Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4104

Search results for: network coding

4104 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy


Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
4103 Survivable IP over WDM Network Design Based on 1 ⊕ 1 Network Coding

Authors: Nihed Bahria El Asghar, Imen Jouili, Mounir Frikha


Inter-datacenter transport network is very bandwidth and delay demanding. The data transferred over such a network is also highly QoS-exigent mostly because a huge volume of data should be transported transparently with regard to the application user. To avoid the data transfer failure, a backup path should be reserved. No re-routing delay should be observed. A dedicated 1+1 protection is however not applicable in inter-datacenter transport network because of the huge spare capacity. In this context, we propose a survivable virtual network with minimal backup based on network coding (1 ⊕ 1) and solve it using a modified Dijkstra-based heuristic.

Keywords: network coding, dedicated protection, spare capacity, inter-datacenters transport network

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
4102 Improved Performance Using Adaptive Pre-Coding in the Cellular Network

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes the cooperative transmission scheme with pre-coding because the cellular communication requires high reliability. The cooperative transmission scheme uses pre-coding method with limited feedback information among small cells. Particularly, the proposed scheme has adaptive mode according to the position of mobile station. Thus, demand of recent wireless communication is resolved by this scheme. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme has better performance compared to the conventional scheme in the cellular network.

Keywords: CDD, cellular network, pre-coding, SPC

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4101 A Study on Using Network Coding for Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rei-Heng Cheng, Wen-Pinn Fang


A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed by a large number of sensors and one or a few base stations, where the sensor is responsible for detecting specific event information, which is sent back to the base station(s). However, how to save electricity consumption to extend the network lifetime is a problem that cannot be ignored in the wireless sensor networks. Since the sensor network is used to monitor a region or specific events, how the information can be reliably sent back to the base station is surly important. Network coding technique is often used to enhance the reliability of the network transmission. When a node needs to send out M data packets, it encodes these data with redundant data and sends out totally M + R packets. If the receiver can get any M packets out from these M + R packets, it can decode and get the original M data packets. To transmit redundant packets will certainly result in the excess energy consumption. This paper will explore relationship between the quality of wireless transmission and the number of redundant packets. Hopefully, each sensor can overhear the nearby transmissions, learn the wireless transmission quality around it, and dynamically determine the number of redundant packets used in network coding.

Keywords: energy consumption, network coding, transmission reliability, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
4100 Secure Network Coding-Based Named Data Network Mutual Anonymity Transfer Protocol

Authors: Tao Feng, Fei Xing, Ye Lu, Jun Li Fang


NDN is a kind of future Internet architecture. Due to the NDN design introduces four privacy challenges,Many research institutions began to care about the privacy issues of naming data network(NDN).In this paper, we are in view of the major NDN’s privacy issues to investigate privacy protection,then put forwards more effectively anonymous transfer policy for NDN.Firstly,based on mutual anonymity communication for MP2P networks,we propose NDN mutual anonymity protocol.Secondly,we add interest package authentication mechanism in the protocol and encrypt the coding coefficient, security of this protocol is improved by this way.Finally, we proof the proposed anonymous transfer protocol security and anonymity.

Keywords: NDN, mutual anonymity, anonymous routing, network coding, authentication mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
4099 Secure Network Coding against Content Pollution Attacks in Named Data Network

Authors: Tao Feng, Xiaomei Ma, Xian Guo, Jing Wang


Named Data Network (NDN) is one of the future Internet architecture, all nodes (i.e., hosts, routers) are allowed to have a local cache, used to satisfy incoming requests for content. However, depending on caching allows an adversary to perform attacks that are very effective and relatively easy to implement, such as content pollution attack. In this paper, we use a method of secure network coding based on homomorphic signature system to solve this problem. Firstly ,we use a dynamic public key technique, our scheme for each generation authentication without updating the initial secret key used. Secondly, employing the homomorphism of hash function, intermediate node and destination node verify the signature of the received message. In addition, when the network topology of NDN is simple and fixed, the code coefficients in our scheme are generated in a pseudorandom number generator in each node, so the distribution of the coefficients is also avoided. In short, our scheme not only can efficiently prevent against Intra/Inter-GPAs, but also can against the content poisoning attack in NDN.

Keywords: named data networking, content polloution attack, network coding signature, internet architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
4098 Analysis of Cooperative Hybrid ARQ with Adaptive Modulation and Coding on a Correlated Fading Channel Environment

Authors: Ibrahim Ozkan


In this study, a cross-layer design which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques for a cooperative wireless network is investigated analytically. Previous analyses of such systems in the literature are confined to the case where the fading channel is independent at each retransmission, which can be unrealistic unless the channel is varying very fast. On the other hand, temporal channel correlation can have a significant impact on the performance of HARQ systems. In this study, utilizing a Markov channel model which accounts for the temporal correlation, the performance of non-cooperative and cooperative networks are investigated in terms of packet loss rate and throughput metrics for Chase combining HARQ strategy.

Keywords: cooperative network, adaptive modulation and coding, hybrid ARQ, correlated fading

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4097 A Study on Puzzle-Based Game to Teach Elementary Students to Code

Authors: Jaisoon Baek, Gyuhwan Oh


In this study, we developed a puzzle game based on coding and a web-based management system to observe the user's learning status in real time and maximize the understanding of the coding of elementary students. We have improved upon and existing coding game which cannot be connected to textual language coding or comprehends learning state. We analyzed the syntax of various coding languages for the curriculum and provided a menu to convert icon into textual coding languages. In addition, the management system includes multiple types of tutoring, real-time analysis of user play data and feedback. Following its application in regular elementary school software classes, students reported positive effects on understanding and interest in coding were shown by students. It is expected that this will contribute to quality improvement in software education by providing contents with proven educational value by breaking away from simple learning-oriented coding games.

Keywords: coding education, serious game, coding, education management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4096 Computational Thinking Based Coding Environment for Coding and Free Semester Mathematics Education in Korea

Authors: Han Hyuk Cho, Hanik Jo


In recent years, coding education has been globally emphasized, and the Free Semester System and coding education were introduced to the public schools from the beginning of 2016 and 2018 respectively in Korea. With the introduction of the Free Semester System and the rising demand of Computational Thinking (CT) capacity, this paper aims to design ‘Coding Environment’ and Minecraft-like Turtlecraft in which learners can design and construct mathematical objects through mathematical symbolic expressions. Students can transfer the constructed mathematical objects to the Turtlecraft environment (open-source codingmath website), and also can print them out through 3D printers. Furthermore, we design learnable mathematics and coding curriculum by representing the figurate numbers and patterns in terms of executable expression in the coding context and connecting them to algebraic symbols, which will allow students to experience mathematical patterns and symbolic coding expressions.

Keywords: coding education, computational thinking, mathematics education, TurtleMAL and Turtlecraft

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
4095 A High Compression Ratio for a Losseless Image Compression Based on the Arithmetic Coding with the Sorted Run Length Coding: Meteosat Second Generation Image Compression

Authors: Cherifi Mehdi, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane


Image compression is the heart of several multimedia techniques. It is used to reduce the number of bits required to represent an image. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite allows the acquisition of 12 image files every 15 minutes and that results in a large databases sizes. In this paper, a novel image compression method based on the arithmetic coding with the sorted Run Length Coding (SRLC) for MSG images is proposed. The SRLC allows us to find the occurrence of the consecutive pixels of the original image to create a sorted run. The arithmetic coding allows the encoding of the sorted data of the previous stage to retrieve a unique code word that represents a binary code stream in the sorted order to boost the compression ratio. Through this article, we show that our method can perform the best results concerning compression ratio and bit rate unlike the method based on the Run Length Coding (RLC) and the arithmetic coding. Evaluation criteria like the compression ratio and the bit rate allow the confirmation of the efficiency of our method of image compression.

Keywords: image compression, arithmetic coding, Run Length Coding, RLC, Sorted Run Length Coding, SRLC, Meteosat Second Generation, MSG

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4094 Detection of Autistic Children's Voice Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Royan Dawud Aldian, Endah Purwanti, Soegianto Soelistiono


In this research we have been developed an automatic investigation to classify normal children voice or autistic by using modern computation technology that is computation based on artificial neural network. The superiority of this computation technology is its capability on processing and saving data. In this research, digital voice features are gotten from the coefficient of linear-predictive coding with auto-correlation method and have been transformed in frequency domain using fast fourier transform, which used as input of artificial neural network in back-propagation method so that will make the difference between normal children and autistic automatically. The result of back-propagation method shows that successful classification capability for normal children voice experiment data is 100% whereas, for autistic children voice experiment data is 100%. The success rate using back-propagation classification system for the entire test data is 100%.

Keywords: autism, artificial neural network, backpropagation, linier predictive coding, fast fourier transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
4093 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
4092 Medical Image Compression by Region of Interest Based on DT-CWT Using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding

Authors: Ali Seddiki, Mohamed Djebbouri, Driss Guerchi


Medical imaging produces human body pictures in digital form. Since these imaging techniques produce prohibitive amounts of data, compression is necessary for storage and communication purposes. In some areas in medicine, it may be sufficient to maintain high image quality only in region of interest (ROI). This paper discusses a contribution to quality purpose compression in the region of interest of scintigraphic images based on dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) using Run-Length coding (RLE) and Huffman coding (HC).

Keywords: DT-CWT, region of interest, run length coding, Scintigraphic images

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
4091 Usage of Channel Coding Techniques for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Visible Light Communications Systems

Authors: P. L. D. N. M. de Silva, S. G. Edirisinghe, R. Weerasuriya


High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is a concern of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based visible light communication (VLC) systems. Discrete Fourier Transform spread (DFT-s) OFDM is an alternative single carrier modulation scheme which would address this concern. Employing channel coding techniques is another mechanism to reduce the PAPR. Previous research has been conducted to study the impact of these techniques separately. However, to the best of the knowledge of the authors, no study has been done so far to identify the improvement which can be harnessed by hybridizing these two techniques for VLC systems. Therefore, this is a novel study area under this research. In addition, channel coding techniques such as Polar codes and Turbo codes have been tested in the VLC domain. However, other efficient techniques such as Hamming coding and Convolutional coding have not been studied too. Therefore, the authors present the impact of the hybrid of DFT-s OFDM and Channel coding (Hamming coding and Convolutional coding) on PAPR in VLC systems using Matlab simulations.

Keywords: convolutional coding, discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, hamming coding, peak-to-average power ratio, visible light communications

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4090 Partial M-Sequence Code Families Applied in Spectral Amplitude Coding Fiber-Optic Code-Division Multiple-Access Networks

Authors: Shin-Pin Tseng


Nowadays, numerous spectral amplitude coding (SAC) fiber-optic code-division-multiple-access (FO-CDMA) techniques were appealing due to their capable of providing moderate security and relieving the effects of multiuser interference (MUI). Nonetheless, the performance of the previous network is degraded due to fixed in-phase cross-correlation (IPCC) value. Based on the above problems, a new SAC FO-CDMA network using partial M-sequence (PMS) code is presented in this study. Because the proposed PMS code is originated from M-sequence code, the system using the PMS code could effectively suppress the effects of MUI. In addition, two-code keying (TCK) scheme can applied in the proposed SAC FO-CDMA network and enhance the whole network performance. According to the consideration of system flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders (codecs) using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were also developed. First, we constructed a diagram of the SAC FO-CDMA network, including (N/2-1) optical transmitters, (N/2-1) optical receivers, and one N×N star coupler for broadcasting transmitted optical signals to arrive at the input port of each optical receiver. Note that the parameter N for the PMS code was the code length. In addition, the proposed SAC network was using superluminescent diodes (SLDs) as light sources, which then can save a lot of system cost compared with the other FO-CDMA methods. For the design of each optical transmitter, it is composed of an SLD, one optical switch, and two optical encoders according to assigned PMS codewords. On the other hand, each optical receivers includes a 1 × 2 splitter, two optical decoders, and one balanced photodiode for mitigating the effect of MUI. In order to simplify the next analysis, the some assumptions were used. First, the unipolarized SLD has flat power spectral density (PSD). Second, the received optical power at the input port of each optical receiver is the same. Third, all photodiodes in the proposed network have the same electrical properties. Fourth, transmitting '1' and '0' has an equal probability. Subsequently, by taking the factors of phase‐induced intensity noise (PIIN) and thermal noise, the corresponding performance was displayed and compared with the performance of the previous SAC FO-CDMA networks. From the numerical result, it shows that the proposed network improved about 25% performance than that using other codes at BER=10-9. This is because the effect of PIIN was effectively mitigated and the received power was enhanced by two times. As a result, the SAC FO-CDMA network using PMS codes has an opportunity to apply in applications of the next-generation optical network.

Keywords: spectral amplitude coding, SAC, fiber-optic code-division multiple-access, FO-CDMA, partial M-sequence, PMS code, fiber Bragg grating, FBG

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
4089 Image Steganography Using Predictive Coding for Secure Transmission

Authors: Baljit Singh Khehra, Jagreeti Kaur


In this paper, steganographic strategy is used to hide the text file inside an image. To increase the storage limit, predictive coding is utilized to implant information. In the proposed plan, one can exchange secure information by means of predictive coding methodology. The predictive coding produces high stego-image. The pixels are utilized to insert mystery information in it. The proposed information concealing plan is powerful as contrasted with the existing methodologies. By applying this strategy, a provision helps clients to productively conceal the information. Entropy, standard deviation, mean square error and peak signal noise ratio are the parameters used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The results of proposed approach are quite promising.

Keywords: cryptography, steganography, reversible image, predictive coding

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
4088 Adaptive Multiple Transforms Hardware Architecture for Versatile Video Coding

Authors: T. Damak, S. Houidi, M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Masmoudi


The Versatile Video Coding standard (VVC) is actually under development by the Joint Video Exploration Team (or JVET). An Adaptive Multiple Transforms (AMT) approach was announced. It is based on different transform modules that provided an efficient coding. However, the AMT solution raises several issues especially regarding the complexity of the selected set of transforms. This can be an important issue, particularly for a future industrial adoption. This paper proposed an efficient hardware implementation of the most used transform in AMT approach: the DCT II. The developed circuit is adapted to different block sizes and can reach a minimum frequency of 192 MHz allowing an optimized execution time.

Keywords: adaptive multiple transforms, AMT, DCT II, hardware, transform, versatile video coding, VVC

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4087 Scintigraphic Image Coding of Region of Interest Based on SPIHT Algorithm Using Global Thresholding and Huffman Coding

Authors: A. Seddiki, M. Djebbouri, D. Guerchi


Medical imaging produces human body pictures in digital form. Since these imaging techniques produce prohibitive amounts of data, compression is necessary for storage and communication purposes. Many current compression schemes provide a very high compression rate but with considerable loss of quality. On the other hand, in some areas in medicine, it may be sufficient to maintain high image quality only in region of interest (ROI). This paper discusses a contribution to the lossless compression in the region of interest of Scintigraphic images based on SPIHT algorithm and global transform thresholding using Huffman coding.

Keywords: global thresholding transform, huffman coding, region of interest, SPIHT coding, scintigraphic images

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
4086 Continuous Functions Modeling with Artificial Neural Network: An Improvement Technique to Feed the Input-Output Mapping

Authors: A. Belayadi, A. Mougari, L. Ait-Gougam, F. Mekideche-Chafa


The artificial neural network is one of the interesting techniques that have been advantageously used to deal with modeling problems. In this study, the computing with artificial neural network (CANN) is proposed. The model is applied to modulate the information processing of one-dimensional task. We aim to integrate a new method which is based on a new coding approach of generating the input-output mapping. The latter is based on increasing the neuron unit in the last layer. Accordingly, to show the efficiency of the approach under study, a comparison is made between the proposed method of generating the input-output set and the conventional method. The results illustrated that the increasing of the neuron units, in the last layer, allows to find the optimal network’s parameters that fit with the mapping data. Moreover, it permits to decrease the training time, during the computation process, which avoids the use of computers with high memory usage.

Keywords: neural network computing, continuous functions generating the input-output mapping, decreasing the training time, machines with big memories

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
4085 Peak Frequencies in the Collective Membrane Potential of a Hindmarsh-Rose Small-World Neural Network

Authors: Sun Zhe, Ruggero Micheletto


As discussed extensively in many studies, noise in neural networks have an important role in the functioning and time evolution of the system. The mechanism by which noise induce stochastic resonance enhancing and influencing certain operations is not clarified nor is the mechanism of information storage and coding. With the present research we want to study the role of noise, especially focusing on the frequency peaks in a three variable Hindmarsh−Rose Small−World network. We investigated the behaviour of the network to external noises. We demonstrate that a variation of signal to noise ratio of about 10 dB induces an increase in membrane potential signal of about 15%, averaged over the whole network. We also considered the integral of the whole membrane potential as a paradigm of internal noise, the one generated by the brain network. We showed that this internal noise is attenuated with the size of the network or with the number of random connections. By means of Fourier analysis we found that it has distinct peaks of frequencies, moreover, we showed that increasing the size of the network introducing more neurons, reduced the maximum frequencies generated by the network, whereas the increase in the number of random connections (determined by the small-world probability p) led to a trend toward higher frequencies. This study may give clues on how networks utilize noise to alter the collective behaviour of the system in their operations.

Keywords: neural networks, stochastic processes, small-world networks, discrete Fourier analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
4084 Keyword Network Analysis on the Research Trends of Life-Long Education for People with Disabilities in Korea

Authors: Jakyoung Kim, Sungwook Jang


The purpose of this study is to examine the research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities using a keyword network analysis. For this purpose, 151 papers were selected from 594 papers retrieved using keywords such as 'people with disabilities' and 'life-long education' in the Korean Education and Research Information Service. The Keyword network analysis was constructed by extracting and coding the keyword used in the title of the selected papers. The frequency of the extracted keywords, the centrality of degree, and betweenness was analyzed by the keyword network. The results of the keyword network analysis are as follows. First, the main keywords that appeared frequently in the study of life-long education for people with disabilities were 'people with disabilities', 'life-long education', 'developmental disabilities', 'current situations', 'development'. The research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities are focused on the current status of the life-long education and the program development. Second, the keyword network analysis and visualization showed that the keywords with high frequency of occurrences also generally have high degree centrality and betweenness centrality. In terms of the keyword network diagram, it was confirmed that research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities are centered on six prominent keywords. Based on these results, it was discussed that life-long education for people with disabilities in the future needs to expand the subjects and the supporting areas of the life-long education, and the research needs to be further expanded into more detailed and specific areas. 

Keywords: life-long education, people with disabilities, research trends, keyword network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
4083 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd


The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4082 Network Security Attacks and Defences

Authors: Ranbir Singh, Deepinder Kaur


Network security is an important aspect in every field like government offices, Educational Institute and any business organization. Network security consists of the policies adopted to prevent and monitor forbidden access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network. Network security is very complicated subject and deal by only well trained and experienced people. However, as more and more people become wired, an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. The history of the network security included an introduction to the TCP/IP and interworking. Network security starts with authenticating, commonly with a username and a password. In this paper, we study about various types of attacks on network security and how to handle or prevent this attack.

Keywords: network security, attacks, denial, authenticating

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4081 Polymorphic Positions, Haplotypes, and Mutations Detected In The Mitochonderial DNA Coding Region By Sanger Sequence Technique

Authors: Imad H. Hameed, Mohammad A. Jebor, Ammera J. Omer


The aim of this research is to study the mitochonderial coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Portion of coding region encompassing positions 11719 –12384 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and Detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. Five new polymorphic positions 11741, 11756, 11878, 11887 and 12133 are described may be suitable sources for identification purpose in future. The calculated value D= 0.95 and RMP=0.048 of the genetic diversity should be understood as high in the context of coding function of the analysed DNA fragment. The relatively high gene diversity and a relatively low random match probability were observed in Iraq population. The obtained data can be used to identify the variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence which is most promising for various identifications.

Keywords: coding region, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphic positions, sanger technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
4080 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman


A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: erasure coding, P2P, redundancy, replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
4079 Using Open Source Data and GIS Techniques to Overcome Data Deficiency and Accuracy Issues in the Construction and Validation of Transportation Network: Case of Kinshasa City

Authors: Christian Kapuku, Seung-Young Kho


An accurate representation of the transportation system serving the region is one of the important aspects of transportation modeling. Such representation often requires developing an abstract model of the system elements, which also requires important amount of data, surveys and time. However, in some cases such as in developing countries, data deficiencies, time and budget constraints do not always allow such accurate representation, leaving opportunities to assumptions that may negatively affect the quality of the analysis. With the emergence of Internet open source data especially in the mapping technologies as well as the advances in Geography Information System, opportunities to tackle these issues have raised. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate such application through a practical case of the development of the transportation network for the city of Kinshasa. The GIS geo-referencing was used to construct the digitized map of Transportation Analysis Zones using available scanned images. Centroids were then dynamically placed at the center of activities using an activities density map. Next, the road network with its characteristics was built using OpenStreet data and other official road inventory data by intersecting their layers and cleaning up unnecessary links such as residential streets. The accuracy of the final network was then checked, comparing it with satellite images from Google and Bing. For the validation, the final network was exported into Emme3 to check for potential network coding issues. Results show a high accuracy between the built network and satellite images, which can mostly be attributed to the use of open source data.

Keywords: geographic information system (GIS), network construction, transportation database, open source data

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
4078 Enhancing the Network Security with Gray Code

Authors: Thomas Adi Purnomo Sidhi


Nowadays, network is an essential need in almost every part of human daily activities. People now can seamlessly connect to others through the Internet. With advanced technology, our personal data now can be more easily accessed. One of many components we are concerned for delivering the best network is a security issue. This paper is proposing a method that provides more options for security. This research aims to improve network security by focusing on the physical layer which is the first layer of the OSI model. The layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. With the use of observation method, the research produces a schematic design for enhancing the network security through the gray code converter.

Keywords: network, network security, grey code, physical layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
4077 Network Functions Virtualization-Based Virtual Routing Function Deployment under Network Delay Constraints

Authors: Kenichiro Hida, Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi


NFV-based network implements a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers, and this allows the network operator to select any capabilities and locations of network functions without any physical constraints. In this paper, we evaluate the influence of the maximum tolerable network delay on the virtual routing function deployment guidelines which the authors proposed previously. Our evaluation results have revealed the following: (1) the more the maximum tolerable network delay condition becomes severe, the more the number of areas where the route selection function is installed increases and the total network cost increases, (2) the higher the routing function cost relative to the circuit bandwidth cost, the increase ratio of total network cost becomes larger according to the maximum tolerable network delay condition.

Keywords: NFV (Network Functions Virtualization), resource allocation, virtual routing function, minimum total network cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
4076 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta


In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4075 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Analysis of Rare Diseases: Non-Coding Variants and Copy Number Variations

Authors: S. Fahiminiya, J. Nadaf, F. Rauch, L. Jerome-Majewska, J. Majewski


Background: Sequencing of protein coding regions of human genome (Whole Exome Sequencing; WES), has demonstrated a great success in the identification of causal mutations for several rare genetic disorders in human. Generally, most of WES studies have focused on rare variants in coding exons and splicing-sites where missense substitutions lead to the alternation of protein product. Although focusing on this category of variants has revealed the mystery behind many inherited genetic diseases in recent years, a subset of them remained still inconclusive. Here, we present the result of our WES studies where analyzing only rare variants in coding regions was not conclusive but further investigation revealed the involvement of non-coding variants and copy number variations (CNV) in etiology of the diseases. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed using our standard protocols at Genome Quebec Innovation Center, Montreal, Canada. All bioinformatics analyses were done using in-house WES pipeline. Results: To date, we successfully identified several disease causing mutations within gene coding regions (e.g. SCARF2: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome and SNAP29: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) by using WES. In addition, we showed that variants in non-coding regions and CNV have also important value and should not be ignored and/or filtered out along the way of bioinformatics analysis on WES data. For instance, in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V and in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, we identified variants in 5'UTR, resulting in the production of longer or truncating non-functional proteins. Furthermore, CNVs were identified as the main cause of the diseases in patients with metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly and in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of considering non-coding variants and CNVs during interpretation of WES data, as they can be the only cause of disease under investigation.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing data, non-coding variants, copy number variations, rare diseases

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