Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Kayla Murray

50 Consolidating a Regime of State Terror: A Historical Analysis of Necropolitics and the Evolution of Policing Practices in California as a Former Colony, Frontier, and Late-Modern Settler Society

Authors: Peyton M. Provenzano


This paper draws primarily upon the framework of necropolitics and presents California as itself a former frontier, colony, and late-modern settler society. The convergence of these successive and overlapping regimes of state terror is actualized and traceable through an analysis of historical and contemporary police practices. At the behest of the Spanish Crown and with the assistance of the Spanish military, the Catholic Church led the original expedition to colonize California. The indigenous populations of California were subjected to brutal practices of confinement and enslavement at the missions. After the annex of California by the United States, the western-most territory became an infamous frontier where new settlers established vigilante militias to enact violence against indigenous populations to protect their newly stolen land. Early mining settlements sought to legitimize and fund vigilante violence by wielding the authority of rudimentary democratic structures. White settlers circulated petitions for funding to establish a volunteer company under California’s Militia Law for ‘protection’ against the local indigenous populations. The expansive carceral practices of Los Angelinos at the turn of the 19th century exemplify the way in which California solidified its regime of exclusion as a white settler society. Drawing on recent scholarship that queers the notion of biopower and names police as street-level sovereigns, the police murder of Kayla Moore is understood as the latest manifestation of a carceral regime of exclusion and genocide. Kayla Moore was an African American transgender woman living with a mental health disability that was murdered by Berkeley police responding to a mental health crisis call in 2013. The intersectionality of Kayla’s identity made her hyper-vulnerable to state-sanctioned violence. Kayla was a victim not only of the explicitly racial biopower of police, nor the regulatory state power of necropolitics but of the ‘asphyxia’ that was intended to invisibilize both her life and her murder.

Keywords: asphyxia, biopower, california, carceral state, genocide, necropolitics, police, police violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
49 Interventions to Control Listeria Monocytogenes on Sliced Mushrooms

Authors: Alanna Goodman, Kayla Murray, Keith Warriner


The following reports on a comparative study on the efficacy of different decontamination technologies to decrease Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto white sliced mushrooms and assesses the fate of residual levels during posttreatment storage under aerobic conditions at 8uC. The treatments were chemical (hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, ozonated water, electrolyzed water, chitosan, lactic acid), biological (Listeria bacteriophages), and physical (UV-C, UV:hydrogen peroxide). None of the treatments achieved .1.2 log CFU reduction in L. monocytogenes levels; bacteriophages at a multiplicity of infection of 100 and 3% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide were the most effective of the treatments tested. However, growth of residual L. monocytogenes during posttreatment storage attained levels equal to or greater than levels in the nontreated controls. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited on mushrooms treated with chitosan, electrolyzed water, peroxyacetic acid, or UV. Yet, L. monocytogenes inoculated onto mushrooms and treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide decreased during posttreatment storage, through a combination of sublethal injury and dehydration of the mushroom surface. Although mushrooms treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide became darker during storage, the samples were visually acceptable relative to controls. In conclusion, of the treatments evaluated, UV:hydrogen peroxide holds promise to control L. monocytogenes on mushroom surfaces.

Keywords: listeria monocytogenes, sliced mushrooms, bacteriophages, UV, sanitizers

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
48 Comparative Efficacy of Gas Phase Sanitizers for Inactivating Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on Intact Lettuce Heads

Authors: Kayla Murray, Andrew Green, Gopi Paliyath, Keith Warriner


Introduction: It is now acknowledged that control of human pathogens associated with fresh produce requires an integrated approach of several interventions as opposed to relying on post-harvest washes to remove field acquired contamination. To this end, current research is directed towards identifying such interventions that can be applied at different points in leafy green processing. Purpose: In the following the efficacy of different gas phase treatments to decontaminate whole lettuce heads during pre-processing storage were evaluated. Methods: Whole Cos lettuce heads were spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp. The inoculated lettuce heads were then placed in a treatment chamber and exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide or hydroxyl radicals at different time periods under a range of relative humidity. Survivors of the treatments were enumerated along with sensory analysis performed on the treated lettuce. Results: Ozone gas reduced L. monocytogenes by 2-log10 after ten-minutes of exposure with Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 being decreased by 0.66 and 0.56-log cfu respectively. Chlorine dioxide gas treatment reduced L. monocytogenes and Salmonella on lettuce heads by 4 log cfu but only supported a 0.8 log cfu reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. In comparison, hydroxyl radicals supported a 2.9 – 4.8 log cfu reduction of model human pathogens inoculated onto lettuce heads but required extended exposure times and relative humidity < 0.8. Significance: From the gas phase sanitizers tested, chlorine dioxide and hydroxyl radicals are the most effective. The latter process holds most promise based on the ease of delivery, worker safety and preservation of lettuce sensory characteristics. Although expose times for hydroxyl radicles was relatively long (24h) this should not be considered a limitation given the intervention is applied in store rooms or in transport containers during transit.

Keywords: gas phase sanitizers, iceberg lettuce heads, leafy green processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
47 Looking At Labor Trafficking In Poland

Authors: Ashlyn Smith, Chloe Zampelli, Vincent Manna, Vernon Murray


According to Polaris (a UN affiliate), there are currently 44 million human trafficking victims globally. Using a sample of 137 labor trafficking victims in Poland, we found that all were Ukrainian citizens. We categorized victims according to the “Victim Intervention Marketing” (Murray) social marketing framework. The largest victim type consisted of “Willing Assimilators” (57%). This means they entered their particular trafficking situations without coercion and were left at will. Such victims are typically driven by financial desperation. Twenty percent (20%) of Willing Assimilators were men, and 80% were women. Victims who were not Willing Assimilators were forced as either “Enlightened Apostates” (37%) or “Tricked and Trapped” (7%). All of the forced victims were women. Crosstabs with Chi-square test (Pearson Chi-Square test significance = .002) results indicated that the male victims were all between 30 and 38 years old, while female victim ages ranged from 24 to 47. Accordingly, labor trafficking victim interventions in Poland should be age-sensitive and focus on three areas: 1) economic development for the Willing Assimilators, 2) training to identify fraudulent job postings, etc. for the Tricked and Trapped segment, and 3) training to equip potential victims to distrust certain close “loved ones” for the Enlightened Apostates.

Keywords: Poland, labor trafficking, social marketing, victim intervention marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
46 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks

Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia


An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.

Keywords: blood flow, morphometric data, vascular tree, Strahler ordering system

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
45 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray


This research explores the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is not only one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: leadership style, lean manufacturing, teams, cross-functional

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
44 Corporate Social Media: Understanding the Impact of Service Quality and Social Value on Customer Behavior

Authors: Regina Connolly, Murray Scott, William DeLone


Social media are revolutionary technologies that are transforming the way we communicate, the way we collaborate and the way we influence. Companies are making major investments in platforms such as Facebook and Twitter because they realize that social media are an influential force on customer perceptions and behavior. However, to date there is little guidance on what constitutes an effective deployment of social media and there is no empirical evidence that social medial investments are yielding positive returns. This research develops and validates the components of an effective corporate social media platform in order to examine the impact of effective social media on customer intentions and behavior.

Keywords: service quality, social value, social media, IS success, Web 2.0, customer behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
43 Theocritus’ Idylls and the Serenading of Mystical Women: Toxic Modes of Seduction in Pastoral Literature

Authors: Kayla Fanning


Theocritus’ use of near-pastoral motifs in creating the lamenting narrative in “The Sorceress” idyll suggests a link between Simaetha and the quintessential shepherd that ultimately transcends the bucolic serenading structure, evident in “The Serenade”, as it pertains to depictions of women. In Theocritus’ “The Serenade”, an anonymous goatherd serenades his beloved, Amaryllis, in hopes of persuading her to reciprocate his love. This serenade soon turns into a vicious lament where all hope for reciprocation dissolves, leaving the goatherd severely melancholic and malignant. In “The Cyclops’ Serenade”, the cyclops, Polyphemus, sings of Galatea in solitude; in so doing, he negotiates between feelings of heartache and anger that eventually subside. His depiction of Galatea, in being less vindictive than the goatherd’s, manifests less toxicity. In adopting, and essentially creating, this serenading structure, Theocritus illustrates his ability to alter portrayals of women while maintaining the premise of the pastoral serenade; that is the shepherd's lament of his indifferent beloved. A thematic intertextual analysis of the idylls reveals a variety of ways in which the toxicity of the goatherd’s relation to Amaryllis is mutated or even inverted. In “The Sorceress”, a powerful witch named Simaetha spellbinds her unfaithful lover and angrily laments his betrayal in a way that is reminiscent of the goatherd's harmful behavior towards Amaryllis.

Keywords: femininity, pastoral, serenade, Theocritus

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
42 Discourses in Mother Tongue-Based Classes: The Case of Hiligaynon Language

Authors: Kayla Marie Sarte


This study sought to describe mother tongue-based classes in the light of classroom interactional discourse using the Sinclair and Coulthard model. It specifically identified the exchanges, grouped into Teaching and Boundary types; moves, coded as Opening, Answering and Feedback; and the occurrence of the 13 acts (Bid, Cue, Nominate, Reply, React, Acknowledge, Clue, Accept, Evaluate, Loop, Comment, Starter, Conclusion, Aside and Silent Stress) in the classroom, and determined what these reveal about the teaching and learning processes in the MTB classroom. Being a qualitative study, using the Single Collective Case Within-Site (embedded) design, varied data collection procedures such as non-participant observations, audio-recordings and transcription of MTB classes, and semi-structured interviews were utilized. The results revealed the presence of all the codes in the model (except for the silent stress) which also implied that the Hiligaynon mother tongue-based class was eclectic, cultural and communicative, and had a healthy, analytical and focused environment which aligned with the aims of MTB-MLE, and affirmed the purported benefits of mother tongue teaching. Through the study, gaps in the mother tongue teaching and learning were also identified which involved the difficulty of children in memorizing Hiligaynon terms expressed in English in their homes and in the communities.

Keywords: discourse analysis, language teaching and learning, mother tongue-based education, multilingualism

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
41 Pioneering Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems under Australian Law

Authors: Gina M. Newton


Australia’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC Act) is the premiere, national law under which species and 'ecological communities' (i.e., like ecosystems) can be formally recognised and 'listed' as threatened across all jurisdictions. The listing process involves assessment against a range of criteria (similar to the IUCN process) to demonstrate conservation status (i.e., vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, etc.) based on the best available science. Over the past decade in Australia, there’s been a transition from almost solely terrestrial to the first aquatic threatened ecological community (TEC or ecosystem) listings (e.g., River Murray, Macquarie Marshes, Coastal Saltmarsh, Salt-wedge Estuaries). All constitute large areas, with some including multiple state jurisdictions. Development of these conservation and listing advices has enabled, for the first time, a more forensic analysis of three key factors across a range of aquatic and coastal ecosystems: -the contribution of invasive species to conservation status, -how to demonstrate and attribute decline in 'ecological integrity' to conservation status, and, -identification of related priority conservation actions for management. There is increasing global recognition of the disproportionate degree of biodiversity loss within aquatic ecosystems. In Australia, legislative protection at Commonwealth or State levels remains one of the strongest conservation measures. Such laws have associated compliance mechanisms for breaches to the protected status. They also trigger the need for environment impact statements during applications for major developments (which may be denied). However, not all jurisdictions have such laws in place. There remains much opposition to the listing of freshwater systems – for example, the River Murray (Australia's largest river) and Macquarie Marshes (an internationally significant wetland) were both disallowed by parliament four months after formal listing. This was mainly due to a change of government, dissent from a major industry sector, and a 'loophole' in the law. In Australia, at least in the immediate to medium-term time frames, invasive species (aliens, native pests, pathogens, etc.) appear to be the number one biotic threat to the biodiversity and ecological function and integrity of our aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, this should be considered a current priority for research, conservation, and management actions. Another key outcome from this analysis was the recognition that drawing together multiple lines of evidence to form a 'conservation narrative' is a more useful approach to assigning conservation status. This also helps to addresses a glaring gap in long-term ecological data sets in Australia, which often precludes a more empirical data-driven approach. An important lesson also emerged – the recognition that while conservation must be underpinned by the best available scientific evidence, it remains a 'social and policy' goal rather than a 'scientific' goal. Communication, engagement, and 'politics' necessarily play a significant role in achieving conservation goals and need to be managed and resourced accordingly.

Keywords: aquatic ecosystem conservation, conservation law, ecological integrity, invasive species

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
40 Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM): A Simplified Alternative for Implementing SCRM for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Paul W. Murray, Marco Barajas


Recent changes in supply chains, especially globalization and collaboration, have created new risks for enterprises of all sizes. A variety of complex frameworks, often based on enterprise risk management strategies have been presented under the heading of Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM). The literature on promotes the benefits of a robust SCRM strategy; however, implementing SCRM is difficult and resource demanding for Large Enterprises (LEs), and essentially out of reach for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This research debunks the idea that SCRM is necessary for all enterprises and instead proposes a simple and effective Vendor Selection Template (VST). Empirical testing and a survey of supply chain practitioners provide a measure of validation to the VST. The resulting VSTis a valuable contribution because is easy to use, provides practical results, and is sufficiently flexible to be universally applied to SMEs.

Keywords: multiple regression analysis, supply chain management, risk assessment, vendor selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
39 The Effect of Incorporating Animal Assisted Interventions with Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Authors: Kayla Renteria


This study explored the role animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) can play in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) when incorporated into Trauma-informed cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). A review of the literature was performed to show how incorporating AAP could benefit TF-CBT since this treatment model often presents difficulties, such as client motivation and avoidance of the exposure element of the intervention. In addition, the fluidity of treatment goals during complex trauma cases was explored, as this issue arose in the case study. This study follows the course of treatment of a 12-year-old female presenting with symptoms of PTSD. Treatment consisted of traditional components of the TF-CBT model, with the added elements of AAP to address typical treatment obstacles in TF-CBT. A registered therapy dog worked with the subject in all sessions throughout her treatment. The therapy dog was incorporated into components such as relaxation and coping techniques, narrative therapy techniques, and psychoeducation on the cognitive triangle. Throughout the study, the client’s situation and clinical needs required the therapist to switch goals to focus on current safety and stability. The therapy dog provided support and neurophysiological benefits to the client through AAP during this shift in treatment. The client was assessed quantitatively using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale Self Report for DSM-5 (CPSS-SR-5) before and after therapy and qualitatively through a feedback form given after treatment. The participant showed improvement in CPSS-SR-V scores, and she reported that the incorporation of the therapy animal improved her therapy. The results of this study show how the use of AAP provided the client a solid, consistent relationship with the therapy dog that supported her through processing various types of traumas. Implications of the results of treatment and for future research are discussed.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, PTSD in children, trauma treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
38 Perceptions of Cybersecurity in Government Organizations: Case Study of Bhutan

Authors: Pema Choejey, David Murray, Chun Che Fung


Bhutan is becoming increasingly dependent on Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), especially the Internet for performing the daily activities of governments, businesses, and individuals. Consequently, information systems and networks are becoming more exposed and vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. This paper highlights the findings of the survey study carried out to understand the perceptions of cybersecurity implementation among government organizations in Bhutan. About 280 ICT personnel were surveyed about the effectiveness of cybersecurity implementation in their organizations. A questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale was used to assess the perceptions of respondents. The questions were asked on cybersecurity practices such as cybersecurity policies, awareness and training, and risk management. The survey results show that less than 50% of respondents believe that the cybersecurity implementation is effective: cybersecurity policy (40%), risk management (23%), training and awareness (28%), system development life cycle (34%); incident management (26%), and communications and operational management (40%). The findings suggest that many of the cybersecurity practices are inadequately implemented and therefore, there exist a gap in achieving a required cybersecurity posture. This study recommends government organizations to establish a comprehensive cybersecurity program with emphasis on cybersecurity policy, risk management, and awareness and training. In addition, the research study has practical implications to both government and private organizations for implementing and managing cybersecurity.

Keywords: awareness and training, cybersecurity policy, risk management, security risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
37 Identifying the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Syrian and Congolese Refugees’ Health and Economic Access in Central Pennsylvania

Authors: Mariam Shalaby, Kayla Krause, Raisha Ismail, Daniel George


Introduction: The Pennsylvania State College of Medicine Refugee Initiative is a student-run organization that works with eleven Syrian and Congolese refugee families. Since 2016, it has used grant funding to make weekly produce purchases at a local market, provide tutoring services, and develop trusting relationships. This case study explains how the Refugee Initiative shifted focus to face new challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Methodology: When refugees who had previously attained stability found themselves unable to pay the bills, the organization shifted focus from food security to direct assistance such as applying for unemployment compensation since many had recently lost jobs. When refugee families additionally struggled to access hygiene supplies, funding was redirected to purchase them. Funds were also raised from the community to provide financial relief from unpaid rent and bills. Findings: Systemic challenges were encountered in navigating federal/state unemployment and social welfare systems, and there was a conspicuous absence of affordable, language-accessible assistance that could help refugees. Finally, as struggling public schools failed to maintain adequate English as a Second Language (ESL) education, the group’s tutoring services were hindered by social distancing and inconsistent access to distance-learning platforms. Conclusion: Ultimately, the pandemic highlighted that a charity-based arrangement is helpful but not sustainable, and challenges persist for refugee families. Based on the Refugee Initiative's experiences over the past year of the COVID-19 pandemic, several needs must be addressed to aid refugee families at this time, including: increased access to affordable and language-accessible social services, educational resources, and simpler options for grant-based financial assistance. Interventions to increase these resources will aid refugee families in need in Central Pennsylvania and internationally

Keywords: COVID-19, health, pandemic, refugees

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
36 Steps towards the Development of National Health Data Standards in Developing Countries

Authors: Abdullah I. Alkraiji, Thomas W. Jackson, Ian Murray


The proliferation of health data standards today is somewhat overlapping and conflicting, resulting in market confusion and leading to increasing proprietary interests. The government role and support in standardization for health data are thought to be crucial in order to establish credible standards for the next decade, to maximize interoperability across the health sector, and to decrease the risks associated with the implementation of non-standard systems. The normative literature missed out the exploration of the different steps required to be undertaken by the government towards the development of national health data standards. Based on the lessons learned from a qualitative study investigating the different issues to the adoption of health data standards in the major tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia and the opinions and feedback from different experts in the areas of data exchange and standards and medical informatics in Saudi Arabia and UK, a list of steps required towards the development of national health data standards was constructed. Main steps are the existence of: a national formal reference for health data standards, an agreed national strategic direction for medical data exchange, a national medical information management plan and a national accreditation body, and more important is the change management at the national and organizational level. The outcome of this study can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the planning of health data standards, and in particular those in developing countries.

Keywords: interoperabilty, medical data exchange, health data standards, case study, Saudi Arabia

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35 The “Prologue” in Tommy Orange’S There, There: Reinventing the Introductory Section

Authors: Kristin Murray


The proposed paper exams prologues in 20th and 21st century American literature in order to show how Native American writer Tommy Orange’s Prologue in his 2018 novel There, Thereis different. In an interview about his 2018 novel There, There, explains he feels “a kind of burden to catch the general reader up with what really happened, because history has got it so wrong and still continue to” (Laubernds). Orange, thus, includes a “Prologue” in his novel to do this work, catching readers upon Native Americans and their history. Prologues are usually from the narrator’s voice, a character’s voice, or even from a fictionalized version of the author, but the tone of Orange’s “Prologue” is that of a non-fictional first-person essayist. Examining prologues in American literature posits Orange’s prologue outside the norm. This paper also examines other introductory sections, the preface, in particular. The research and examination reveal that Orange is adding his personal voice in the Prologue to the multiple narratorsof the novel, and his is the voice of a writer who knows that his audience comes to his novel with a plethora of misinformation. The truths he tells are horrifying and hopeful. He tells of Thanksgiving as a “land deal” and a “successful massacre,” but he also tellsreaders how urban Indians have found a sense of the land, even through concrete. Native American writers contributed and still contribute to the genre of autobiography in ways that have changed our understanding of this genre. This examination of Orange’s Prologue reveals the new and unexpected way to view this often under-examined introductory section, the prologue.

Keywords: native american literature, prologues, prefaces, 20th century american literature

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34 Household Wealth and Portfolio Choice When Tail Events Are Salient

Authors: Carlson Murray, Ali Lazrak


Robust experimental evidence of systematic violations of expected utility (EU) establishes that individuals facing risk overweight utility from low probability gains and losses when making choices. These findings motivated development of models of preferences with probability weighting functions, such as rank dependent utility (RDU). We solve for the optimal investing strategy of an RDU investor in a dynamic binomial setting from which we derive implications for investing behavior. We show that relative to EU investors with constant relative risk aversion, commonly measured probability weighting functions produce optimal RDU terminal wealth with significant downside protection and upside exposure. We additionally find that in contrast to EU investors, RDU investors optimally choose a portfolio that contains fair bets that provide payo↵s that can be interpreted as lottery outcomes or exposure to idiosyncratic returns. In a calibrated version of the model, we calculate that RDU investors would be willing to pay 5% of their initial wealth for the freedom to trade away from an optimal EU wealth allocation. The dynamic trading strategy that supports the optimal wealth allocation implies portfolio weights that are independent of initial wealth but requires higher risky share after good stock return histories. Optimal trading also implies the possibility of non-participation when historical returns are poor. Our model fills a gap in the literature by providing new quantitative and qualitative predictions that can be tested experimentally or using data on household wealth and portfolio choice.

Keywords: behavioral finance, probability weighting, portfolio choice

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33 A Qualitative Study of the Psychologically Challenging Aspects of Taking Part in an Ultra-Endurance Atlantic Rowing Event

Authors: John Allbutt, Andrew Murray, Jonathan Ling, Thomas M. Heffernan


Ultra-endurance events place unique physical and psychological pressures on participants. In this study, we examined the psychologically challenging aspects of taking part in a 3000 mile transatlantic rowing race using a qualitative approach. To date, more people have been into space than have rowed an ocean and only one psychological study has been conducted on this experience which had a specific research focus. The current study was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Participants were an opportunity sample of seven competitors from a recent ocean rowing race. Participants were asked about the psychological aspects of the event after it had finished. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Several themes emerged from the analysis. These related to: 1) preparation; 2) bodily aches/pains, 3) race setbacks; 4) boat conditions; 5) interpersonal factors and communication; 6) strategies for managing stress and interpersonal tensions. While participants were generally very positive about the event, the analysis showed that they experienced significant psychological challenges during their voyage. Competitors paid considerable attention to preparing for the physical challenges of the event. However, not all prospective competitors gave the same time to preparing for psychological factors or were aware how they might play out during their voyage. All Atlantic rowing crews should be aware of the psychological challenges they face, and have strategies in place to help cope with the psychological strain of taking part.

Keywords: confinement experiences, ocean rowing, stress, ultra-endurance sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
32 A Content Analysis of ‘Junk Food’ Content in Children’s TV Programs: A Comparison of UK Broadcast TV and Video-On-Demand Services

Authors: Alexander B. Barker, Megan Parkin, Shreesh Sinha, Emma Wilson, Rachael L. Murray


Objectives: Exposure to HFSS imagery is associated with consumption of foods high in fat, sugar, or salt (HFSS), and subsequently obesity, among young people. We report and compare the results of two content analyses, one of two popular terrestrial children’s television channels in the UK and the other of a selection of children’s programs available on video-on-demand (VOD) streaming sites. Design: Content analysis of three days’ worth of programs (including advertisements) on two popular children’s television channels broadcast on UK television (CBeebies and Milkshake) as well as a sample of 40 highest-rated children’s programs available on the VOD platforms, Netflix and Amazon Prime, using 1-minute interval coding. Setting: United Kingdom, Participants: None. Results: HFSS content was seen in 181 broadcasts (36%) and in 417 intervals (13%) on terrestrial television, ‘Milkshake’ had a significantly higher proportion of programs/adverts which contained HFSS content than ‘CBeebies’. In VOD platforms, HFSS content was seen in 82 episodes (72% of the total number of episodes), across 459 intervals (19% of the total number of intervals), with no significant difference in the proportion of programs containing HFSS content between Netflix and Amazon Prime. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HFSS content is common in both popular UK children’s television channels and children's programs on VOD services. Since previous research has shown that HFSS content in the media has an effect on HFSS consumption, children’s television programs broadcast either on TV or VOD services are likely having an effect on HFSS consumption in children and legislative opportunities to prevent this exposure are being missed.

Keywords: public health, epidemiology, obesity, content analysis

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31 Groundhog Day as a Model for the Repeating Spectator and the Film Academic: Re-Watching the Same Films Again Can Create Different Experiences and Ideas

Authors: Leiya Ho Yin Lee


Groundhog Day (Harold Ramis, 1993) may seemingly be a fairly unremarkable Hollywood comedy film in the 90s, it is argued that the film, with its protagonist Phil (Bill Murray), inadvertently, but perfectly, demonstrates an important aspect in filmmaking, film spectatorship and film research: repetition. Very rarely does a narrative film use one, and only one, take in its shooting. The multiple ‘repeats’ of Phil’s various endeavours due to his being trapped in a perpetual loop of the same day — from stealing money and tricking a woman into a casual relationship, to his multiple suicides, to eventually helping people in need — make the process of doing multiple ‘takes’ in filmmaking explicit. But perhaps more significantly, Phil represents a perfect model for the spectator/cinephile who has seen their favourite film for multiple times that they can remember every single detail. Crucially, their favourite film never changes, as it is a recording, but the cinephile’s experience of that very same film is most likely different each time they watch it again, just as Phil’s character and personality has completely transformed, from selfish and egotistic, to depressed and nihilistic, and ultimately to sympathetic and caring, even though he is living the exact same day. Furthermore, the author did not come up with this stimulating juxtaposition of film spectatorship and Groundhog Day the first time the author saw the film; it took the author a few casual re-viewings to notice the film’s self-reflexivity. And then, when working on it in the author’s research, the author had to re-view the film for more times, and have subsequently noticed even more things previously unnoticed. In this way, Groundhog Day not only stands for a model for filmmaking and film spectatorship, it also illustrates the act of academic research, especially in Film Studies where repeatedly viewing the same films is a prerequisite before new ideas and concepts are discovered from old material. This also recalls Deleuze’s thesis on difference and repetition in that repetition creates difference and it is difference that creates thought.

Keywords: narrative comprehension, repeated viewing, repetition, spectatorship

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30 Plasma Engineered Nanorough Substrates for Stem Cells in vitro Culture

Authors: Melanie Macgregor-Ramiasa, Isabel Hopp, Patricia Murray, Krasimir Vasilev


Stem cells based therapies are one of the greatest promises of new-age medicine due to their potential to help curing most dreaded conditions such as cancer, diabetes and even auto-immune disease. However, establishing suitable in vitro culture materials allowing to control the fate of stem cells remain a challenge. Amongst the factor influencing stem cell behavior, substrate chemistry and nanotopogaphy are particularly critical. In this work, we used plasma assisted surface modification methods to produce model substrates with tailored nanotopography and controlled chemistry. Three different sizes of gold nanoparticles were bound to amine rich plasma polymer layers to produce homogeneous and gradient surface nanotopographies. The outer chemistry of the substrate was kept constant for all substrates by depositing a thin layer of our patented biocompatible polyoxazoline plasma polymer on top of the nanofeatures. For the first time, protein adsorption and stem cell behaviour (mouse kidney stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells) were evaluated on nanorough plasma deposited polyoxazoline thin films. Compared to other nitrogen rich coatings, polyoxazoline plasma polymer supports the covalent binding of proteins. Moderate surface nanoroughness, in both size and density, triggers cell proliferation. In association with polyoxazoline coating, cell proliferation is further enhanced on nanorough substrates. Results are discussed in term of substrates wetting properties. These findings provide valuable insights on the mechanisms governing the interactions between stem cells and their growth support.

Keywords: nanotopography, stem cells, differentiation, plasma polymer, oxazoline, gold nanoparticles

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29 Variations in the 7th Lumbar (L7) Vertebra Length Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in Greyhounds

Authors: Sa`ad M. Ismail, Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies


The lumbosacral junction (where the 7th lumbar vertebra (L7) articulates with the sacrum) is a clinically important area in the dog. The 7th lumbar vertebra (L7) is normally shorter than other lumbar vertebrae, and it has been reported that variations in the L7 length may be associated with other abnormal anatomical findings. These variations included the reduction or absence of the portion of the median sacral crest. In this study, 53 greyhound cadavers were placed in right lateral recumbency, and two lateral radiographs were taken of the lumbosacral region for each greyhound. The length of the 6th lumbar (L6) vertebra and L7 were measured using radiographic measurement software and was defined to be the mean of three lines drawn from the caudal to the cranial edge of the L6 and L7 vertebrae (a dorsal, middle, and ventral line) between specific landmarks. Sacrocaudal fusion was found in 41.5% of the greyhounds. The mean values of the length of L6, L7, and the ratio of the L6/L7 length of the greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion were all greater than those with standard sacrums (three sacral vertebrae). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean values of the length of L7 between the greyhounds without sacrocaudal fusion (mean = 29.64, SD ± 2.07) and those with sacrocaudal fusion (mean = 30.86, SD ± 1.80), but, there was no significant difference in the mean value of the length of the L6 measurement. Among different types of sacrocaudal fusion, the longest L7 was found in greyhounds with sacrum type D, intermediate length in those with sacrum type B, and the shortest was found in those with sacrums type C, and the mean values of the ratio of the L6/L7 were 1.11 (SD ± 0.043), 1.15, (SD ± 0.025), and 1.15 (SD ± 0.011) for the types B, C, and D respectively. No significant differences in the mean values of the length of L6 or L7 were found among the different types of sacrocaudal fusion. The occurrence of sacrocaudal fusion might affect direct anatomically connected structures such as the L7. The variation in the length of L7 between greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion and those without may reflect the possible sequences of the process of fusion. Variations in the length of the L7 vertebra in greyhounds may be associated with the occurrence of sacrocaudal fusion. The variation in the vertebral length may affect the alignment and biomechanical properties of the sacrum and may alter the loading. We concluded that any variations in the sacrum anatomical features might change the function of the sacrum or the surrounding anatomical structures.

Keywords: biomechanics, Greyhound, sacrocaudal fusion, locomotion, 6th Lumbar (L6) Vertebra, 7th Lumbar (L7) Vertebra, ratio of the L6/L7 length

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28 Changes in the Median Sacral Crest Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in the Greyhound

Authors: S. M. Ismail, H-H Yen, C. M. Murray, H. M. S. Davies


A recent study reported a 33% incidence of complete sacrocaudal fusion in greyhounds compared to a 3% incidence in other dogs. In the dog, the median sacral crest is formed by the fusion of sacral spinous processes. Separation of the 1st spinous process from the median crest of the sacrum in the dog has been reported as a diagnostic tool of type one lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV). LTV is a congenital spinal anomaly, which includes either sacralization of the caudal lumbar part or lumbarization of the most cranial sacral segment of the spine. In this study, the absence or reduction of fusion (presence of separation) between the 1st and 2ndspinous processes of the median sacral crest has been identified in association with sacrocaudal fusion in the greyhound, without any feature of LTV. In order to provide quantitative data on the absence or reduction of fusion in the median sacral crest between the 1st and 2nd sacral spinous processes, in association with sacrocaudal fusion. 204 dog sacrums free of any pathological changes (192 greyhound, 9 beagles and 3 labradors) were grouped based on the occurrence and types of fusion and the presence, absence, or reduction in the median sacral crest between the 1st and 2nd sacral spinous processes., Sacrums were described and classified as follows: F: Complete fusion (crest is present), N: Absence (fusion is absent), and R: Short crest (fusion reduced but not absent (reduction). The incidence of sacrocaudal fusion in the 204 sacrums: 57% of the sacrums were standard (3 vertebrae) and 43% were fused (4 vertebrae). Type of sacrum had a significant (p < .05) association with the absence and reduction of fusion between the 1st and 2nd sacral spinous processes of the median sacral crest. In the 108 greyhounds with standard sacrums (3 vertebrae) the percentages of F, N and R were 45% 23% and 23% respectively, while in the 84 fused (4 vertebrae) sacrums, the percentages of F, N and R were 3%, 87% and 10% respectively and these percentages were significantly different between standard (3 vertebrae) and fused (4 vertebrae) sacrums (p < .05). This indicates that absence of spinous process fusion in the median sacral crest was found in a large percentage of the greyhounds in this study and was found to be particularly prevalent in those with sacrocaudal fusion – therefore in this breed, at least, absence of sacral spinous process fusion may be unlikely to be associated with LTV.

Keywords: greyhound, median sacral crest, sacrocaudal fusion, sacral spinous process

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27 Reflections on a Peri-Pandemic Programme with Disaffected Youth

Authors: Conor Murray


This paper discusses the findings from the first phase of a three-year study. The study focuses on the delivery of a sport-based intervention with young participants identified as being at risk of becoming involved in the criminal justice system or organised crime. The sport-based intervention incorporated four sports: soccer, rugby, ice hockey, and Gaelic football. Initially developed to be delivered in a face-to-face capacity, the programme was forced to pivot to predominantly online delivery. This paper will reflect on the views of organisers, facilitators, and young participants on a peri-pandemic programme. The first phase of the study included two focus groups and five interviews with young people, and six interviews with organisers and facilitators of the programme. Despite the ways in which the programme was impacted by the imposition of public health COVID-19 restrictions, it retained significant value and impact for the young people involved. Programme participants consistently highlighted the value of the programme in helping to break down a range of barriers, be they related to personal circumstances, physical and mental health, or cross-community interactions. Although the pivot to an online model of delivery presented a range of challenges for both the programme’s organisers and participants, these challenges were often framed as opportunities for learning and collaboration between the four sporting partners. The result was a sense that, although the original vision for the sport-based intervention was constrained by circumstance, the modified model of delivery played a catalytic role in fostering uniquely enhanced dialogue, cooperation, and partnership between each sporting organisation involved. And while participants were often critical in their appraisal of the attendant frustrations and limitations that came with the online context in which the programme was largely delivered, they remained highly positive in their discussion of the content and delivery of the online sessions.

Keywords: sport-based intervention, diversion, young people, paramilitaries, extremism

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26 Epstein, Barr Virus Alters ATM-Dependent DNA Damage Responses in Germinal Centre B-Cells during Early Infection

Authors: Esther N. Maina, Anna Skowronska, Sridhar Chaganti, Malcolm A. Taylor, Paul G. Murray, Tatjana Stankovic


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human tumours of B-cell origin. The demonstration that a proportion of Hodgkin lymphomas and all Burkitt’s lymphomas harbour EBV suggests that the virus contributes to the development of these malignancies. However, the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis remain largely unknown. To determine whether EBV causes DNA damage and alters DNA damage response in cells of EBV-driven lymphoma origin, Germinal Centre (GC) B cells were infected with EBV and DNA damage responses to gamma ionising radiation (IR) assessed at early time points (12hr – 72hr) after infection and prior to establishment of lymphoblastoid (LCL) cell lines. In the presence of EBV, we observed induction of spontaneous DNA DSBs and downregulation of ATM-dependent phosphorylation in response to IR. This downregulation coincided with reduced ability of infected cells to repair IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks, as measured by the kinetics of gamma H2AX, a marker of double-strand breaks, and by the tail moment of the comet assay. Furthermore, we found that alteration of DNA damage responses coincided with the expression of LMP-1 protein. The presence of the EBV virus did not affect the localization of the ATM-dependent DNA repair proteins to sites of damage but instead lead to an increased expression of PP5, a phosphatase that regulates ATM function. The impact of the virus on DNA repair was most prominent 24h after infection, suggesting that this time point is crucial for the viral establishment in B cells. Our results suggest that during an early infection EBV virus dampens crucial cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks which facilitate successful viral infection, but at the same time might provide the mechanism for tumor development.

Keywords: EBV, ATM, DNA damage, germinal center cells

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25 Assimilating Multi-Mission Satellites Data into a Hydrological Model

Authors: Mehdi Khaki, Ehsan Forootan, Joseph Awange, Michael Kuhn


Terrestrial water storage, as a source of freshwater, plays an important role in human lives. Hydrological models offer important tools for simulating and predicting water storages at global and regional scales. However, their comparisons with 'reality' are imperfect mainly due to a high level of uncertainty in input data and limitations in accounting for all complex water cycle processes, uncertainties of (unknown) empirical model parameters, as well as the absence of high resolution (both spatially and temporally) data. Data assimilation can mitigate this drawback by incorporating new sets of observations into models. In this effort, we use multi-mission satellite-derived remotely sensed observations to improve the performance of World-Wide Water Resources Assessment system (W3RA) hydrological model for estimating terrestrial water storages. For this purpose, we assimilate total water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) and surface soil moisture data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) into W3RA. This is done to (i) improve model estimations of water stored in ground and soil moisture, and (ii) assess the impacts of each satellite of data (from GRACE and AMSR-E) and their combination on the final terrestrial water storage estimations. These data are assimilated into W3RA using the Ensemble Square-Root Filter (EnSRF) filtering technique over Mississippi Basin (the United States) and Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) between 2002 and 2013. In order to evaluate the results, independent ground-based groundwater and soil moisture measurements within each basin are used.

Keywords: data assimilation, GRACE, AMSR-E, hydrological model, EnSRF

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24 Variations in the Angulation of the First Sacral Spinous Process Angle Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in Greyhounds

Authors: Sa'ad M. Ismail, Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies


In the dog, the median sacral crest is formed by the fusion of three sacral spinous processes. In greyhounds with standard sacrums, this fusion in the median sacral crest consists of the fusion of three sacral spinous processes while it consists of four in greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion. In the present study, variations in the angulation of the first sacral spinous process in association with different types of sacrocaudal fusion in the greyhound were investigated. Sacrums were collected from 207 greyhounds (102 sacrums; type A (unfused) and 105 with different types of sacrocaudal fusion; types: B, C and D). Sacrums were cleaned by boiling and dried and then were placed on their ventral surface on a flat surface and photographed from the left side using a digital camera at a fixed distance. The first sacral spinous process angle (1st SPA) was defined as the angle formed between the cranial border of the cranial ridge of the first sacral spinous process and the line extending across the most dorsal surface points of the spinous processes of the S1, S2, and S3. Image-Pro Express Version 5.0 imaging software was used to draw and measure the angles. Two photographs were taken for each sacrum and two repeat measurements were also taken of each angle. The mean value of the 1st SPA in greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion was less (98.99°, SD ± 11, n = 105) than those in greyhounds with standard sacrums (99.77°, SD ± 9.18, n = 102) but was not significantly different (P < 0.05). Among greyhounds with different types of sacrocaudal fusion the mean value of the 1st SPA was as follows: type B; 97.73°, SD ± 10.94, n = 39, type C: 101.42°, SD ± 10.51, n = 52, and type D: 94.22°, SD ± 11.30, n = 12. For all types of fusion these angles were significantly different from each other (P < 0.05). Comparing the mean value of the1st SPA in standard sacrums (Type A) with that for each type of fusion separately showed that the only significantly different angulation (P < 0.05) was between standard sacrums and sacrums with sacrocaudal fusion sacrum type D (only body fusion between the S1 and Ca1). Different types of sacrocaudal fusion were associated with variations in the angle of the first sacral spinous process. These variations may affect the alignment and biomechanics of the sacral area and the pattern of movement and/or the force produced by both hind limbs to the cranial parts of the body and may alter the loading of other parts of the body. We concluded that any variations in the sacrum anatomical features might change the function of the sacrum or surrounding anatomical structures during movement.

Keywords: angulation of first sacral spinous process, biomechanics, greyhound, locomotion, sacrocaudal fusion

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23 By Removing High-Performance Aerobic Scope Phenotypes, Capture Fisheries May Reduce the Resilience of Fished Populations to Thermal Variability and Compromise Their Persistence into the Anthropocene.

Authors: Lauren A. Bailey, Amber R. Childs, Nicola C. James, Murray I. Duncan, Alexander Winkler, Warren M. Potts


For the persistence of fished populations in the Anthropocene, it is critical to predict how fished populations will respond to the coupled threats of exploitation and climate change for adaptive management. The resilience of fished populations will depend on their capacity for physiological plasticity and acclimatization in response to environmental shifts. However, there is evidence for the selection of physiological traits by capture fisheries. Hence, fish populations may have a limited scope for the rapid expansion of their tolerance ranges or physiological adaptation under fishing pressures. To determine the physiological vulnerability of fished populations in the Anthropocene, the metabolic performance was compared between a fished and spatially protected Chrysoblephus laticeps population in response to thermal variability. Individual aerobic scope phenotypes were quantified using intermittent flow respirometry by comparing changes in energy expenditure of each individual at ecologically relevant temperatures, mimicking variability experienced as a result of upwelling and downwelling events. The proportion of high and low-performance individuals were compared between the fished and spatially protected population. The fished population had limited aerobic scope phenotype diversity and fewer high-performance phenotypes, resulting in a significantly lower aerobic scope curve across low (10 °C) and high (24 °C) thermal treatments. The performance of fished populations may be compromised with predicted future increases in cold upwelling events. This requires the conservation of the physiologically fittest individuals in spatially protected areas, which can recruit into nearby fished areas, as a climate resilience tool.

Keywords: climate change, fish physiology, metabolic shifts, over-fishing, respirometry

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22 The Cleavage of DNA by the Anti-Tumor Drug Bleomycin at the Transcription Start Sites of Human Genes Using Genome-Wide Techniques

Authors: Vincent Murray


The glycopeptide bleomycin is used in the treatment of testicular cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Bleomycin damages and cleaves DNA in human cells, and this is considered to be the main mode of action for bleomycin's anti-tumor activity. In particular, double-strand breaks are thought to be the main mechanism for the cellular toxicity of bleomycin. Using Illumina next-generation DNA sequencing techniques, the genome-wide sequence specificity of bleomycin-induced double-strand breaks was determined in human cells. The degree of bleomycin cleavage was also assessed at the transcription start sites (TSSs) of actively transcribed genes and compared with non-transcribed genes. It was observed that bleomycin preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. There was a correlation between the degree of this enhanced cleavage at TSSs and the level of transcriptional activity. Bleomycin cleavage is also affected by chromatin structure and at TSSs, the peaks of bleomycin cleavage were approximately 200 bp apart. This indicated that bleomycin was able to detect phased nucleosomes at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. The genome-wide cleavage pattern of the bleomycin analogues 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin was also investigated in human cells. As found for bleomycin, these bleomycin analogues also preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. The cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ values) of these bleomycin analogues was determined. It was found that the degree of enhanced cleavage at TSSs was inversely correlated with the IC₅₀ values of the bleomycin analogues. This suggested that the level of cleavage at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes was important for the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and analogues. Hence this study provided a deeper understanding of the cellular processes involved in the cancer chemotherapeutic activity of bleomycin.

Keywords: anti-tumour activity, bleomycin analogues, chromatin structure, genome-wide study, Illumina DNA sequencing

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21 Competitive DNA Calibrators as Quality Reference Standards (QRS™) for Germline and Somatic Copy Number Variations/Variant Allelic Frequencies Analyses

Authors: Eirini Konstanta, Cedric Gouedard, Aggeliki Delimitsou, Stefania Patera, Samuel Murray


Introduction: Quality reference DNA standards (QRS) for molecular testing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) are essential for accurate quantitation of copy number variations (CNV) for germline and variant allelic frequencies (VAF) for somatic analyses. Objectives: Presently, several molecular analytics for oncology patients are reliant upon quantitative metrics. Test validation and standardisation are also reliant upon the availability of surrogate control materials allowing for understanding test LOD (limit of detection), sensitivity, specificity. We have developed a dual calibration platform allowing for QRS pairs to be included in analysed DNA samples, allowing for accurate quantitation of CNV and VAF metrics within and between patient samples. Methods: QRS™ blocks up to 500nt were designed for common NGS panel targets incorporating ≥ 2 identification tags ( These were analysed upon spiking into gDNA, somatic, and ctDNA using a proprietary CalSuite™ platform adaptable to common LIMS. Results: We demonstrate QRS™ calibration reproducibility spiked to 5–25% at ± 2.5% in gDNA and ctDNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate CNV and VAF within and between samples (gDNA and ctDNA) with the same reproducibility (± 2.5%) in a clinical sample of lung cancer and HBOC (EGFR and BRCA1, respectively). CNV analytics was performed with similar accuracy using a single pair of QRS calibrators when using multiple single targeted sequencing controls. Conclusion: Dual paired QRS™ calibrators allow for accurate and reproducible quantitative analyses of CNV, VAF, intrinsic sample allele measurement, inter and intra-sample measure not only simplifying NGS analytics but allowing for monitoring clinically relevant biomarker VAF across patient ctDNA samples with improved accuracy.

Keywords: calibrator, CNV, gene copy number, VAF

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