Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: Papua New Guinea

77 Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Tourism Development in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Zainab Olabisi Tairu


Strategic partnerships are a core requirement in delivering sustainable tourism for development in developing nations like Papua New Guinea. This paper unveils the strategic partnerships for sustainable tourism development in Papua New Guinea. Much emphasis is made among tourism stakeholders, on the importance of strategic partnership and positioning in developing sustainable tourism development. This paper engages stakeholders’ ecotourism differentiation and power relations in the discussion of the paper through interviews and observations with tourism stakeholders in Papua New Guinea. Collaborative approaches in terms of sustaining the tourism industry, having a milestone of achieved plans, are needed for tourism growth and development. This paper adds a new insight to the body of knowledge on stakeholders’ identification, formation, power relations and an integrated approach to successful tourism development. In order to achieve responsible tourism planning and management outcomes, partnerships must be holistic in perspective and based on sustainable development principles.

Keywords: stakeholders, sustainable tourism, Papua New Guinea, partnerships

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76 Supporting Women's Economic Development in Rural Papua New Guinea

Authors: Katja Mikhailovich, Barbara Pamphilon


Farmer training in Papua New Guinea has focused mainly on technology transfer approaches. This has primarily benefited men and often excluded women whose literacy, low education and role in subsistence crops has precluded participation in formal training. The paper discusses an approach that uses both a brokerage model of agricultural extension to link smallholders with private sector agencies and an innovative family team’s approach that aims to support the economic empowerment of women in families and encourages sustainable and gender equitable farming and business practices.

Keywords: women, economic development, agriculture, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
75 The Mineral and Petroleum Sectors of Papua New Guinea: An Overview

Authors: James Wapyer, Simon A. Kawagle


The current downturn in the metal and oil prices has significantly affected the mineral and petroleum sectors of Papua New Guinea. The sectors have not grown substantially in the last three years compared to previous years. Resources of several projects have not been proved up as well as feasibility studies not undertaken on advanced projects. In the 2012-2015 periods, however, development licences for four projects have been granted - the Solwara-1 project in the Manus Basin, the Woodlark project, the Crater Mountains project and the Stanley gas-condensate project. There has been some progress on three advanced projects – Frieda River copper-gold porphyry, Mount Kare gold, and the Wafi-Golpu projects. The oilfields are small by world standard but have been high rates of production. The developments of liquefied natural gas projects are progressing well and the first LNG project with ExxonMobil and partners shipped its first cargo in May 2014, the second with Total and partners involving Elk-Antelope gas-condensate fields is in its development stage, and the third with Horizon Oil and partners involving gas fields in the western Papuan basin is in the planning stage. Significantly, in the years 2012-2015, the country has exported liquefied natural gas, nickel, cobalt and chromium, and has granted exploration licences for iron-sands and coal measures for the first time.

Keywords: exploration, mineral, Papua New Guinea, petroleum

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74 Investigating Mathematical Knowledge of Teaching for Secondary Preservice Teachers in Papua New Guinea Based on Probabilities

Authors: Murray Olowa


This article examines the studies investigating the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) of secondary preservice teachers in Papua New Guinea based on probabilities. The study was carried out with the support of previous research on Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK). This research was conducted due to the continuous issues faced in the country in both primary and secondary education, like changes in curriculum, emphasis on mathematics and science education, and a decline in mathematics performance. Moreover, the mathematics curriculum doesn’t capture PCK or SMK. The two main domains that have been identified are SMK and PCK, which have been further sub-divided into Common Content Knowledge (CCK), Specialised Content Knowledge (SCK) and Horizon Content Knowledge (HCK), and Knowledge of Content and Students (KCS), Knowledge of Content and Teaching (KCT) and Knowledge of Content and Curriculum (KCC), respectively. The data collected from 15-_year-_ ones and 15-_year-_fours conducted at St Peter Chanel Secondary Teachers College revealed that there is no significant difference in subject matter knowledge between year one and year four since the P-value of 0.22>0.05. However, it was revealed that year fours have higher pedagogical content knowledge than year one since P-value was 0.007<0.05. Finally, the research has proven that year fours have higher MKT than the year ones. This difference occurred due to final year preservice teachers’ hard work and engagement in mathematics curriculum and teaching practice.

Keywords: mathematical knowledge for teaching, subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, Papua New Guinea, preservice teachers, probability

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73 The Paradox of Decentralization and Civic Culture: An Exploratory Study Applied to Local Governments in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Francis Wargirai


Since gaining independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea`s core challenge has been the consolidation of democracy against a backdrop of enormous social, political and territorial diversity. Consequently, the government has implemented several political reforms including decentralization. Constitutional planners believed that national unity, would be better achieved by sharing state power over centralization. They anticipated that this would institutionalize a democratic civic culture by providing opportunities to groups and individuals to make political decisions within their jurisdiction. This would then eventually lead to confidence and participation in the larger entity of the state. In retrospect, civil society and community based groups are largely underrated and have had minimal influence on decisions at the local level, consequently contributing to nepotism, patronism and cynicism. By applying an elitist approach to analyze how national political leaders exert their influence and power within the local government system and local communities, this paper argues that decentralization has fragmented local communities. With an absence of political party roots and deeply divided ethnic groups, national political leaders have used divide and rule tactics resulting in mistrust among citizens. Through their influence and power within local governments to dictate projects and services to certain areas, this has resulted in skepticism and divisions among civil society along different cultural cleavages. This has been a contributing factor to anomalies in democratic consolidation and democratic political culture in Papua New Guinea.

Keywords: civic culture, cultural cleavages, decentralization, democratic consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
72 Preliminary Seismic Hazard Mapping of Papua New Guinea

Authors: Hadi Ghasemi, Mark Leonard, Spiliopoulos Spiro, Phil Cummins, Mathew Moihoi, Felix Taranu, Eric Buri, Chris Mckee


In this study the level of seismic hazard in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) was calculated for return period of 475 years, using modeled seismic sources and assigned ground-motion equations. The calculations were performed for bedrock site conditions (Vs30=760 m/s). From the results it is evident that the seismic hazard reaches its maximum level (i.e. PGA≈1g for 475 yr return period) at the Huon Peninsula and southern New Britain regions. Disaggregation analysis revealed that moderate to large earthquakes occurring along the New Britain Trench mainly control the level of hazard at these locations. The open-source computer program OpenQuake developed by Global Earthquake Model foundation was used for the seismic hazard computations. It should be emphasized that the presented results are still preliminary and should not be interpreted as our final assessment of seismic hazard in PNG.

Keywords: probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, Papua New Guinea, building code, OpenQuake

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
71 Informality, Trade Facilitation, and Trade: Evidence from Guinea-Bissau

Authors: Julio Vicente Cateia


This paper aims to assess the role of informality and trade facilitation on the export probability of Guinea-Bissau. We include informality in the Féchet function, which gives the expression for the country's supply probability. We find that Guinea-Bissau is about 7.2% less likely to export due to the 1% increase in informality. The export's probability increases by about 1.7%, 4%, and 1.1% due to a 1% increase in trade facilitation, R&D stock, and year of education. These results are significant at the usual levels. We suggest a development agenda aimed at reducing the level of informality in this country.

Keywords: development, trade, informality, trade facilitation, economy of Guinea-Bissau

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
70 Supplementation of Mannan Oligosaccharides in Guinea Pigs: Mortality and Growth Performance

Authors: C. Minguez, J. Bueso-Rodenas, C. Ibanez, A. Calvo


Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) is one of the prebiotic most used in livestock nutrition. In this research, the effect of MOS dietary supplementation on growth performance and mortality in meat guinea pigs were studied. Three different experimental groups were compared: Control group (no additives); MOS 1 (1.5 g kg−1); MOS 2 (2 g kg−1). Guinea pigs were housed in 15 collective cages (n = 50 animals in each trial; 10 animals per cage). The young guinea pigs were weaning at day 28 and individually identified by a little ear tag. The fattening period was 49 days. Guinea pigs in both groups were fed ad libitum, with a standard commercial pellet diet (10 MJ of digestible energy/kg, 17% crude protein, 11% crude fiber, and 4.5% crude fat) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as forage. Growth traits, including body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), were measured weekly. On day 74, the animals were slaughtered. Contrasts between groups were obtained by calculated generalized least squares values. Mortality were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Between MOS groups no significant differences were observed for growth traits and mortality. However, significant differences against the control group were observed for traits studied (pvalue < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of MOS could be a good prebiotic supplement to raise guinea pigs because it MOS has shown positive effects in growth traits and immune response in animals.

Keywords: guinea pig, growth, mannan oligosaccharides, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
69 Free Radical Study of Papua’s Candy as the Consumption Culture of the Papuans

Authors: Livy Febria Tedjamulia, Aas Nurasyiah, Ivana Josephin Purnama, Monika Diah Maharani Kusumastuti, Achmad Ridwan Ariyantoro


Papua's candy is one of Indonesia’s indigenous consumption consisting of areca nut (Areca catechu), forest betel fruit (Piper aduncum), and CaCO3. This research aims to determine the concentration of tannins in areca nut, alkaloids in areca nut, flavonoids in forest betel fruit; detect their interaction and CaCO3; also toform a standardize consumption recommendation. The research methodwas includingDPPH assay for papua’s candy mixture, which resulted in IC50 value. Data analysis used is mathematical linear regression for each experiment. The test result of alkaloid is a Rf value of 0.773, while concentration of tannin and flavonoidare 0.603 mgGAE/g and 125.402 gQE/g, respectively. The IC50 value shows number of 3.0403, showing high antioxidant capacity.Other antioxidant assays were being studied using literature review, namely trolox and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, to figure out interaction among the bioactive compounds. It turned out that the interaction detected is antagonistic, which means the compound that is joined already has a stable molecular structure so that could reduce free radicals by donating hydrogen atoms. The recommendation consumptions given are 4 areca nuts, 5 forest betels, and 1 gram of lime betel. Therefore, papua's candy has its potential to be developed into functional food.

Keywords: antioxidant, bioactive compounds interaction, free radical, papua’s candy

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68 Revitalization of Pancasila as an Alternative Solution to the Conflict in Indonesia Is Based on a Case Study of Separatist Movements in Papua

Authors: Teten Masduki


Indonesia is a unitary state which has a wide range of cultures, local languages, religions, ethnicity, race, traditions, and beliefs held by people who are scattered in several islands Indonesia. But with such diversity has the potential to cause various problems in society. Because one of the characteristics of diversity is the difference. Unresolved differences could develop into conflicts or contradictions in society. Pancasila as the philosophy and ideology of the nation was stated in the opening of the 1945 Constitution as an alternative solution to the conflict that occurred in Indonesia. Because the ideology of Pancasila role as a nation and also as an integral tool that upholds humanity, justice, unity, harmony, and balance on the belt by the five precepts. If the values contained in Pancasila can be applied and lived by the public of Indonesia, it will be the creation of a just, peaceful and peace. However, the lack of public awareness in implementing pancsila can lead to conflict within the community itself, such as the existence of separatist movements in Papua who gathered in the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM) with the active movement that has a lot of casualties. This paper raised the topic of which offer solutions revitalization (reviving) the values of Pancasila as an alternative solution to the conflict in Indonesia is based on a case study of separatist movements in Papua. This paper will also discuss the implementation of strategic steps in the implementation of solutions which are summarized in the conclusions of this paper.

Keywords: Pancasila, separatism, revitalization, democracy

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67 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Allium Hookeri Root and Processed Sulfur on the Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs

Authors: Nayeon, Lee, Won-Young, Cho, Hyun Joo, Jang, Chi-Ho, Lee


This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation of the Allium hookeri root, and processed sulfur, on the growth performance of guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were fed a control diet (CON), as well as the control diet including 1% freeze-dried Allium hookeri root (AH), or 0.1% processed sulfur (S), or including both the freeze-dried Allium hookeri root and the processed sulfur (AHS). The weight of perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in the AH were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05). The serum cholesterols levels of the AH and the AHS were significantly lower than the S (p < 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid content in the serum of the AH and AHS groups showed a tendency to decrease, the total monounsaturated fatty acid increased. The results of this study suggested that dietary consumption of Allium hookeri root may help to decrease fat accumulation, lower serum cholesterol levels, and control serum free fatty acid contents in the guinea pigs.

Keywords: Allium hookeri, dietary supplementation, growth performance, processed sulfur, Guinea pig

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66 The Evolution of Traditional Rhythms in Redefining the West African Country of Guinea

Authors: Janice Haworth, Karamoko Camara, Marie-Therèse Dramou, Kokoly Haba, Daniel Léno, Augustin Mara, Adama Noël Oulari, Silafa Tolno, Noël Zoumanigui


The traditional rhythms of the West African country of Guinea have played a centuries-long role in defining the different people groups that make up the country. Throughout their history, before and since colonization by the French, the different ethnicities have used their traditional music as a distinct part of their historical identities. That is starting to change. Guinea is an impoverished nation created in the early twentieth-century with little regard for the history and cultures of the people who were included. The traditional rhythms of the different people groups and their heritages have remained. Fifteen individual traditional Guinean rhythms were chosen to represent popular rhythms from the four geographical regions of Guinea. Each rhythm was traced back to its native village and video recorded on-site by as many different local performing groups as could be located. The cyclical patterns rhythms were transcribed via a circular, spatial design and then copied into a box notation system where sounds happening at the same time could be studied. These rhythms were analyzed for their consistency-over-performance in a Fundamental Rhythm Pattern analysis so rhythms could be compared for how they are changing through different performances. The analysis showed that the traditional rhythm performances of the Middle and Forest Guinea regions were the most cohesive and showed the least evidence of change between performances. The role of music in each of these regions is both limited and focused. The Coastal and High Guinea regions have much in common historically through their ethnic history and modern-day trade connections, but the rhythm performances seem to be less consistent and demonstrate more changes in how they are performed today. In each of these regions the role and usage of music is much freer and wide-spread. In spite of advances being made as a country, different ethnic groups still frequently only respond and participate (dance and sing) to the music of their native ethnicity. There is some evidence that this self-imposed musical barrier is beginning to change and evolve, partially through the development of better roads, more access to electricity and technology, the nation-wide Ebola health crisis, and a growing self-identification as a unified nation.

Keywords: cultural identity, Guinea, traditional rhythms, west Africa

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65 Effect of Supplementation with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Growth Performance, Slaughter Traits and Mortality in Guinea Pigs

Authors: Carlos Minguez, Christian F. Sagbay, Erika E. Ordoñez


Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) play prominent roles as experimental models for medical research and as pets. However, in developing countries like South America, the Philippines, and sub-Saharan Africa, the meat of guinea pigs is an economic source of animal protein for the poor and malnourished humans because guinea pigs are mainly fed with forage and do not compete directly with human beings for food resources, such as corn or wheat. To achieve efficient production of guinea pigs, it is essential to provide insurance against vitamin C deficiency. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa with fresh citrus pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet of guinea pigs on the growth performance, slaughter traits and mortality during the fattening period (between 20 and 74 days of age). A total of 300 guinea pigs were housed in collective cages of about ten animals (2 x 1 x 0.4 m) and were distributed into two completely randomized groups. Guinea pigs in both groups were fed ad libitum, with a standard commercial pellet diet (10 MJ of digestible energy/kg, 17% crude protein, 11% crude fiber, and 4.5% crude fat). Control group was supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage. In the treatment group, 30% of alfalfa was replaced by fresh citrus pulp. Growth traits, including body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), were measured weekly. On day 74, the animals were slaughtered, and slaughter traits, including live weight at slaughter (LWS), full gastrointestinal tract weight (FGTW), hot carcass weight (with head; HCW), cold carcass weight (with head; CCW), drip loss percentage (DLP) and dressing out carcass yield percentage (DCY), were evaluated. Contrasts between groups were obtained by calculated generalized least squares values. Mortality was evaluated by Fisher's exact test due to low numbers in some cells. In the first week, there were significant differences in the growth traits BW, ADG, FI, and FCR, which were superior in control group. These differences may have been due to the origin of the young guinea pigs, which, before weaning, were all raised without fresh citrus pulp, and they were not familiarized with the new supplement. In the second week, treatment group had significantly increased ADG compared with control group, which may have been the result of a process of compensatory growth. During subsequent weeks, no significant differences were observed between animals raised in the two groups. Neither were any significant differences observed across the total fattening period. No significant differences in slaughter traits or mortality rate were observed between animals from the two groups. In conclusion, although there were no significant differences in growth performance, slaughter traits, or mortality, the use of fresh citrus pulp is recommended. Fresh citrus pulp is a by-product of orange juice industry and it is cheap or free. Forage made with fresh citrus pulp could reduce about of 30 % the quantity of alfalfa in guinea pig for meat and as consequence, reduce the production costs.

Keywords: fresh citrus, growth, Guinea pig, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
64 An Attenuated Quadruple Gene Mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Imparts Protection against Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs

Authors: Shubhita Mathur, Ritika Kar Bahal, Priyanka Chauhan, Anil K. Tyagi


Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine available for protection against tuberculosis confers highly variable protection ranging from 0%-80%. Thus, novel vaccine strains need to be evaluated for their potential as a vaccine against tuberculosis. We had previously constructed a triple gene mutant of M. tuberculosis (MtbΔmms), having deletions in genes encoding for phosphatases mptpA, mptpB, and sapM that are involved in host-pathogen interaction. Though vaccination with Mtb∆mms strain induced protection in the lungs of guinea pigs, the mutant strain was not able to control the hematogenous spread of the challenge strain to the spleens. Additionally, inoculation with Mtb∆mms resulted in some pathological damage to the spleens in the early phase of infection. In order to overcome the pathology caused by MtbΔmms in the spleens of guinea pigs and also to control the dissemination of the challenge strain, MtbΔmms was genetically modified by disrupting bioA gene to generate MtbΔmmsb strain. Further, in vivo attenuation of MtbΔmmsb was evaluated, and its protective efficacy was assessed against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge in guinea pigs. Our study demonstrates that Mtb∆mmsb mutant was highly attenuated for growth and virulence in guinea pigs. Vaccination with Mtb∆mmsb mutant generated significant protection in comparison to sham-immunized animals at 4 and 12 weeks post-infection in lungs and spleens of the infected animals. Our findings provide evidence that deletion of genes involved in signal transduction and biotin biosynthesis severely attenuates the pathogen and the single immunization with the auxotroph was able to provide significant protection as compared to sham-immunized animals. The protection imparted by Mtb∆mmsb fell short in comparison to the protection observed in BCG-immunized animals. This study nevertheless indicates the importance of attenuated multiple gene deletion mutants of M. tuberculosis in generating protection against tuberculosis.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, MtbΔmmsb, bioA, guinea pigs

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
63 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.


Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

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62 Isolation of Three Bioactive Phenantroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Fruit Latex of Ficus botryocarpa Miq.

Authors: Jayson Wau, David Timi, Anthony Harakuwe, Bruce Bowden, Cherie Motti, Harry Sakulas, Rag Gubag-Sipou


The latex of F. botryocarpa fruit is applied on sores, wounds and other skin infections in Papua New Guinea ethnotherapeutic practices. Systematic bioassay guided separation and isolation of subsequent fractions of latex extracts resulted in three bioactive fractions active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This study reports structural elucidation of the three isolates. Structures were determined by physical ( and Rf values) and spectroscopic (1D-1H NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, 2D-HMBC NMR) and MS ESI-POS. The two methylene protons (2H-1) and (2H-3) resonate as triplets at δ 3.59 and δ 4.99 respectively. Electron dense δ 4.99 (2H-3) on (C-3) depicts the strong electron-withdrawing component, quaternary nitrogen (=N= +). Protons resonating at δ 3.88 and 3.89 are singlets depicting two methoxy groups. Both δ 3.88 and δ 3.89 are para-aryls substituents. The methines δ 9.13 and 8.60 are singlets depicting two lone protons on the indolizidinium aryl component. All isolates, (1), (2) and (3) were identified to be ficuseptine by comparing 1D-NMR assignments. 2D-NMR and MS of (2) found it to be ficuseptine chloride '2, 3-dihydro-6, 8-bis (4-methoxyphenyl)-, 1H-indolizinium chloride'. Their counter ions of the ficuseptines were not established and provide promising lead for the further investigation.

Keywords: Ficus botryocarpa, antimicrobial activity, ficuseptine, sores

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61 Perceived Environmental Effects of Charcoal Production among Rural Dwellers in Rainforest and Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria

Authors: P. O. Eniola, S. O. Odebode


Charcoal production constitutes serious environmental problems to most developing countries of the world. Hence, the study assessed perceived environmental effects of charcoal production (CP) among the rural dwellers in rainforest and guinea savannah (GS) zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 83 and 85 charcoal producers in GS and rainforest zones respectively. Eighteen statements on perceived environmental effects of charcoal production were collected. Data was collected through the use of structured interview schedule and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis showed that the mean age was 43 years, 90.5% males, 90.6% married and 35.3% of respondents had no formal education. The majority (80.0%) of the respondents make use of earth mound method of CP and 52.9% of respondents produced between 32-32000kg of charcoal per annum. Respondents (62.7%) perceived that charcoal production could lead to erosion, 62.4% reduce the available trees for future use (62.4%) and reduce available air in the environment (54.1%). A significant difference existed in the perceived environmental effects of charcoal production between rainforest and guinea savannah agro-ecological zones (F=14.62). There is a need for the government to quickly work on other available and affordable alternative household energy sources.

Keywords: deforestation, energy, earth mound method, environment

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60 The Impacts of Natural Resources-Funded Infrastructure Investment in Africa: Evidence from Guinea-Bissau

Authors: Julio Vicente Cateia


This study aims to analyze the economic impacts of infrastructure investment in Africa, focusing on the Guinea-Bissau economy. Through a dynamic CGE model, we find that the natural resource revenues (or aid)-funded infrastructure investments generate externalities that increase factor returns. The private investment improvements propagate externalities effects on GDP and job opportunities outcomes. Household income and consumption were positively impacted, though the poorer benefited the most. The income inequality has reduced. However, funding by the mix of debt and direct taxes produces opposite effects. We suggest a potential pro-poor growth agenda in Africa.

Keywords: infrastructure investment, poverty alleviation, CGE modeling, African economies, applied economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
59 Jurrasic Deposit Ichnofossil Study of Cores from Bintuni Basin, Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Aswan Aswan


Ichnofossils were examined based on two wells cores of Jurassic sediment from Bintuni Basin, West Papua, Indonesia. The cores are the Jurassic interval and known as the potential reservoir interval in this area. Representative of 18 ichnogenera was recorded including forms assigned to Arenicolites, Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, cryptic bioturbation, Glossifungites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Rosselia, root structure, Skolithos, Teichicnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The two cores represent a depositional system that is dominated by tidal flat, shallow marine shelf continuum possibly crossed by estuaries or tidal shoals channels. From the first core identified two deepening cycles. The shallow one is a shallow marine with tidal influence while the deeper one attached to the shelf. Shallow interval usually indicates by appearances of Ophiomorpha and Glossifungites while the deeper shallow marine interval signs by the abundance of Phycosiphon. The second core reveals eight deepening cycles.

Keywords: ichnofossil, Jurassic, sediment, reservoir, Bintuni, Indonesia, West Papua

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58 Challenges in the Last Mile of the Global Guinea Worm Eradication Program: A Systematic Review

Authors: Getahun Lemma


Introduction Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), also known as dracunculiasisis, is one of the oldest diseases in the history of mankind. Dracunculiasis is caused by a parasitic nematode, Dracunculus medinensis. Infection is acquired by drinking contaminated water with copepods containing infective Guinea Worm (GW) larvae). Almost one year after the infection, the worm usually emerges out through the skin on a lower, causing severe pain and disabilities. Although there is no effective drug or vaccine against the disease, the chain of transmission can be effectively prevented with simple and cost effective public health measures. Death due to dracunculiasis is very rare. However, it results in a wide range of physical, social and economic sequels. The disease is usually common in the rural, remote places of Sub-Saharan African countries among the marginalized societies. Currently, GWD is one of the neglected tropical diseases, which is on the verge of eradication. The global Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was started in 1980. Since then, the program has achieved a tremendous success in reducing the global burden and number of GW case from 3.5 million to only 28 human cases at the end of 2018. However, it has recently been shown that not only humans can become infected, with a total of 1,105 animal infections have been reported at the end of 2018. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the existing challenges in the last mile of the GWEP in order To inform Policy makers and stakeholders on potential measures to finally achieve eradication. Method Systematic literature review on articles published from January 1, 2000 until May 30, 2019. Papers listed in Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, ProQuest PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched and reviewed. Results Twenty-five articles met inclusion criteria of the study and were selected for analysis. Hence, relevant data were extracted, grouped and descriptively analyzed. Results showed the main challenges complicating the last mile of global GWEP: 1. Unusual mode of transmission; 2. Rising animal Guinea Worm infection; 3. Suboptimal surveillance; 4. Insecurity; 5. Inaccessibility; 6. Inadequate safe water points; 7. Migration; 8. Poor case containment measures, 9. Ecological changes; and 10. New geographic foci of the disease. Conclusion This systematic review identified that most of the current challenges in the GWEP have been present since the start of the campaign. However, the recent change in epidemiological patterns and nature of GWD in the last remaining endemic countries illustrates a new twist in the global GWEP. Considering the complex nature of the current challenges, there seems to be a need for a more coordinated and multidisciplinary approach of GWD prevention and control measures in the last mile of the campaign. These new strategies would help to make history by eradicating dracunculiasis as the first ever parasitic disease.

Keywords: dracunculiasis, eradication program, guinea worm, last mile

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57 In vivo Antidiarrheal and ex-vivo Spasmolytic Activities of the Aqueous Extract of the Roots of Echinops kebericho Mesfin in Rodents and Isolated Guinea-Pig Ileum

Authors: Fisseha Shiferie (Bpharm, Mpharm)


Diarrhea is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by an increase in stool frequency and a change in stool consistency. Inspite of the availability of many drugs as antidiarrheal agents, the search for a drug with affordable cost and better efficacy is essential to overcome diarrheal problems. The root extract of Echinops kebericho, is used by traditional practitioners for the treatment of diarrhea. However, the scientific basis for this usage has not been yet established. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities of the aqueous extract of the roots of E. kebericho in rodents and isolated guinea-pig ileum preparations. In the castor oil induced intestinal transit test, E. kebericho produced a significant (p < 0.01) dose dependent decrease in propulsion with peristaltic index values of 45.05±3.3, 42.71±2.25 and 33.17±3.3%, respectively at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg compared with 63.43±7.3% for control. In the castor oil-induced diarrhea test, the mean defecation was reduced from 1.81±0.18 to 0.99 ± 0.21 compared with 2.59 ±0.81 for control. The extract (at doses stated above) significantly decreased the volume of intestinal fluid secretion induced by castor oil (2.31±0.1 to 2.01±0.2) in relation to 3.28±0.3 for control. When tested on a guinea-pig ileum, root extract of Echinops kebericho exhibited a dose dependent spasmolytic effect, 23.07 % being its highest inhibitory effect. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the use of Echinops kebericho as an antidiarrheal agent due to its inhibitory effects on the different diarrheal parameters used in this study.

Keywords: antidiarrheal activity, E. kebericho, traditional medicine, diarrhea, enteropooling, and intestinal transit

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56 Views from Shores Past: Palaeogeographic Reconstructions as an Aid for Interpreting the Movement of Early Modern Humans on and between the Islands of Wallacea

Authors: S. Kealy, J. Louys, S. O’Connor


The island archipelago that stretches between the continents of Sunda (Southeast Asia) and Sahul (Australia - New Guinea) and comprising much of modern-day Indonesia as well as Timor-Leste, represents the biogeographic region of Wallacea. The islands of Wallaea are significant archaeologically as they have never been connected to the mainlands of either Sunda or Sahul, and thus the colonization by early modern humans of these islands and subsequently Australia and New Guinea, would have necessitated some form of water crossings. Accurate palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Wallacean Archipelago for this time are important not only for modeling likely routes of colonization but also for reconstructing likely landscapes and hence resources available to the first colonists. Here we present five digital reconstructions of coastal outlines of Wallacea and Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) for the periods 65, 60, 55, 50, and 45,000 years ago using the latest bathometric chart and a sea-level model that is adjusted to account for the average uplift rate known from Wallacea. This data was also used to reconstructed island areal extent as well as topography for each time period. These reconstructions allowed us to determine the distance from the coast and relative elevation of the earliest archaeological sites for each island where such records exist. This enabled us to approximate how much effort exploitation of coastal resources would have taken for early colonists, and how important such resources were. These reconstructions also allowed us to estimate visibility for each island in the archipelago, and to model how intervisible each island was during the period of likely human colonisation. We demonstrate how these models provide archaeologists with an important basis for visualising this ancient landscape and interpreting how it was originally viewed, traversed and exploited by its earliest modern human inhabitants.

Keywords: Wallacea, palaeogeographic reconstructions, islands, intervisibility

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55 Biochemical and Cellular Correlates of Essential Oil of Pistacia Integerrima against in vitro and Murine Models of Bronchial Asthma

Authors: R. L. Shirole, N. L. Shirole, R. B. Patil, M. N. Saraf


The present investigation aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of antiasthmatic action of essential oil of Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis galls (EOPI). EOPI was investigated for its potential antiasthmatic action using in vitro antiallergic assays mast cell degranulation and soyabean lipoxidase enzyme activit, and spasmolytic action using isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. In vivo studies included lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial inflammation in rats and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs using spirometry. Data was analysed by GraphPad Prism 5.01 and results were expressed as means ± SEM. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. EOPI inhibits 5-lipoxidase enzyme activity, DPPH scavenging activity and erythropoietin- induced angiogenesis. It showed dose dependent anti-allergic activity by inhibiting compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation. The finding that essential oil induced inhibition of transient contraction of acetylcholine in calcium free medium, and relaxation of S-(-)-Bay 8644-precontracted isolated guinea pig ileum jointly suggest that suggesting that the L-subtype Cav channel is involved in spasmolytic action of EOPI. Treatment with EOPI dose dependently (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited lipopolysaccharide- induced increased in total cell count, neutrophil count, nitrate-nitrite, total protein, albumin levels in bronchoalveolar fluid and myeloperoxidase levels in lung homogenates. Mild diffused lesions involving focal interalveolar septal, intraluminal infiltration of neutrophils were observed in EOPI (7.5 &15 mg/kg) pretreated while no abnormality was detected in EOPI (30 mg/kg) and roflumilast (1mg/kg) pretreated rats. Roflumilast was used as standard. EOPI reduced the respiratory flow due to gasping in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of EOPI in bronchial asthma possibly related to its ability to inhibit L-subtype Cav channel, mast cell stabilization, antioxidant, angiostatic and through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme.

Keywords: asthma, lipopolysaccharide, spirometry, Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis, essential oil

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54 Effects of Irrigation Scheduling and Soil Management on Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield in Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria

Authors: I. Alhassan, A. M. Saddiq, A. G. Gashua, K. K. Gwio-Kura


The main objective of any irrigation program is the development of an efficient water management system to sustain crop growth and development and avoid physiological water stress in the growing plants. Field experiment to evaluate the effects of some soil moisture conservation practices on yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize was carried out in three locations (i.e. Mubi and Yola in the northern Guinea Savannah and Ganye in the southern Guinea Savannah of Adamawa State, Nigeria) during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. The experiment consisted of three different irrigation levels (7, 10 and 12 day irrigation intervals), two levels of mulch (mulch and un-mulched) and two tillage practices (no tillage and minimum tillage) arranged in a randomized complete block design with split-split plot arrangement and replicated three times. The Blaney-Criddle method was used for measuring crop evapotranspiration. The results indicated that seven-day irrigation intervals and mulched treatment were found to have significant effect (P>0.05) on grain yield and water use efficiency in all the locations. The main effect of tillage was non-significant (P<0.05) on grain yield and WUE. The interaction effects of irrigation and mulch were significant (P>0.05) on grain yield and WUE at Mubi and Yola. Generally, higher grain yield and WUE were recorded on mulched and seven-day irrigation intervals, whereas lower values were recorded on un-mulched with 12-day irrigation intervals. Tillage exerts little influence on the yield and WUE. Results from Ganye were found to be generally higher than those recorded in Mubi and Yola; it also showed that an irrigation interval of 10 days with mulching could be adopted for the Ganye area, while seven days interval is more appropriate for Mubi and Yola.

Keywords: irrigation, maize, mulching, tillage, savanna

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53 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices.  The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.

Keywords: anomaly, gravity, influence, mineral

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52 Effects of Soil Organic Amendment Types and Rates on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus cruentus, Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: S. Yussuf Abdulmaliq


Experiment was conducted for two years (2013 and 2014) at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Teaching and Research Farm to study the effects of soil organic amendment types and rates on soil chemical fertility improvement, growth and yield of Amarathus cruentus in the southern guinea savannah, lapai, Niger state, Nigeria. Soil and manure samples were collected and analysed for physical and chemical components. The experiments were laid out in 3 x 4 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Consisting of three (3) levels of soil amendment types (Poultry manure, goat manure and cowdung) and four (4) levels of amendment rates (0, 6, 12 and 18 t ha-1). Data collected include plant height/plant (cm), number of leaves/plant, leaf area/ plant (cm2) at 2, 4, 6 and 8WAT, fresh vegetable yield/plant, fresh vegetable yield/plot and fresh vegetable yield in tons ha-1. The result obtained showed that, Amaranthus cruentus height, number of leaves and leaf area were not significantly affected by the type of organic amendment and rates at 2WAT in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. However, at 4, 6 and 8 WAT, significant differences were observed among the types of amendment and their rates. Application of poultry manure as soil amendment supported taller, large number of leaves and wider leaf area, and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05) which was closely followed by goat manure in the two (2) cropping seasons. In addition, the application of 18 t ha-1 was superior to 12, 6 and the control by producing tallest amaranthus plants, higher number of leaves, wider leaf area and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05). In conclusion, the use of 18 t ha-1poultry manure is therefore recommended as soil amendment for Amaranthus cruentus in southern guinea savannah of Nigeria.

Keywords: Amaranthus cruentus, cowdung, goat manure, poultry manure, soil amendment

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51 Assessing the Impact of Antiretroviral Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions on Piperaquine Antimalarial Treatment in Pregnant Women Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling

Authors: Olusola Omolola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj Kumar Singh Badhan


Introduction: Malaria in pregnancy has morbidity and mortality implication on both mother and unborn child. Piperaquine (PQ) based antimalarial treatment is emerging as a choice antimalarial for pregnant women in the face of resistance to current antimalarial treatment recommendation in pregnancy. Physiological and biochemical changes in pregnant women may affect the pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug in these. In malaria endemic regions other infectious diseases like HIV/AIDs are prevalent. Pregnant women who are co-infected with malaria and HIV/AID are at even more greater risk of death not only due to complications of the diseases but also due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antimalarials (AMT) and antiretroviral (ARVs). In this study, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling was used to investigate the effect of physiological and biochemical changes on the impact of ARV mediated DDIs in pregnant women in three countries. Method: A PBPK model for PQ was developed on SimCYP® using published physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data of PQ from literature, this was validated in three customized population groups from Thailand, Sudan and Papua New Guinea with clinical data. Validation of PQ model was also done in presence of interaction with efavirenz (pre-validated on SimCYP®). Different albumin levels and pregnancy stages was simulated in the presence of interaction with standard doses of efavirenz and ritonavir. PQ day 7 concentration of 30ng/ml was used as the efficacy endpoint for PQ treatment.. Results: The median day 7 concentration of PQ remained virtually consistent throughout pregnancy and were satisfactory across the three population groups ranging from 26-34.1ng/ml; this implied the efficacy of PQ throughout pregnancy. DDI interaction with ritonavir and efavirenz resulted in modest effect on the day 7 concentrations of PQ with AUCratio ranging from 0.56-0.8 and 1.64-1.79 for efavirenz and ritonavir respectively over 10-40 gestational weeks, however, a reduction in human serum albumin level reflective of severe malaria resulted in significantly reduced the number of subjects attaining the PQ day 7 concentration in the presence of both DDIs. The model demonstrated that the DDI between PQ and ARV in pregnant women with different malaria severities can alter the pharmacokinetic of PQ.

Keywords: antiretroviral, malaria, piperaquine, pregnancy, physiologically-based pharmacokinetics

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50 Genetic Improvement Potential for Wood Production in Melaleuca cajuputi

Authors: Hong Nguyen Thi Hai, Ryota Konda, Dat Kieu Tuan, Cao Tran Thanh, Khang Phung Van, Hau Tran Tin, Harry Wu


Melaleuca cajuputi is a moderately fast-growing species and considered as a multi-purpose tree as it provides fuelwood, piles and frame poles in construction, leaf essential oil and honey. It occurs in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and South-East Asia. M. cajuputi plantation can be harvested on 6-7 year rotations for wood products. Its timber can also be used for pulp and paper, fiber and particle board, producing quality charcoal and potentially sawn timber. However, most reported M. cajuputi breeding programs have been focused on oil production rather than wood production. In this study, breeding program of M. cajuputi aimed to improve wood production was examined by estimating genetic parameters for growth (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and volume), stem form, stiffness (modulus of elasticity (MOE)), bark thickness and bark ratio in a half-sib family progeny trial including 80 families in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. MOE is one of the key wood properties of interest to the wood industry. Non-destructive wood stiffness was measured indirectly by acoustic velocity using FAKOPP Microsecond Timer and especially unaffected by bark mass. Narrow-sense heritability for the seven traits ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 at age 7 years. MOE and stem form had positive genetic correlations with growth while the negative correlation between bark ratio and growth was also favorable. Breeding for simultaneous improvement of multiple traits, faster growth with higher MOE and reduction of bark ratio should be possible in M. cajuputi. Index selection based on volume and MOE showed genetic gains of 31 % in volume, 6 % in MOE and 13 % in stem form. In addition, heritability and age-age genetic correlations for growth traits increased with time and optimal early selection age for growth of M. cajuputi based on DBH alone was 4 years. Selected thinning resulted in an increase of heritability due to considerable reduction of phenotypic variation but little effect on genetic variation.

Keywords: acoustic velocity, age-age correlation, bark thickness, heritability, Melaleuca cajuputi, stiffness, thinning effect

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49 Drivers of Adoption Intensity of Certified Maize Varieties in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria: A Triple Hurdle Model Approach

Authors: Kalat P. Duniya


A number of technologies expected to increase maize productivity have been introduced by several research programs at national and international level. To this end, the study sought to identify the factors influencing adoption intensity of certified maize varieties. The data used were obtained from a sample household survey of 406 maize farmers, conducted in the northern guinea savannah of Nigeria through multistage stratified sampling, structured questionnaire. A triple hurdle model was adopted to estimate the determinants of adoption intensity; considering awareness, adoption, and intensity as three separate stages. The result showed that the drivers of farmers’ awareness, adoption, and intensity of usage may not necessarily be the same, and where they are, not of the same magnitude and direction. However, factors which were found to be statistically significant were age, education, membership of association and frequency of extension advice. In addition, awareness and adoption of the technologies were likely to be increased with male respondents. Farmers that were members of either community organizations or cooperative organizations had a higher tendency of being aware and adopting certified maize seed varieties. It was also discovered that though some of the farmers were fully aware of the existence of some certified maize varieties, majority lacked detailed knowledge and technical know-how. There is a need for creation of awareness through an excellent trained extension and restructuring of the educational sector to improve on the adoption process as well as improve maize productivity in the country.

Keywords: adoption, awareness, maize farmers, Nigeria, regression

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48 Effect of Seasonal Variation on Two Introduced Columbiformes in Awba Dam Tourism Centre, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

Authors: Kolawole F. Farinloye, Samson O. Ojo


Two Columbiformes species were recently introduced to the newly established Awba Dam Tourism Centre [ADTC], hence there is need to investigate the effect of seasonal variation on these species with respect to hematological composition. Blood samples were obtained from superficial ulna vein of the 128 apparently healthy C. livia and C. guinea into tubes containing EDTA as anticoagulant. Thin blood smears (TBS) were prepared, stained and viewed under microscope. Values of Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) count, cholesterol (CH), Uric Acid (UA), Protein (PR), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Haemoglobin Content (HB), Blood Volume (BV), Plasma Glucose (PG) and Length/Width (L/W) ratio of red blood cells were assessed. The procedure was carried out on a seasonal basis (wet and dry seasons of 2013-2014). Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Lymphocyte count for C. livia was F3, 161 = 13.15, while for C. guinea was F3, 178 = 13.15. Heterophil, H/L ratio and Muscle score values for both species were (rs = -0.38, rs = -0.44), (rs = 0.51, rs = 0.31) (4, 3) respectively. Analyses also demonstrated a low WBC to RBC ratio (0.004: 25.3) in both species during the wet season compared to dry season, respectively. L/W varied significantly among sampling seasons i.e. wet (19.1% of BV, 12.6% of BV, 0.1% of BV) and dry (18.9% of BV, 12.7% of BV, 0.08% of BV). The level of HB in wet season (19.20±8.46108) is lower compared to dry season (19.70±8.48762). T-test also showed (wet=15.625, 0.111), (dry=12.125, 0.146) respectively, hence there is no association between species and haematological parameters. Species introduced were found to be haematologically stable. Although there were slight differences in seasonal composition, however this can be attributed to seasonal variation; suggesting little or no effect of seasons on their blood composition.

Keywords: seasonal variation, Columbiformes, Awba Dam tourism centre, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

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