Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: UMAP

4 A t-SNE and UMAP Based Neural Network Image Classification Algorithm

Authors: Shelby Simpson, William Stanley, Namir Naba, Xiaodi Wang

Abstract:

Both t-SNE and UMAP are brand new state of art tools to predominantly preserve the local structure that is to group neighboring data points together, which indeed provides a very informative visualization of heterogeneity in our data. In this research, we develop a t-SNE and UMAP base neural network image classification algorithm to embed the original dataset to a corresponding low dimensional dataset as a preprocessing step, then use this embedded database as input to our specially designed neural network classifier for image classification. We use the fashion MNIST data set, which is a labeled data set of images of clothing objects in our experiments. t-SNE and UMAP are used for dimensionality reduction of the data set and thus produce low dimensional embeddings. Furthermore, we use the embeddings from t-SNE and UMAP to feed into two neural networks. The accuracy of the models from the two neural networks is then compared to a dense neural network that does not use embedding as an input to show which model can classify the images of clothing objects more accurately.

Keywords: t-SNE, UMAP, fashion MNIST, neural networks

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3 A Review of Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocols

Authors: Umar Mujahid, Greatzel Unabia, Hongsik Choi, Binh Tran

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most commonly used technologies in IoTs and Wireless Sensor Networks which makes the devices identification and tracking extremely easy to manage. Since RFID uses wireless channel for communication, which is open for all types of adversaries, researchers have proposed many Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocols (UMAPs) to ensure security and privacy in a cost-effective manner. These UMAPs involve simple bitwise logical operators such as XOR, AND, OR & Rot, etc., to design the protocol messages. However, most of these UMAPs were later reported to be vulnerable against many malicious attacks. In this paper, we have presented a detailed overview of some eminent UMAPs and also discussed the many security attacks on them. Finally, some recommendations and suggestions have been discussed, which can improve the design of the UMAPs.

Keywords: RFID, Ultralightweight, UMAP, SASI

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2 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz

Abstract:

Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: hydroxyl, global model, model maintenance, near infrared, polyol

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1 Transcriptional Differences in B cell Subpopulations over the Course of Preclinical Autoimmunity Development

Authors: Aleksandra Bylinska, Samantha Slight-Webb, Kevin Thomas, Miles Smith, Susan Macwana, Nicolas Dominguez, Eliza Chakravarty, Joan T. Merrill, Judith A. James, Joel M. Guthridge

Abstract:

Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an interferon-related autoimmune disease characterized by B cell dysfunction. One of the main hallmarks is a loss of tolerance to self-antigens leading to increased levels of autoantibodies against nuclear components (ANAs). However, up to 20% of healthy ANA+ individuals will not develop clinical illness. SLE is more prevalent among women and minority populations (African, Asian American and Hispanics). Moreover, African Americans have a stronger interferon (IFN) signature and develop more severe symptoms. The exact mechanisms involved in ethnicity-dependent B cell dysregulation and the progression of autoimmune disease from ANA+ healthy individuals to clinical disease remains unclear. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from African (AA) and European American (EA) ANA- (n=12), ANA+ (n=12) and SLE (n=12) individuals were assessed by multimodal scRNA-Seq/CITE-Seq methods to examine differential gene signatures in specific B cell subsets. Library preparation was done with a 10X Genomics Chromium according to established protocols and sequenced on Illumina NextSeq. The data were further analyzed for distinct cluster identification and differential gene signatures in the Seurat package in R and pathways analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). Results: Comparing all subjects, 14 distinct B cell clusters were identified using a community detection algorithm and visualized with Uniform Manifold Approximation Projection (UMAP). The proportion of each of those clusters varied by disease status and ethnicity. Transitional B cells trended higher in ANA+ healthy individuals, especially in AA. Ribonucleoprotein high population (HNRNPH1 elevated, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, RNP-Hi) of proliferating Naïve B cells were more prevalent in SLE patients, specifically in EA. Interferon-induced protein high population (IFIT-Hi) of Naive B cells are increased in EA ANA- individuals. The proportion of memory B cells and plasma cells clusters tend to be expanded in SLE patients. As anticipated, we observed a higher signature of cytokine-related pathways, especially interferon, in SLE individuals. Pathway analysis among AA individuals revealed an NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress response signature in the transitional B cell cluster, not seen in EA individuals. TNFR1/2 and Sirtuin Signaling pathway genes were higher in AA IFIT-Hi Naive B cells, whereas they were not detected in EA individuals. Interferon signaling was observed in B cells in both ethnicities. Oxidative phosphorylation was found in age-related B cells (ABCs) for both ethnicities, whereas Death Receptor Signaling was found only in EA patients in these cells. Interferon-related transcription factors were elevated in ABCs and IFIT-Hi Naive B cells in SLE subjects of both ethnicities. Conclusions: ANA+ healthy individuals have altered gene expression pathways in B cells that might drive apoptosis and subsequent clinical autoimmune pathogenesis. Increases in certain regulatory pathways may delay progression to SLE. Further, AA individuals have more elevated activation pathways that may make them more susceptible to SLE.

Keywords:

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