Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: listeria monocytogenes

58 Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-To-Eat Food Sold in Johannesburg, South Africa

Authors: Hattie Hope Makumbe, Bhekisisa Dlamini, Frederick Tabit

Abstract:

Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food. This study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in 80 RTE food sold in the formal (dairy and processed meat) and informal markets (vegetable salads, beef stew, and rice) of Johannesburg, South Africa. High Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, and E. coli counts were obtained, which ranged from 1.9-7.5 log CFU/g. Listeria monocytogenes microbial counts in the food samples ranged from 3.5-6.0 log colony forming unit per gram except in cooked rice. The Listeria monocytogenes isolates were identified using biochemical tests and confirmed with the Biolog identification system and PCR analyses. The percentage incidence for Listeria monocytogenes in ready to eat food was 12.5%. When Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations were under consideration, all disinfectants were effective against Listeria monocytogenes strains. For antimicrobial work, rates of resistance amongst the antibiotics ranged from 17-100%. Therefore, more effective preventive control strategies for Listeria monocytogenes are needed to reduce the prevalence of the pathogen in RTE food that is sold in Johannesburg.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species, ready to eat food, sanitiser efficacy

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57 Interventions to Control Listeria Monocytogenes on Sliced Mushrooms

Authors: Alanna Goodman, Kayla Murray, Keith Warriner

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The following reports on a comparative study on the efficacy of different decontamination technologies to decrease Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto white sliced mushrooms and assesses the fate of residual levels during posttreatment storage under aerobic conditions at 8uC. The treatments were chemical (hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, ozonated water, electrolyzed water, chitosan, lactic acid), biological (Listeria bacteriophages), and physical (UV-C, UV:hydrogen peroxide). None of the treatments achieved .1.2 log CFU reduction in L. monocytogenes levels; bacteriophages at a multiplicity of infection of 100 and 3% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide were the most effective of the treatments tested. However, growth of residual L. monocytogenes during posttreatment storage attained levels equal to or greater than levels in the nontreated controls. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited on mushrooms treated with chitosan, electrolyzed water, peroxyacetic acid, or UV. Yet, L. monocytogenes inoculated onto mushrooms and treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide decreased during posttreatment storage, through a combination of sublethal injury and dehydration of the mushroom surface. Although mushrooms treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide became darker during storage, the samples were visually acceptable relative to controls. In conclusion, of the treatments evaluated, UV:hydrogen peroxide holds promise to control L. monocytogenes on mushroom surfaces.

Keywords: listeria monocytogenes, sliced mushrooms, bacteriophages, UV, sanitizers

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56 Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria Spp Isolated from Chicken Carcasses Marketed in Northeast of Iran

Authors: Abdollah Jamshidi, Tayebeh Zeinali, Mehrnaz Rad, Jamshid Razmyar

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Listeria infections occur worldwide in variety of animals and man. Listeriae are widely distributed in nature. The organism has been isolated from the feces of humans and several animals, different soils, plants, aquatic environments and food of animal and vegetable origin. Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as important food-borne pathogens due to its high mortality rate. This organism is able to growth at refrigeration temperature, and high osmotic pressure. Poultry can become contaminated environmentally or through healthy carrier birds. In recent decades, prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents may be lead to emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms, which can be transmitted to human through consumption of contaminated foods. In this study, from 200 fresh chicken carcasses samples which were collected randomly from different supermarkets and butcheries, 80 samples were detected as contaminate with Listeria spp. and 19% of the isolates identified as Listeria monocytogene using multiplex PCR assay. Conventional methods were used to differentiate other species of the listeria genus. The results showed the most prevalent isolates as L. monocytogenes (48.75%). Other isolates were detected as Listeria innocua (28.75%), Listeria murrayi (20%), Listeria grayi (3.75%) and Listeria welshimeri (2.5%).The Majority of the isolates had multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Most of them were resistant to erythromycin (50%), followed by Tetracycline (44.44%), Clindamycin (41.66%), and Trimethoprim (25%). Some of them showed resistance to chloramphenicol (17.65%). The results indicate the resistance of the isolates to antimicrobials commonly used to treat human listeriosis, which could be a potential health hazard for consumers.

Keywords: listeria species, L. monocytogenes, antibiotic resistance, chicken carcass

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55 Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacteriophages on the Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese

Authors: Vinicius Buccelli Ribeiro, Maria Teresa Destro, Mariza Landgraf

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Bacteriophages are one of the most abundant replicating entities on Earth and can be found everywhere in which their hosts live and there are reports regarding isolation from different niches such as soil and foods. Since studies are moving forward with regard to biotechnology area, different research projects are being performed focusing on the phage technology and its use by the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate a cocktail (LP501) of phages isolated in Brazil for its lytic potential against Listeria monocytogenes. Three bacteriophages (LP05, LP12 and LP20) were isolated from soil samples and all of them showed 100% lysis against a panel of 10 L. monocytogenes strains representing different serotypes of this pathogen. A mix of L. monocytogenes 1/2a and 4b were inoculated in soft cheeses (approximately 105 cfu/cm2) with the phage cocktail added thereafter (1 x 109 PFU/cm2). Samples were analyzed immediately and then stored at 10°C for ten days. At 30 min post-infection, the cocktail reduced L. monocytogenes counts approximately 1.5 logs, compared to controls without bacteriophage. The treatment produced a statistically significant decrease in the counts of viable cells (p < 0.05) and in all assays performed we observed a decrease of up to 4 logs of L. monocytogenes. This study will make available to the international community behavioral and molecular data regarding bacteriophages present in soil samples in Brazil. Furthermore, there is the possibility to apply this new cocktail of phages in different food products to combat L. monocytogenes.

Keywords: bacteriophages, biocontrol, listeria monocytogenes, soft cheese

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54 Same-Day Detection Method of Salmonella Spp., Shigella Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes with Fluorescence-Based Triplex Real-Time PCR

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic

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Faster detection and characterization of pathogens are the basis of the evoid from foodborne pathogens. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are common foodborne bacteria that are among the most life-threatining. It is important to rapid and accurate detection of these pathogens to prevent food poisoning and outbreaks or to manage food chains. The present work promise to develop a sensitive, species specific and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this purpose, three genes were picked out, ompC for Salmonella spp., ipaH for Shigella spp. and hlyA for L. monocytogenes. After short pre-enrichment of milk was passed through a vacuum filter and bacterial DNA was exracted using commercially available kit GIDAGEN®(Turkey, İstanbul). Detection of amplicons was verified by examination of the melting temperature (Tm) that are 72° C, 78° C, 82° C for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The method specificity was checked against a group of bacteria strains, and also carried out sensitivity test resulting in under 10² CFU mL⁻¹ of milk for each bacteria strain. Our results show that the flourescence based triplex qPCR method can be used routinely to detect Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes during the milk processing procedures in order to reduce cost, time of analysis and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks.

Keywords: evagreen, food-born bacteria, pathogen detection, real-time pcr

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53 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Faith Semwayo

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Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, nanoparticles, tomato, carrot

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52 The Impact of the Cell-Free Solution of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cadaverine Production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Lysine-Decarboxylase Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Nurten Toy, Yesim Özogul

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The influences of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on cadaverine and other biogenic amine production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB) using HPLC. Cell-free solutions were prepared from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophiles. Two different concentrations that were 50% and 25% CFS and the control without CFSs were prepared. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus (P<0.05). The role of CFS on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine formation in control by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 500.9 and 948.1 mg/L, respectively while the CFSs of LAB induced 4-fold lower cadaverine production by L. monocytogenes and 7-fold lower cadaverine production by S. aureus. CFSs resulted in strong decreases in cadaverine and putrescine production by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, although remarkable increases were observed for histamine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, tyramine, and agmatine, in the presence of LAB in lysine decarboxylase broth.

Keywords: cell-free solution, lactic acid bacteria, cadaverine, food borne-pathogen

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51 Microbiological Analysis of Biofuels in Order to Follow Stability on Room Temperature

Authors: Radovan Cobanovic, Milica Rankov Sicar

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Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. It is derived by alcoholysis of triacylglycerols (triglycerides) from various lipid based materials that can be traditionally categorized into the following main groups: vegetable oils, animal fats, waste and algal oils. The goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological stability of biodiesel samples since it has been made from vegetable oil or animal fat which was stored on room temperature. For the purposes of this study, analyzes were conducted on six samples of biodiesel first at zero sample at the reception day than fifth, thirtieth, sixtieth, ninetieth and one hundred twentieth day from the day of reception. During this period, biodiesel samples were subjected to microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count). All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-1, total plate count ISO 4833-1. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 120 days indicate that are no changes of products concerning microbiological analyses. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and results for total plate count showed values < 10 cfu/g for all six samples. On the basis of this monitoring under defined storage conditions at room temperatures, the results showed that biodiesel is very stable as far as microbiological analysis were concerned.

Keywords: biodiesel, microbiology, room temperature, stability

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50 Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Fresh Fish and Fish Products

Authors: Beata Lachtara, Renata Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bielinska, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek

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Listeria monocytogenes is an important human and animal pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks. The bacteria may be present in different types of food: cheese, raw vegetables, sliced meat products and vacuum-packed sausages, poultry, meat, fish. The most common method, which has been used for the investigation of genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes, is PFGE. This technique is reliable and reproducible and established as gold standard for typing of L. monocytogenes. The aim of the study was characterization by molecular serotyping and PFGE analysis of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fresh fish and fish products in Poland. A total of 301 samples, including fresh fish (n = 129) and fish products (n = 172) were, collected between January 2014 and March 2016. The bacteria were detected using the ISO 11290-1 standard method. Molecular serotyping was performed with PCR. The isolates were tested with the PFGE method according to the protocol developed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes with some modifications. Based on the PFGE profiles, two dendrograms were generated for strains digested separately with two restriction enzymes: AscI and ApaI. Analysis of the fingerprint profiles was performed using Bionumerics software version 6.6 (Applied Maths, Belgium). The 95% of similarity was applied to differentiate the PFGE pulsotypes. The study revealed that 57 of 301 (18.9%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The bacteria were identified in 29 (50.9%) ready-to-eat fish products and in 28 (49.1%) fresh fish. It was found that 40 (70.2%) strains were of serotype 1/2a, 14 (24.6%) 1/2b, two (4.3%) 4b and one (1.8%) 1/2c. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were presented with the same frequency in both categories of food, whereas serotype 1/2c was detected only in fresh fish. The PFGE analysis with AscI demonstrated 43 different pulsotypes; among them 33 (76.7%) were represented by only one strain. The remaining 10 profiles contained more than one isolate. Among them 8 pulsotypes comprised of two L. monocytogenes isolates, one profile of three isolates and one restriction type of 5 strains. In case of ApaI typing, the PFGE analysis showed 27 different pulsotypes including 17 (63.0%) types represented by only one strain. Ten (37.0%) clusters contained more than one strain among which four profiles covered two strains; three had three isolates, one with five strains, one with eight strains and one with ten isolates. It was observed that the isolates assigned to the same PFGE type were usually of the same serotype (1/2a or 1/2b). The majority of the clusters had strains of both sources (fresh fish and fish products) isolated at different time. Most of the strains grouped in one cluster of the AscI restriction was assigned to the same groups in ApaI investigation. In conclusion, PFGE used in the study showed a high genetic diversity among L. monocytogenes. The strains were grouped into varied clonal clusters, which may suggest different sources of contamination. The results demonstrated that 1/2a serotype was the most common among isolates from fresh fish and fish products in Poland.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, molecular characteristic, PFGE, serotyping

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49 Gold Nanoprobes Assay for the Identification of Foodborn Pathogens Such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis

Authors: D. P. Houhoula, J. Papaparaskevas, S. Konteles, A. Dargenta, A. Farka, C. Spyrou, M. Ziaka, S. Koussisis, E. Charvalos

Abstract:

Objectives: Nanotechnology is providing revolutionary opportunities for the rapid and simple diagnosis of many infectious diseases. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis are important human pathogens. Diagnostic assays for bacterial culture and identification are time consuming and laborious. There is an urgent need to develop rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive diagnostic tests. In this study, a gold nanoprobe strategy developed and relies on the colorimetric differentiation of specific DNA sequences based approach on differential aggregation profiles in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Method: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were purchased from Nanopartz. They were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides specific for the femA gene for the identification of members of Staphylococcus aureus, the mecA gene for the differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, hly gene encoding the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin for the identification of Listeria monocytogenes and the invA sequence for the identification of Salmonella enteritis. DNA isolation from Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis cultures was performed using the commercial kit Nucleospin Tissue (Macherey Nagel). Specifically 20μl of DNA was diluted in 10mMPBS (pH5). After the denaturation of 10min, 20μl of AuNPs was added followed by the annealing step at 58oC. The presence of a complementary target prevents aggregation with the addition of acid and the solution remains pink, whereas in the opposite event it turns to purple. The color could be detected visually and it was confirmed with an absorption spectrum. Results: Specifically, 0.123 μg/μl DNA of St. aureus, L.monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis was serially diluted from 1:10 to 1:100. Blanks containing PBS buffer instead of DNA were used. The application of the proposed method on isolated bacteria produced positive results with all the species of St. aureus and L. monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis using the femA, mecA, hly and invA genes respectively. The minimum detection limit of the assay was defined at 0.2 ng/μL of DNA. Below of 0.2 ng/μL of bacterial DNA the solution turned purple after addition of HCl, defining the minimum detection limit of the assay. None of the blank samples was positive. The specificity was 100%. The application of the proposed method produced exactly the same results every time (n = 4) the evaluation was repeated (100% repeatability) using the femA, hly and invA genes. Using the gene mecA for the differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus the method had a repeatability 50%. Conclusion: The proposed method could be used as a highly specific and sensitive screening tool for the detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis. The use AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets represents an inexpensive and easy-to-perform alternative to common molecular assays. The technology described here, may develop into a platform that could accommodate detection of many bacterial species.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, pathogens, nanotechnology, bacteria

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48 Bacteriophage Lysis Of Physiologically Stressed Listeria Monocytogenes In A Simulated Seafood Processing Environment

Authors: Geevika J. Ganegama Arachchi, Steve H. Flint, Lynn McIntyre, Cristina D. Cruz, Beatrice M. Dias-Wanigasekera, Craig Billington, J. Andrew Hudson, Anthony N. Mutukumira

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In seafood processing plants, Listeriamonocytogenes(L. monocytogenes)likely exists in a metabolically stressed state due to the nutrient-deficient environment, processing treatments such as heating, curing, drying, and freezing, and exposure to detergents and disinfectants. Stressed L. monocytogenes cells have been shown to be as pathogenic as unstressed cells. This study investigated lytic efficacy of (LiMN4L, LiMN4p, and LiMN17) which were previouslycharacterized as virulent against physiologically stressed cells of three seafood borne L. monocytogenesstrains (19CO9, 19DO3, and 19EO3).Physiologically compromised cells ofL. monocytogenesstrains were prepared by aging cultures in TrypticaseSoy Broth at 15±1°C for 72 h; heat injuringcultures at 54±1 - 55±1°C for 40 - 60 min;salt-stressing cultures in Milli-Q water were incubated at 25±1°C in darkness for three weeks; and incubating cultures in 9% (w/v) NaCl at 15±1°C for 72 h. Low concentrations of physiologically compromised cells of three L. monocytogenesstrainswere challenged in vitrowith high titre of three phages in separate experiments using Fish Broth medium (aqueous fish extract) at 15 °C in order to mimic the environment of seafood processing plant. Each phage, when present at ≈9 log10 PFU/ml, reduced late exponential phase cells of L. monocytogenes suspended in fish protein broth at ≈2-3 log10 CFU/ml to a non-detectable level (< 10 CFU/ml). Each phage, when present at ≈8.5 log10 PFU/ml, reduced both heat-injured cells present at 2.5-3.6 log10 CFU/ml and starved cells that were showed coccoid shape, present at ≈2-3 log10 CFU/ml to < 10 CFU/ml after 30 min. Phages also reduced salt-stressed cellspresent at ≈3 log10 CFU/ml by > 2 log10. L. monocytogenes (≈8 log10 CFU/ml) were reduced to below the detection limit (1 CFU/ml) by the three successive phage infections over 16 h, indicating that emergence of spontaneous phage resistance was infrequent. The three virulent phages showed high decontamination potential for physiologically stressed L. monocytogenes strains from seafood processing environments.

Keywords: physiologically stressed L. monocytogenes, heat injured, seafood processing environment, virulent phage

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47 Biodegradable Polymer Film Incorporated with Polyphenols for Active Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Amit Jaiswal

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The key features of any active packaging film are its biodegradability and antimicrobial properties. Biological macromolecules such as polyphenols (ferulic acid (FA) and tannic acids (TA)) are naturally found in plants such as grapes, berries, and tea. In this study, antimicrobial activity screening of several polyphenols was carried out by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against two strains of gram-negative bacteria - Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and two-gram positive strains - Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. FA and TA had shown strong antibacterial activity at the low concentration against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The selected polyphenols FA and TA were incorporated at various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10% w/w) in the poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) composite film by using the solvent casting method. The effect of TA and FA incorporation in the packaging was characterized based on morphological, optical, color, mechanical, thermal, and antimicrobial properties. The thickness of the FA composite film was increased by 1.5 – 7.2%, while for TA composite film, it increased by 0.018 – 1.6%. FA and TA (10 wt%) composite film had shown approximately 65% - 66% increase in the UV barrier property. As the FA and TA concentration increases from 1% - 10% (w/w), the TS value increases by 1.98 and 1.80 times, respectively. The water contact angle of the film was observed to decrease significantly with the increase in the FA and TA content in the composite film. FA has shown more significant increase in antimicrobial activity than TA in the composite film against Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. The FA and TA composite film has the potential for its application as an active food packaging.

Keywords: active packaging, biodegradable film, polyphenols, UV barrier, tensile strength

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46 Listeria and Spoilage Inhibition Using Neutralized and Sodium Free Vinegar Powder

Authors: E. Heintz, H. J. van Lent, K. Glass, J. Lim

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The trend for sodium reduction in food products is clear. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) publication on sodium usage and intake, several countries have introduced initiatives to reduce food-related sodium intake. As salt is a common food preservative, this trend motivates the formulation of a suitable additive with comparable benefits of shelf life extension and microbial safety. Organic acid derivatives like acetates are known as generic microbial growth inhibitors and are commonly applied as additives to meet food safety demands. However, modern consumers have negative perceptions towards -synthetic-derived additives and increasingly prefer natural alternatives. Vinegar, for example, is a well-known natural fermentation product used in food preservation. However, the high acidity of vinegar often makes it impractical for direct use in meat products and a neutralized form would be desirable. This research demonstrates the efficacy of powdered vinegar (Provian DV) in inhibiting Listeria and spoilage organisms (LAB) to increase safety and shelf life of meat products. For this, the efficacy of Provian DV was compared to the efficacy of Provian K, a commonly used sodium free acetate-based preservative, which is known for its inhibition against Listeria. Materials & methods— Cured pork hams: Ingredients: Pork ham muscle, water, salt, dextrose, sodium tripolyphosphate, carrageenan, sodium nitrite, sodium erythorbate, and starch. Targets: 73-74% moisture, 1.75+0.1% salt, and pH 6.4+0.1. Treatments: Control (no antimicrobials), Provian®K 0.5% and 0.75%, Provian®DV 0.5%, 0.65%, 0.8% and 1.0%. Meat formulations in casings were cooked reaching an internal temperature of 73.9oC, cooled overnight and stored for 4 days at 4oC until inoculation. Inoculation: Sliced products were inoculated with approximately 3-log per gram of a cocktail of L. monocytogenes (including serotypes 4b, 1/2a and 1/2b) or LAB-cocktail (C. divergens and L. mesenteroides). Inoculated slices were vacuum packaged and stored at 4oC and 7°C. Samples were incubated 28 days (LAB) or 12 weeks (L. monocytogenes) Microbial analysis: Microbial populations were enumerated in rinsate obtained after adding 100ml of sterile Butterfield’s phosphate buffer to each package and massaging the contents externally by hand. L. monocytogenes populations were determined on triplicate samples by surface plating on Modified Oxford agar whereas LAB plate counts were determined on triplicate samples by surface plating on All Purpose Tween agar with 0.4% bromocresol purple. Proximate analysis: Triplicate non-inoculated ground samples were analyzed for the moisture content, pH, aw, salt, and residual nitrite. Results—The results confirmed the no growth of Listeria on cured ham with 0.5% Provian K stored at 4°C and 7°C for 12 weeks, whereas the no-antimicrobial control showed a 1-log increase within two weeks. 0.5% Provian DV demonstrated similar efficacy towards Listeria inhibition at 4°C while 0.65% Provian DV was required to match the Listeria control at 7°C. 0.75% Provian K and 1% Provian DV were needed to show inhibition of the LAB for 4 weeks at both temperatures. Conclusions—This research demonstrated that it is possible to increase safety and shelf life of cured ready-to-eat ham using preservatives that meet current food trends, like sodium reduction and natural origin.

Keywords: food safety, natural preservation, listeria control, shelf life extension

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45 Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Pig and Cattle Carcass Samples Collected from Korean Slaughterhouses

Authors: Kichan Lee, Kwang-Ho Choi, Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung

Abstract:

Recently, worldwide food safety authorities have been strengthening food hygiene in order to curb foodborne illness outbreaks. The hygiene status of Korean slaughterhouses has been monitored annually by Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency and provincial governments through foodborne pathogens investigation using slaughtered pig and cattle meats. This study presented the prevalence of food-borne pathogens from 2014 to 2016 in Korean slaughterhouses. Sampling, microbiological examinations, and analysis of results were performed in accordance with ‘Processing Standards and Ingredient Specifications for Livestock Products’. In total, swab samples from 337 pig carcasses (100 samples in 2014, 135 samples in 2015, 102 samples in 2016) and 319 cattle carcasses (100 samples in 2014, 119 samples in 2015, 100 samples in 2016) from twenty slaughterhouses were examined for Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, serotypes O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O128 and O145) as foodborne pathogens. The samples were analyzed using cultural and PCR-based methods. Foodborne pathogens were isolated in 78 (23.1%) out of 337 pig samples. In 2014, S. aureus (n=17) was predominant, followed by Y. enterocolitica (n=7), C. perfringens (n=2) and L. monocytogenes (n=2). In 2015, C. coli (n=14) was the most prevalent, followed by L. monocytogenes (n=4), S. aureus (n=3), and C. perfringens (n=2). In 2016, S. aureus (n=16) was the most prevalent, followed by C. coli (n=13), L. monocytogenes (n=2) and C. perfringens (n=1). In case of cattle carcasses, foodborne bacteria were detected in 41 (12.9%) out of 319 samples. In 2014, S. aureus (n=16) was the most prevalent, followed by Y. enterocolitica (n=3), C. perfringens (n=3) and L. monocytogenes (n=2). In 2015, L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4 samples, S. aureus from three, C. perfringens, Y. enterocolitica and Salmonella spp. from one, respectively. In 2016, L. monocytogenes (n=6) was the most prevalent, followed by C. perfringens (n=3) C. jejuni (n=1), respectively. It was found that 10 carcass samples (4 cattle and 6 pigs) were contaminated with two bacterial pathogen tested. Interestingly, foodborne pathogens were more detected from pig carcasses than cattle carcasses. Although S. aureus was predominantly detected in this study, other foodborne pathogens were also isolated in slaughtered meats. Results of this study alerted the risk of foodborne pathogen infection for humans from slaughtered meats. Therefore, the authors insisted that it was important to enhance hygiene level of slaughterhouses according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point.

Keywords: carcass, cattle, foodborne, Korea, pathogen, pig

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44 Monitoring of Sustainability of Decorated Confectionary Product 'Moskva Cake' in Order to Define the Expiration Date

Authors: Radovan Cobanovic, Milica Rankov-Sicar

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The fresh cake is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability has been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 10 days. According to the plan of sustainability, it was defined that 5 samples had to be stored for 20 days at max +8°C and analyzed every 5th day from the day of reception until the 20th day. The shelf life of cake has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 10th and 20th day of analyses. Cake samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analysis (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) according to Serbian state regulation. All analysis were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, and Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21258-2. Analyses showed that after ten days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cake did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned, neither one pathogen was detected and number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level less than 102 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 20th day of storage, the sensory analysis showed the presence of strange sour-milky smell and rancid taste. Concerning microbiological analyses, there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level more than 103cfu/g. Reviewing the results of sensory analysis indicates that it is not recommended to extend the shelf-life of the product comparing to the already defined shelf-life because occurred changes may adversely affect the consumer desire for the choice of this product.

Keywords: confectionary product, extension of shelf life, sensory and microbiological analyses, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
43 Sensory and Microbiological Sustainability of Smoked Meat Products–Smoked Ham in Order to Determine the Shelf-Life under the Changed Conditions at +15°C

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

The meat is in the group of perishable food which can be spoiled very rapidly if stored at room temperature. Salting in combination with smoke is intended to extend shelf life, and also to form the specific taste, odor and color. The smoke do not affect only on taste and flavor of the product, it has a bactericidal and oxidative effect and that is the reason because smoked products are less susceptible to oxidation and decay processes. According to mentioned the goal of this study was to evaluate shelf life of smoked ham, which is stored in conditions of high temperature (+15 °C). For the purposes of this study analyzes were conducted on eight samples of smoked ham every 7th day from the day of reception until 21st day. During this period, smoked ham is subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579 and yeasts and molds ISO 21527-2. Results of sensory analysis of smoked ham indicating that the samples after the first seven days of storage showed visual changes at the surface in the form of allocations of salt, most likely due to the process of drying out the internal parts of the product. The sample, after fifteen days of storage had intensive exterior changes, but the taste was still acceptable. Between the fifteenth and twenty-first day of storage, there is an unacceptable change on the surface and inside of the product and the occurrence of molds and yeasts but neither one analyzed pathogen was found. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this type of product cannot be stored for more than seven days at an elevated temperature of +15°C because there are a visual changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: sustainability, smoked meat products, food engineering, agricultural process engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
42 Comparative Efficacy of Gas Phase Sanitizers for Inactivating Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on Intact Lettuce Heads

Authors: Kayla Murray, Andrew Green, Gopi Paliyath, Keith Warriner

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Introduction: It is now acknowledged that control of human pathogens associated with fresh produce requires an integrated approach of several interventions as opposed to relying on post-harvest washes to remove field acquired contamination. To this end, current research is directed towards identifying such interventions that can be applied at different points in leafy green processing. Purpose: In the following the efficacy of different gas phase treatments to decontaminate whole lettuce heads during pre-processing storage were evaluated. Methods: Whole Cos lettuce heads were spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp. The inoculated lettuce heads were then placed in a treatment chamber and exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide or hydroxyl radicals at different time periods under a range of relative humidity. Survivors of the treatments were enumerated along with sensory analysis performed on the treated lettuce. Results: Ozone gas reduced L. monocytogenes by 2-log10 after ten-minutes of exposure with Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 being decreased by 0.66 and 0.56-log cfu respectively. Chlorine dioxide gas treatment reduced L. monocytogenes and Salmonella on lettuce heads by 4 log cfu but only supported a 0.8 log cfu reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. In comparison, hydroxyl radicals supported a 2.9 – 4.8 log cfu reduction of model human pathogens inoculated onto lettuce heads but required extended exposure times and relative humidity < 0.8. Significance: From the gas phase sanitizers tested, chlorine dioxide and hydroxyl radicals are the most effective. The latter process holds most promise based on the ease of delivery, worker safety and preservation of lettuce sensory characteristics. Although expose times for hydroxyl radicles was relatively long (24h) this should not be considered a limitation given the intervention is applied in store rooms or in transport containers during transit.

Keywords: gas phase sanitizers, iceberg lettuce heads, leafy green processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
41 Control of the Sustainability of Fresh Cheese in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

The fresh cheese is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability have been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 15 days. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that 35 samples had to be stored for 30 days at 2°C−6°C and analyzed every 7th day from the day of reception until 30th day. Shelf life of the cheese has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 15th and 30th day of analyses. Cheese samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and total plate count) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Staphylococcus aureus ISO 6888-1, and total plate count ISO 4833. Analyses showed that after fifteen days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cheese did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no separation of whey and there was not presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned neither one pathogen was detected and total plate count was at level of 103 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 30th day of storage, the analysis showed that there was a separation of whey on the surface. Along the edge of the container was present a dried part of cheese and sour-milky smell and taste were very weakly expressed. Concerning the microbiological analyses there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the total plate count was at a level of 106cfu/g. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product cannot have longer shelf life than shelf life which is already defined because there are a sensory changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: sustainability, fresh cheese, shelf-life, product

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
40 Ultra-Rapid and Efficient Immunomagnetic Separation of Listeria Monocytogenes from Complex Samples in High-Gradient Magnetic Field Using Disposable Magnetic Microfluidic Device

Authors: L. Malic, X. Zhang, D. Brassard, L. Clime, J. Daoud, C. Luebbert, V. Barrere, A. Boutin, S. Bidawid, N. Corneau, J. Farber, T. Veres

Abstract:

The incidence of infections caused by foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) poses a great potential threat to public health and safety. These issues are further exacerbated by legal repercussions due to “zero tolerance” food safety standards adopted in developed countries. Unfortunately, a large number of related disease outbreaks are caused by pathogens present in extremely low counts currently undetectable by available techniques. The development of highly sensitive and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is therefore crucial, and requires robust and efficient pre-analytical sample preparation. Immunomagnetic separation is a popular approach to sample preparation. Microfluidic chips combined with external magnets have emerged as viable high throughput methods. However, external magnets alone are not suitable for the capture of nanoparticles, as very strong magnetic fields are required. Devices that incorporate externally applied magnetic field and microstructures of a soft magnetic material have thus been used for local field amplification. Unfortunately, very complex and costly fabrication processes used for integration of soft magnetic materials in the reported proof-of-concept devices would prohibit their use as disposable tools for food and water safety or diagnostic applications. We present a sample preparation magnetic microfluidic device implemented in low-cost thermoplastic polymers using fabrication techniques suitable for mass-production. The developed magnetic capture chip (M-chip) was employed for rapid capture and release of L. monocytogenes conjugated to immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMNs) in buffer and beef filtrate. The M-chip relies on a dense array of Nickel-coated high-aspect ratio pillars for capture with controlled magnetic field distribution and a microfluidic channel network for sample delivery, waste, wash and recovery. The developed Nickel-coating process and passivation allows generation of switchable local perturbations within the uniform magnetic field generated with a pair of permanent magnets placed at the opposite edges of the chip. This leads to strong and reversible trapping force, wherein high local magnetic field gradients allow efficient capture of IMNs conjugated to L. monocytogenes flowing through the microfluidic chamber. The experimental optimization of the M-chip was performed using commercially available magnetic microparticles and fabricated silica-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were optimized to achieve the desired magnetic moment and surface functionalization was tailored to allow efficient capture antibody immobilization. The integration, validation and further optimization of the capture and release protocol is demonstrated using both, dead and live L. monocytogenes through fluorescence microscopy and plate- culture method. The capture efficiency of the chip was found to vary as function of listeria to nanoparticle concentration ratio. The maximum capture efficiency of 30% was obtained and the 24-hour plate-culture method allowed the detection of initial sample concentration of only 16 cfu/ml. The device was also very efficient in concentrating the sample from a 10 ml initial volume. Specifically, 280% concentration efficiency was achieved in 17 minutes only, demonstrating the suitability of the system for food safety applications. In addition, flexible design and low-cost fabrication process will allow rapid sample preparation for applications beyond food and water safety, including point-of-care diagnosis.

Keywords: array of pillars, bacteria isolation, immunomagnetic sample preparation, polymer microfluidic device

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
39 Antimicrobial Activity of 2-Nitro-1-Propanol and Lauric Acid against Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Robin Anderson, Elizabeth Latham, David Nisbet

Abstract:

Propagation and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant and pathogenic microbes from spoiled silages and composts represents a serious public health threat to humans and animals. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the short chain nitro-compound, 2-nitro-1-propanol (9 mM) as well as the medium chain fatty acid, lauric acid, and its glycerol monoester, monolaurin, (each at 25 and 17 µmol/mL, respectfully) were investigated against select pathogenic and multi-drug resistant antimicrobial resistant Gram-positive bacteria common to spoiled silages and composts. In an initial study, we found that growth rates of a multi-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (expressing resistance against erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and tetracycline) and Staphylococcus aureus strain 12600 (expressing resistance against erythromycin, linezolid, penicillin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and vancomycin) were more than 78% slower (P < 0.05) by 2-nitro-1-propanol treatment during culture (n = 3/treatment) in anaerobically prepared ½ strength Brain Heart Infusion broth at 37oC when compared to untreated controls (0.332 ± 0.04 and 0.108 ± 0.03 h-1, respectively). The growth rate of 2-nitro-1-propanol-treated Listeria monocytogenes was also decreased by 96% (P < 0.05) when compared to untreated controls cultured similarly (0.171 ± 0.01 h-1). Maximum optical densities measured at 600 nm were lower (P < 0.05) in 2-nitro-1-propanol-treated cultures (0.053 ± 0.01, 0.205 ± 0.02 and 0.041 ± 0.01, respectively) than in untreated controls (0.483 ± 0.02, 0.523 ± 0.01 and 0.427 ± 0.01, respectively) for E. faecalis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively. When tested against mixed microbial populations during anaerobic 24 h incubation of spoiled silage, significant effects of treatment with 1 mg 2-nitro-1-propanol (approximately 9.5 µmol/g) or 5 mg lauric acid/g (approximately 25 µmol/g) on populations of wildtype Enterococcus and Listeria were not observed. Mixed populations treated with 5 mg monolaurin/g (approximately 17 µmol/g) had lower (P < 0.05) viable cell counts of wildtype enterococci than untreated controls after 6 h incubation (2.87 ± 1.03 versus 5.20 ± 0.25 log10 colony forming units/g, respectively) but otherwise significant effects of monolaurin were not observed. These results reveal differential susceptibility of multi-drug resistant enterococci and staphylococci as well as L. monocytogenes to the inhibitory activity of 2-nitro-1-propanol and the medium chain fatty acid, lauric acid and its glycerol monoester, monolaurin. Ultimately, these results may lead to improved treatment technologies to preserve the microbiological safety of silages and composts.

Keywords: 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, monolaurin, gram positive bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
38 Monitoring of Sustainability of Extruded Soya Product TRADKON SPC-TEX in Order to Define Expiration Date

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

New attitudes about nutrition impose new styles, and therefore a neNew attitudes about nutrition impose new styles, and therefore a new kind of food. The goal of our work was to define the shelf life of new extruded soya product with minimum 65% of protein based on the analyses. According to the plan it was defined that a certain quantity of the same batch of new product (soybean flakes) which had predicted shelf life of 2 years had to be stored for 24 months in storage and analyzed at the beginning and end of sustainability plan on instrumental analyses (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) and every month on sensory analyses (odor, taste, color, consistency), microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, sulfite-reducing clostridia, Listeria monocytogenes), chemical analyses (protein, ash, fat, crude cellulose, granulation) and at the beginning on GMO analyses. All analyses were tested according to: sensory analyses ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Escherichia coli ISO 16649-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2, sulfite-reducing clostridia ISO 15213 and Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, chemical and instrumental analyses Serbian ordinance on the methods of physico-chemical analyses and GMO analyses JRC Compendium. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 24 months indicate that are no changes of products concerning both sensory and chemical analyses. As far as microbiological results are concerned Salmonella spp was not detected and all other quantitative analyses showed values <10 cfu/g. The other parameters for food safety (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) were not present in analyzed samples and also all analyzed samples were negative concerning genetic testing. On the basis of monitoring the sample under defined storage conditions and analyses of quality control, GMO analyses and food safety of the sample during the shelf within two years, the results showed that all the parameters of the sample during defined period is in accordance with Serbian regulative so that indicate that predicted shelf life can be adopted.w kind of food. The goal of our work was to define the shelf life of new extruded soya product with minimum 65% of protein based on the analyses. According to the plan it was defined that a certain quantity of the same batch of new product (soybean flakes) which had predicted shelf life of 2 years had to be stored for 24 months in storage and analyzed at the beginning and end of sustainability plan on instrumental analyses (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) and every month on sensory analyses (odor, taste, color, consistency), microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, sulfite-reducin clostridia, Listeria monocytogenes), chemical analyses (protein, ash, fat, crude cellulose, granulation) and at the beginning on GMO analyses. All analyses were tested according: sensory analyses ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Escherichia coli ISO 16649-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2, sulfite-reducing clostridia ISO 15213 and Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, chemical and instrumental analyses Serbian ordinance on the methods of physico-chemical analyses and GMO analyses JRC Compendium. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 24 months indicate that are no changes of products concerning both sensory and chemical analyses. As far as microbiological results are concerned Salmonella spp was not detected and all other quantitative analyses showed values <10 cfu/g. The other parameters for food safety (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) were not present in analyzed samples and also all analyzed samples were negative concerning genetic testing. On the basis of monitoring the sample under defined storage conditions and analyses of quality control, GMO analyses and food safety of the sample during the shelf within two years, the results showed that all the parameters of the sample during defined period is in accordance with Serbian regulative so that indicate that predicted shelf life can be adopted.

Keywords: extruded soya product, food safety analyses, GMO analyses, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
37 Food Losses Reducing by Extending the Minimum Durability Date of Thermally Processed Products

Authors: Dorota Zielińska, Monika Trząskowska, Anna Łepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Minimum durability date (MDD) labeled food is known to have a long shelf life. A properly stored or transported food retains its physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties up to MDD. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected thermally processed products,i.e., mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna within and after MDD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the Enterobacteriaceae count and the total yeast and mold (TYMC) count on the last day of MDD and after 1 and 3 months of storage, after the MDD expired. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of MDD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of differentiators (quality features), and overall quality were defined and determined. It was found that during three months storage of tested food products, after the MDD expired, the microbiological quality slightly decreased, however, regardless of the tested sample, TVC was at the level of <3 log cfu/g, similarly, the Enterobacretiaceae, what indicates the good microbiological quality of the tested foods. The TYMC increased during storage but did not exceed 2 logs cfu/g of product. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the tested food samples. The sensory quality of mayonnaise negatively changed during storage. After three months from the expiry of MDD, a decrease in the "fat" and "egg" taste and aroma intensity, as well as the "density" were found. The "sour" taste intensity of blueberry jam after three months of storage was slightly higher, compared to the jam tested on the last day of MDD, without affecting the overall quality. In the case of tuna samples, an increase in the "fishy" taste and aroma intensity was observed during storage, and the overall quality did not change. Tested thermally processed products (mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna) were characterized by good microbiological and sensory quality on the last day of MDD, as well as after three months of storage under conditions recommended by the producer. These findings indicate the possibility of reducing food losses by extending or completely abolishing the MDD of selected thermal processed food products.

Keywords: food wastes, food quality and safety, mayonnaise, jam, tuna

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
36 Identification of the Antimicrobial Effect of Liquorice Extracts on Gram-Positive Bacteria: Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mechanism of Action Using a luxABCDE Reporter Strain

Authors: Madiha El Awamie, Catherine Rees

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Natural preservatives have been used as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives; however, a limited number have been commercially developed and many remain to be investigated as sources of safer and effective antimicrobials. In this study, we have been investigating the antimicrobial activity of an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) that was provided as a waste material from the production of liquorice flavourings for the food industry, and to investigate if this retained the expected antimicrobial activity so it could be used as a natural preservative. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened for evidence of growth inhibition against eight species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-negative bacteria tested include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. In contrast, for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density. However parallel studies using viable count indicated that the cells were not killed meaning that the extract was bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape suggesting the cell wall was affected. In addition, the use of a reporter strain of Listeria transformed with the bioluminescence genes luxABCDE indicated that cell energy levels were reduced when treated with either 12.5 or 50 µg ml-1 of the extract, with the reduction in light output being proportional to the concentration of the extract used. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bioluminescence, Glycyrrhiza glabra, natural preservative

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
35 Preliminary Evaluation of the Probiotic Potential of Leuconostoc mesonteroides Strain Isolated from Goat's Milk

Authors: Benyoucef Amel, Benmechernene Zineb, Kihal Mebrouk

Abstract:

One strain (V1) of Leuconostoc mesonteroides was isolated from goat’s milk collected from El Bayadh which is located in the west of Algeria and was characterized by phenotypic and biochemical methods. This strain was tested for their antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090, Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119) and was evaluated for certain properties relevant to probiotic including acid resistance (pH 2 ; 3and 4), bile tolerance at 0.5%, 1% and 2%, pepsin resistance 3mg/ml at pH 2 and 3, hemolytic activity and antibiotics sensitivity. Our results revealed the strain V1 showed antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Listeria ivanovii, due to a production of proteinous nature substances. The strain was resistant to pH 3 and 4, bile salts at 0.5%, 1% and 2% and pepsin at pH 3; and was γ-hemolytic and susceptible to four antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, pristinamycin, Clindamycin and Lincomycin. These results may be considered the strain V1 as suitable probiotic candidate.

Keywords: antimicrobial, goat‘s milk, Leuconostoc, probiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
34 Research on Reducing Food Losses by Extending the Date of Minimum Durability on the Example of Cereal Products

Authors: Monika Trzaskowska, Dorota Zielinska, Anna Lepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocinska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Microbiological quality and food safety are important food characteristics. Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers introduces the obligation to provide information on the 'use-by' date or the date of minimum durability (DMD). The second term is the date until which the properly stored or transported foodstuff retains its physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The date should be preceded by 'best before'. It is used for durable products, e.g., pasta. In relation to reducing food losses, the question may be asked whether products with the date of minimum durability currently declared retain quality and safety beyond this. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected cereal products, i.e., pasta and millet after DMD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and the number of yeast and mold (TYMC) on the last day of DMD and after 1 and 3 months of storage. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of DMD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of 14 differentiators and overall quality were defined and determined. In the tested samples of millet and pasta, no pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were found. The value of the distinguishing features of selected quality and microbiological safety indicators on the last DMD day was in the range of about 3-1 log cfu/g. This demonstrates the good microbiological quality of the tested food. Comparing the products, a higher number of microorganisms was found in the samples of millet. After 3 months of storage, TVC decreased in millet, while in pasta, it was found to increase in value. In both products, the number of bacteria from the Enterobacretiaceae family decreased. In contrast, the number of TYMCs increased in samples of millet, and in pasta decreased. The intensity of sensory characteristic in the studied period varied. It remained at a similar level or increased. Millet was found to increase the intensity and flavor of 'cooked porridge' 3 months after DMD. Similarly, in the pasta, the smell and taste of 'cooked pasta' was more intense. To sum up, the researched products on the last day of the minimum durability date were characterized by very good microbiological and sensory quality, which was maintained for 3 months after this date. Based on these results, the date of minimum durability of tested products could be extended. The publication was financed on the basis of an agreement with the National Center for Research and Development No. Gospostrateg 1/385753/1/NCBR/2018 for the implementation and financing of the project under the strategic research and development program 'social and economic development of Poland in the conditions of globalizing markets – GOSPOSTRATEG - acronym PROM'.

Keywords: date of minimum durability, food losses, food quality and safety, millet, pasta

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
33 Comparison between Two Groups of Pathogenic Bacteria under Different Essential Oil Extract of Ocimum basilicum L.

Authors: A. M. Daneshian Moghaddam, J. Shayegh, J. Dolghari Sharaf

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This study was conducted to assessment the antibacterial activities of different part of basil essential oil on the standard gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and gram-positive ones including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogen. The basil essential oil was provided from two part of plant (leaf and herb) at the two different developmental stage. The antibacterial properties of basil essential oil was studied Also agar disk diffusion, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were detected. The results of agar disk diffusion tests showed the inhibition zones as follow: Listeria monocytogen 17.11-17.42 mm, St. aureus 29.20-30.56 mm, B. cereus 14.73-16.06 mm, E. coli 21.60-23.58 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.63-24.80 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen on leaf essential oil. From the herb part of basil almost similar results were obtained: Listeria monocytogen 17.02-17.67 mm, St. aureus 29.60-30.41 mm, B. cereus 10.66-16.11 mm, E. coli 17.48-23.54 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.58-21.64 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen. The MICs for gram-positive bacteria were as: B. cereus ranging 36-18 μg/mL, S. aureus 18 μg/mL, Listeria monocytogen 18-36 μg/mL and for gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, Salmonella typhi and P. aeruginosa were 18-9 μg/mL.

Keywords: basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil, gram-positive and gram negative bacteria, antibacterial activity, MIC, MBC

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
32 Effect of Environmental Conditions on E. Coli o157:h7 Atcc 43888 and L. Monocytogenes Atcc 7644 Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Motility and Cell Attachment on Food-Contact Surfaces

Authors: Stanley Dula, Oluwatosini A. Ijabadeniyi

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Biofilm formation is a major source of materials and foodstuffs contamination, contributing to occurrence of pathogenic and spoilage microbes in food processing resulting in food spoilage, transmission of diseases and significant food hygiene and safety issues. This study elucidates biofilm formation of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 grown under food related environmental stress conditions of varying pH (5.0;7.0; and 8.5) and temperature (15, 25 and 37 ℃). Both strains showed confluent biofilm formation at 25 ℃ and 37 ℃, at pH 8.5 after 5 days. E. coli showed curli fimbriae production at various temperatures, while L. monocytogenes did not show pronounced expression. Swarm, swimming and twitching plate assays were used to determine strain motilities. Characterization of cell hydrophobicity was done using the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay using n-hexadecane. Both strains showed hydrophilic characteristics as they fell within a < 20 % interval. FT-IR revealed COOH at 1622 cm-1, and a strong absorption band at 3650 cm-1 – 3200 cm-1 indicating the presence of both -OH and -NH groups. Both strains were hydrophilic and could form biofilm at different combinations of temperature and pH. EPS produced in both species proved to be an acidic hetero-polysaccharide.

Keywords: biofilm, pathogens, hydrophobicity, motility

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
31 Application of Box-Behnken Response Surface Design for Optimization of Essential Oil Based Disinfectant on Mixed Species Biofilm

Authors: Anita Vidacs, Robert Rajko, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Judit Krisch

Abstract:

With the optimization of a new disinfectant the number of tests could be decreased and the cost of processing too. Good sanitizers are eco-friendly and allow no resistance evolvement of bacteria. The essential oils (EOs) are natural antimicrobials, and most of them have the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status. In our study, the effect of the EOs cinnamon, marjoram, and thyme was investigated against mixed species bacterial biofilms of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. The optimal concentration of EOs, disinfection time and level of pH were evaluated with the aid of Response Surface Box-Behnken Design (RSD) on 1 day and 7 days old biofilms on metal, plastic, and wood surfaces. The variable factors were in the range of 1-3 times of minimum bactericide concentration (MBC); 10-110 minutes acting time and 4.5- 7.5 pH. The optimized EO disinfectant was compared to industrial used chemicals (HC-DPE, Hypo). The natural based disinfectants were applicable; the acting time was below 30 minutes. EOs were able to eliminate the biofilm from the used surfaces except from wood. The disinfection effect of the EO based natural solutions was in most cases equivalent or better compared to chemical sanitizers used in food industry.

Keywords: biofilm, Box-Behnken design, disinfectant, essential oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
30 Microbial Quality of Traditional Qatari Foods Sold by Women Street Vendors in Doha, Qatar

Authors: Tahra El-Obeid, Reham Mousa, Amal Alzahiri

Abstract:

During the past few years the traditional market of Qatar has become an attraction to many customers who eat from the numerous women street vendors selling Qatari traditional dishes. To gain an understanding on the safety of these street vended foods, we designed the study to test microbiological quality of 14 different Qatari foods sold in Souk Wagif, the main traditional market in Qatar. This study was conducted to mainly identify presence or absence of microbial pathogens. A total of 56 samples were purchased from 10 different street vendors and the samples were collected randomly on different days. The samples were tested for microbial contaminants at Central Food Laboratories, Doha, Qatar. The qualitative study was conducted using Real Time-PCR to screen for; Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and E. coli 0157:H7. Out of the 56 samples, only two samples “Biryani” and “Khabess” contained E. coli. However, both samples tested negative for E. coli O157:H7. The microbial contamination of the Qatari traditional street vended foods was 3%. This result may be attributed to the food safety training requirement set by the regulatory authorities before issuing any license to food handlers in Qatar as well as the food inspection conducted by the food health inspectors on a regular basis.

Keywords: microbiological quality, street vended food, traditional dishes, Qatar

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
29 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan

Abstract:

In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, pomegranate peel, solvent extraction‎

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