS) AND Quality of Service (QOS).The expected outcome of this project is the design of a network that gives a good coverage for the area allocated to us with minimum co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference. The Handover and Traffic Handling Capacity should also be taken into consideration and should be good for the given area . The Traffic Handling Capacity of the network in a way decides whether the designed network is good or bad . The design also takes into consideration the topographical and morphological information.

Keywords: mobile communication, GSM, radio base station, network planning

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2251 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim

Abstract:

In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
2250 Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handover on Silom Line BTS

Authors: Silumpa Suboonsan, Suwat Pattaramalai

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of internet usage by using Vertical Handover (VHO) between cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) on Silom line Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) is evaluated. In the evaluation model, there is the WLAN on every BTS station and there are cellular base stations along the BTS path. The maximum data rates for cellular network are 7.2, 14.4, 42, and 100Mbps and for WLAN are 54, 150, and 300Mbps. The simulation are based on users using internet, watching VDOs and browsing web pages, on the BTS train from first station to the last station (full time usage) and on the BTS train for traveling some number of stations (random time). The results shows that VHO system has throughput a lot more than using only cellular network when the data rate of WLAN is more than one of cellular network. Lastly, the number of watching HD VDO and Full HD VDO is higher on VHO system on both regular time and rush hour of BTS travelling.

Keywords: vertical handover, WLAN, cellular, silom line BTS

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2249 Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine

Authors: B. Keawaram, P. Dumrongchai

Abstract:

The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that, the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively, were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1% and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.

Keywords: mine, survey, terrestrial laser scanner, total station

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2248 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: Krishan Kumar, Mohit Mittal, Pramod Kumar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data clustering, self organization feature map, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
2247 Hybrid System Configurations and Charging Strategies for Isolated Electric Tuk-Tuk Charging Station in South Africa

Authors: L. Bokopane, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaark

Abstract:

The success of renewable powered electric vehicle charging station in isolated areas depends highly on the availability and sustainability of renewable resources all year round at a selected location. The main focus of this paper is to discuss the possible charging strategies that could be implemented to find the best possible configuration of an electric Tuk-Tuk charging station at a given location within South Africa. The charging station is designed, modeled and simulated to evaluate its performances. The techno-economic analysis of different feasible supply configurations of the charging station using renewable energies is simulated using HOMER software and the results compared in order to select the best possible charging strategies in terms of cost of energy consumed.

Keywords: electric tuk-tuk, renewable energy, energy Storage, hybrid systems, HOMER

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
2246 A Performance Analysis of Different Scheduling Schemes in WiMAX

Authors: A. Youseef

Abstract:

One of the most aims of IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) is to present high-speed wireless access to cover wide range coverage. The base station (BS) and the subscriber station (SS) are the main parts of WiMAX. WiMAX uses either Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) or mesh topologies. In the PMP mode, the SSs connect to the BS to gain access to the network. However, in the mesh mode, the SSs connect to each other to gain access to the BS. The main components of QoS management in the 802.16 standard are the admission control, buffer management, and packet scheduling. There are several researches proposed to create an efficient packet scheduling schemes. Therefore, we use QualNet 5.0.2 to study the performance of different scheduling schemes, such as WFQ, SCFQ, RR, and SP when the numbers of SSs increase. We find that when the number of SSs increases, the average jitter and average end-to-end delay is increased and the throughput is reduced.

Keywords: WiMAX, scheduling scheme, QoS, QualNet

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2245 A New Reliability based Channel Allocation Model in Mobile Networks

Authors: Anujendra, Parag Kumar Guha Thakurta

Abstract:

The data transmission between mobile hosts and base stations (BSs) in Mobile networks are often vulnerable to failure. Thus, efficient link connectivity, in terms of the services of both base stations and communication channels of the network, is required in wireless mobile networks to achieve highly reliable data transmission. In addition, it is observed that the number of blocked hosts is increased due to insufficient number of channels during heavy load in the network. Under such scenario, the channels are allocated accordingly to offer a reliable communication at any given time. Therefore, a reliability-based channel allocation model with acceptable system performance is proposed as a MOO problem in this paper. Two conflicting parameters known as Resource Reuse factor (RRF) and the number of blocked calls are optimized under reliability constraint in this problem. The solution to such MOO problem is obtained through NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm). The effectiveness of the proposed model in this work is shown with a set of experimental results.

Keywords: base station, channel, GA, pareto-optimal, reliability

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2244 Assessment of Base Station Radiation Pollution in Areas of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi, Levent Seyfi

Abstract:

The technological devices are more often being used days by day. Thus, electro magnetic pollution is being more important now than last decades. Especially mobile phones and their base stations are subject to assessment in respect of all living beings health as well as of human beings. In this context, it is worth to evaluate the situation of electromagnetic radiation exposing living beings such as animals. In this study, electromagnetic radiation levels to which sheep are exposed in Konya/Turkey are presented. The electromagnetic radiation is measured at 1800 MHz for GSM base stations. 1085 sheep farms are determined in areas of Konya center region (Selçuklu, Meram, and Karatay) in which sheep and goat breeding is widely carried out. In this study, 790 sheep and goat farms, 10.8 % for total farms in Konya region (7276), having more than 100 animals are assessed. Then, the data obtained are depicted. As a conclusion, the results should be evaluated together with the future measurements to determine the exact effect on health of sheep and their productivity.

Keywords: electromagnetic pollution, sheep housing, sheep and goat farm, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
2243 Pharmacy-Station Mobile Application

Authors: Taissir Fekih Romdhane

Abstract:

This paper proposes a mobile web application named Pharmacy-Station that sells medicines and permits user to search for medications based on their symptoms, making it is easy to locate a specific drug online without the need to visit a pharmacy where it may be out of stock. This application is developed using the jQuery Mobile framework, which uses many web technologies and languages such as HTML5, PHP, JavaScript and CSS3. To test the proposed application, we used data from popular pharmacies in Saudi Arabia that included important information such as location, contact, and medicines in stock, etc. This document describes the different steps followed to create the Pharmacy-Station application along with screenshots. Finally, based on the results, the paper concludes with recommendations and further works planned to improve the Pharmacy-Station mobile application.

Keywords: pharmacy, mobile application, jquery mobile framework, search, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2242 Adaptive Cooperative Scheme Considering the User Location

Authors: Bit-Na Kwon, Hyun-Jee Yang, Dong-Hyun Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, an adaptive cooperative scheme in the cell edge is proposed. The proposed scheme considers the location of a user and applies the suitable cooperative scheme. In cellular systems, the performance of communication is degraded if the user is located in the cell edge. In conventional scheme, two base stations are used in order to obtain diversity gain. However, the performance of communication is not sufficiently improved since the distance between each base station and a user is still distant. Therefore, we propose a scheme that the relays are used and the cooperative scheme is adaptively applied according to the user location. Through simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme has better performance than the conventional scheme.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
2241 Analysis of Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Planning Using High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)

Authors: Yosika Dian Komala, Uke Kurniawan Usman, Yuyun Siti Rohmah

Abstract:

The enable technology fills up needs of high-speed data service is Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). UMTS has a data rate up to 2Mbps.UMTS terrestrial system has a coverage area about 1-2km. High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) can be built by a macro cell that is able to serve the wider area. Design method of UMTS using HAPS is planning base on coverage and capacity. The planning method is simulated with 2.8.1 Atoll’s software. Determination of radius of the cell based on the coverage uses free space loss propagation model. While the capacity planning to determine the average cell through put is available with the Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ).

Keywords: UMTS, HAPS, coverage planning, capacity planning, signal level, Ec/Io, overlapping zone, throughput

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2240 Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from Fish Mongers within Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: O. O. Olawusi-Peters, K. I. Adejugbagbe

Abstract:

The concentration of heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu) in Clarias gariepinus collected from fish markets; Fanibi (Station I) and Fiwasaye (Station II) in Akure metropolis, Ondo state, Nigeria were investigated to ascertain the safety for the consumers. 60 samples were collected from the two markets in three batches (I, II, III) for a period of six months and analyzed for heavy metals in the gills and muscles of the fish. Also, the Health Risk Index (HRI) was used to determine the health risk of these metals to the consumer. The results showed that the investigated metal concentration was higher in station I than station II, except Pb having higher concentration in station II than station I. In both stations, the highest concentration of Fe was recorded in the gills (12.60 ± 1.51; 6.94 ± 1.38) and muscles (3.72 ± 0.09; 3.86 ± 0.33) of samples in batch I. Also, the HRI revealed that consumption of Clarias gariepinus from these study areas did not pose any health risk (HRI < 1). In addition, concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits recommended by FAO/WHO.

Keywords: health risk index, heavy metals, clarias gariepinus, akure metropolis, fish monger

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2239 Effect of Base Coarse Layer on Load-Settlement Characteristics of Sandy Subgrade Using Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Nazeri, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Ghiasinejad

Abstract:

The present research has been performed to investigate the effect of base course application on load-settlement characteristics of sandy subgrade using plate load test. The main parameter investigated in this study was the subgrade reaction coefficient. The model tests were conducted in a 1.35 m long, 1 m wide, and 1 m deep steel test box of Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU Calibration Chamber). The base courses used in this research were in three different thicknesses of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. The test results indicated that in the case of using base course over loose sandy subgrade, the values of subgrade reaction coefficient can be increased from 7  to 132 , 224 , and 396  in presence of 15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm base course, respectively.

Keywords: modulus of subgrade reaction, plate load test, base course, sandy subgrade

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2238 Enabling the Physical Elements of a Pedestrian Friendly District around a Rail Station for Supporting Transit Oriented Development

Authors: Dyah Titisari Widyastuti

Abstract:

Rail-station area development that is based on the concept of TOD (Transit Oriented Development) is principally oriented to pedestrian accessibility for daily mobility. The aim of this research is elaborating how far the existing physical elements of a rail-station district could facilitate pedestrian mobility and establish a pedestrian friendly district toward implementation of a TOD concept. This research was conducted through some steps: (i) mapping the rail-station area pedestrian sidewalk and pedestrian network as well as activity nodes and transit nodes, (ii) assessing the level of pedestrian sidewalk connectivity joining trip origin and destination. The research area coverage in this case is limited to walking distance of the rail station (around 500 meters or 10-15 minutes walking). The findings of this research on the current condition of the street and pedestrian sidewalk network and connectivity, show good preference for the foot modal share (more than 50%) is achieved. Nevertheless, it depends on the distance from the trip origin to destination.

Keywords: accessibility of daily mobility, pedestrian-friendly district, rail-station district, transit oriented development

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
2237 Stress Corrosion Crack Identification with Direct Assessment Method in Pipeline Downstream from a Compressor Station

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour

Abstract:

Stress Corrosion Crack (SCC) in pipeline is a type of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), since its discovery in 1965 as a possible cause of failure in pipeline, SCC has caused, on average, one of two failures per year in the U.S, According to the NACE SCC DA a pipe line segment is considered susceptible to SCC if all of the following factors are met: The operating stress exceeds 60% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the operating temperature exceeds 38°C, the segment is less than 32 km downstream from a compressor station, the age of the pipeline is greater than 10 years and the coating type is other than Fusion Bonded Epoxy(FBE). In this paper as a practical experience in NISOC, Direct Assessment (DA) Method is used for identification SCC defect in unpiggable pipeline located downstream of compressor station.

Keywords: stress corrosion crack, direct assessment, disbondment, transgranular SCC, compressor station

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2236 Object Recognition System Operating from Different Type Vehicles Using Raspberry and OpenCV

Authors: Maria Pavlova

Abstract:

In our days, it is possible to put the camera on different vehicles like quadcopter, train, airplane and etc. The camera also can be the input sensor in many different systems. That means the object recognition like non separate part of monitoring control can be key part of the most intelligent systems. The aim of this paper is to focus of the object recognition process during vehicles movement. During the vehicle’s movement the camera takes pictures from the environment without storage in Data Base. In case the camera detects a special object (for example human or animal), the system saves the picture and sends it to the work station in real time. This functionality will be very useful in emergency or security situations where is necessary to find a specific object. In another application, the camera can be mounted on crossroad where do not have many people and if one or more persons come on the road, the traffic lights became the green and they can cross the road. In this papers is presented the system has solved the aforementioned problems. It is presented architecture of the object recognition system includes the camera, Raspberry platform, GPS system, neural network, software and Data Base. The camera in the system takes the pictures. The object recognition is done in real time using the OpenCV library and Raspberry microcontroller. An additional feature of this library is the ability to display the GPS coordinates of the captured objects position. The results from this processes will be sent to remote station. So, in this case, we can know the location of the specific object. By neural network, we can learn the module to solve the problems using incoming data and to be part in bigger intelligent system. The present paper focuses on the design and integration of the image recognition like a part of smart systems.

Keywords: camera, object recognition, OpenCV, Raspberry

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2235 WhatsApp Application and Challenges of Radio Broadcasting in Northern Nigeria: Special Interest on FRCN Kaduna

Authors: Aliyu Damri

Abstract:

This study analyzed the emergence of WhatsApp and how employees at the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Kaduna defined the concept base on their vast broadcasting experiences for over five decades and application of the phenomenon to the radio station. It also analyzed the nature, patterns, dimensions, features, challenges as well as the effects of WhatsApp as a social networking site with specific interest on the radio outlet. Also, the study identified how the radio organization responded to the challenges in an attempt to adapt to the new pattern of broadcasting characterized by many technological transformations. The study further explained in details such skills journalists need to function optimally using WhatsApp as well as the impacts of the WhatsApp on radio broadcasting. It used a combination of published materials, focus group discussion, in depth interviews and participant observation on the activities of the radio stations to address the research questions. The data generated provided insight to better understand the challenges posed to FRCN Kaduna as a result of WhatsApp application and how FRCN Kaduna responded to the challenges. It also provided information on the skills journalists need to function optimally in using WhatsApp application in the radio station. The interview and focus group discussion’s transcripts and the published materials were analyzed along thematic pattern related to the research questions in the study. The dominant response relied heavily on change in the radio station’s organizational and technical integration of newsrooms, the use of a multiskilled workforce, application of a flexible and user-friendly technology in all aspects of production, expansion of the station’s services in to new media such as internet and mobile phones as well as sharing of ideas across different units in the radio outfit.

Keywords: broadcasting, challenge, northern Nigeria, radio, WhatsApp application

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