Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Musarrat Jabeen

17 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: substance, substance abuse, anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior

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16 Effect of Gender Norms and Gender Equality on Depression and Quality of Life among Young and Old Married Couples

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen, Fatima Zahra Khan, Hamida Bano, Faiza Anjum, Sara Tahir, Kainat Umar, Uzma Azam

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gender norms and gender equality on depression and quality of life among young and old married couples. The sample consisted of 60 old and 100 young married couples. It was mainly conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. However, since it was convenient and snowball sampling, we were able to get the data from other cities of Pakistan as well. By using Beck Depression Scale (Aaron T. Beck), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske,1996), and Gender Norms Attitude Scale(Waszak et al., 2000). It was found that the old couples have a high quality of life than young couples, which further proved them to have positive attitude towards gender equality, negative attitude towards gender norms and low level of depression. Also, couples having positive attitude towards gender equality have high level of satisfaction with life than the ones having negative attitude towards gender norms, who have low level of depression. Also, having a negative attitude towards gender norms has adverse effects on the level of depression. To achieve a high quality of life, it would be helpful to evolve with the world, especially with respect to the concepts of gender norms and equality.

Keywords: depression, gender equality, gender norms, married couples, quality of life

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15 Conceptualizing Thoughtful Intelligence for Sustainable Decision Making

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen

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Thoughtful intelligence offers a sustainable position to enhance the influence of decision-makers. Thoughtful Intelligence implies the understanding to realize the impact of one’s thoughts, words and actions on the survival, dignity and development of the individuals, groups and nations. Thoughtful intelligence has received minimal consideration in the area of Decision Support Systems, with an end goal to evaluate the quantity of knowledge and its viability. This pattern degraded the imbibed contribution of thoughtful intelligence required for sustainable decision making. Given the concern, this paper concentrates on the question: How to present a model of Thoughtful Decision Support System (TDSS)? The aim of this paper is to appreciate the concepts of thoughtful intelligence and insinuate a Decision Support System based on thoughtful intelligence. Thoughtful intelligence includes three dynamic competencies: i) Realization about long term impacts of decisions that are made in a specific time and space, ii) A great sense of taking actions, iii) Intense interconnectivity with people and nature and; seven associate competencies, of Righteousness, Purposefulness, Understanding, Contemplation, Sincerity, Mindfulness, and Nurturing. The study utilizes two methods: Focused group discussion to count prevailing Decision Support Systems; 70% results of focus group discussions found six decision support systems and the positive inexistence of thoughtful intelligence among decision support systems regarding sustainable decision making. Delphi focused on defining thoughtful intelligence to model (TDSS). 65% results helped to conceptualize (definition and description) of thoughtful intelligence. TDSS is offered here as an addition in the decision making literature. The clients are top leaders.

Keywords: thoughtful intelligence, sustainable decision making, thoughtful decision support system

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14 Employee Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Organizational Performance: Evidence from the UAE

Authors: Sherine Farouk, Fauzia Jabeen

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The purpose of this study is to examine the role played by ethical climate and CSR on organizational performance in public sector organizations. In particular, the research will shed light on the link between formalized ethical procedures and employee responses including corporate social responsibility, and organizational performance among public sector employees. Data was collected from 425 employees working in public sector organizations in Abu Dhabi, the capital of United Arab Emirates. Structural Equation Modeling will be used to test the proposed hypotheses. The paper contributes to the literature by being one of the first to study CSR and ethical climate within a Middle Eastern context, and will offer important implications for theory and practice.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, ethical climate, organizational performance, United Arab Emirates

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13 Effectiveness of Online Language Learning

Authors: Shazi Shah Jabeen, Ajay Jesse Thomas

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The study is aimed at understanding the learning trends of students who opt for online language courses and to assess the effectiveness of the same. Multiple factors including use of the latest available technology and the skills that are trained by these online methods have been assessed. An attempt has been made to answer how each of the various language skills is trained online and how effective the online methods are compared to the classroom methods when students interact with peers and instructor. A mixed method research design was followed for collecting information for the study where a survey by means of a questionnaire and in-depth interviews with a number of respondents were undertaken across the various institutes and study centers located in the United Arab Emirates. The questionnaire contained 19 questions which included 7 sub-questions. The study revealed that the students find learning with an instructor to be a lot more effective than learning alone in an online environment. They prefer classroom environment more than the online setting for language learning.

Keywords: effectiveness, language, online learning, skills

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12 Identification of Babesia ovis Through Polymerase Chain Reaction in Sheep and Goat in District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad SAFDAR, Mehmet Ozaslan, Musarrat Abbas Khan

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Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease due to the multiplication of protozoan’s parasite, Babesia ovis in the red blood cells of the host, and contributes numerous economical losses, including sheep and goat ruminants. The early identification and successful treatment of Babesia Ovis spp. belong to the key steps of control and health management of livestock resources. The objective of this study was to construct a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method for the detection of Babesia spp. in small ruminants and to determine the risk factors involved in the spreading of babesiosis infections. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 50 sheep and 50 goats along with different areas of Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of sheep and goats were collected through questionnaires. Of 100 blood samples examined, 18 were positive for Babesia ovis upon microscopic studies, whereas 11 were positive for the presence of Babesia spp. by PCR assay. For the recognition of parasitic DNA, a set of 500bp oligonucleotide was designed by PCR amplification with sequence 18S rRNA gene for B. ovis. The prevalence of babesiosis in small ruminant’s sheep and goat detected by PCR was significantly higher in female animals (28%) than male herds (08%). PCR analysis of the reference samples showed that the detection limit of the PCR assay was 0.01%. Taken together, all data indicated that this PCR assay was a simple, fast, specific detection method for Babesia ovis species in small ruminants compared to other available methods.

Keywords: Babesia ovis, PCR amplification, 18S rRNA, sheep and goat

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11 Expression of Gro-El under Phloem-Specific Promoter Protects Transgenic Plants against Diverse Begomovirus-Beta Satellite Complex

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf Ali, Shahid Mansoor, Javeria Qazi, Imran Amin, Musarrat Shaheen

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Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major threat to the cotton crop and is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Since multiple begomoviruses and associated satellites are involved in CLCuD, approaches based on the concept of broad-spectrum resistance are essential for effective disease control. Gro-El and G5 are two proteins from whitefly endosymbiont and M13 bacteriophage origin, respectively. Gro-El encapsulates the virus particle when it enters the whitefly and protects the virus from the immune system of the whitefly as well as prevents viral expression in it. This characteristic of Gro-El can be exploited to get resistance against viruses if expressed in plants. G5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein, expression of which in transgenic plants will stop viral expression on its binding with ssDNA. The use of tissue-specific promoters is more efficient than constitutive promoters. Transgenics of Nicotiana benthamiana for Gro-El under constitutive promoter and Gro-El under phloem specific promoter were made. In comparison to non-transgenic plants, transgenic plants with Gro-El under NSP promoter showed promising results when challenged against cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) along with cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite (CLCuMB), cotton leaf curl Khokhran virus (CLCuKoV) along with cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite (CLCuMB) and Pedilenthus leaf curl virus (PedLCV) along with Tobacco leaf curl beta satellite (TbLCB).

Keywords: cotton leaf curl disease, whitefly, endosymbionts, transgenic, resistance

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10 Conflict, Confusion or Compromise: Violence against Women, A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Farhat Jabeen, Syed Asfaq Hussain Bukhari

Abstract:

In the wake of the contemporary period the basic objective of the research paper points out that socio-cultural scenario of Pakistan reveals that gender-based violence is deep rooted in the society irrespective of language and ethnicity. This paper would reconnaissance the possibility reforms in Pakistan for diminishing of violence. Women are not given their due role, rights, and respect. Furthermore, they are treated as chattels. This presentation will cover the socio-customary practices in the context of discrimination, stigmatization, and violence against women. This paper envisages justice in a broader sense of recognition of rights for women, and masculine structure of society, socio-customary practices and discrimination against women are a very serious concern which needs to be understood as a multidimensional problem. The paper will specially focus on understanding the existing obstacles of women in Pakistan in the constitutional scenario. Women stumble across discrimination and human rights manipulations, voluptuous violation and manipulation including domestic viciousness and are disadvantaged by laws, strategies, and programming that do not take their concerns into considerations. This presentation examines the role of honour killings among Pakistani community. This affects their self-assurance and capability to elevation integrity campaign where gender inequalities and discrimination in social, legal domain are to be put right. This paper brings to light the range of practices, laws and legal justice regarding the status of women and also covers attitude towards compensations for murders/killings, domestic violence, rape, adultery, social behavior and recourse to justice.

Keywords: discrimination, cultural, women, violence

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9 Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala Fingerlings Fed on Sunflower Meal Based Diet Supplemented with Phytase

Authors: Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal, Farhat Jabeen, Arshad Javid, Tasneem Hameed

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted with Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings to study the effects of microbial phytase with graded levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 FTUkg-1) by sunflower meal based diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. The chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average wt 5.98 g fish-1) were fed once a day and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth and feed performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was obtained by the fish fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 phytase level. Similarly, nutrient digestibility was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by phytase supplementation. Digestibility coefficients for sunflower meal based diet increased 15.76%, 17.70%, and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Again, maximum response of nutrient digestibility was recorded at the phytase level of 1000 FTU kg-1 diet. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 level is optimum to release adequate chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Our results also suggested that phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet can help in the development of sustainable aquaculture by reducing the feed cost and nutrient discharge through feces in the aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: sunflower meal, Cirrhinus mrigala, growth, nutrient digestibility, phytase

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8 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Mehwish Azam, Muhammad Imran, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim

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Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, obesity, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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7 Tc-99m MIBI Scintigraphy to Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions, Detected on Planar Bone Scan

Authors: Aniqa Jabeen

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Tc-99m MIBI (Technetium 99-methoxy-iso-butyl-isonitrile) scintigraphy to differentiate malignancies from benign lesions, which were detected on planar bone scans. Materials and Methods: 59 patients with bone lesions were enrolled in the study. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the clinical, radiological and the histological findings. Each patient initially underwent a three-phase bone scan with Tc-99m MDP (Methylene Diphosphonate) and if evidence of lesion found, the patient then underwent a dynamic and static MIBI scintigraphy after three to four days. The MDP and MIBI scans were evaluated visually and quantitatively. For quantitative analysis count ratios of lesions and contralateral normal side (L/C) were taken by region of interests drawn on scans. The Student T test was applied to assess the significant difference between benign and malignant lesions p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The MDP scans showed the increase tracer uptake, but there was no significant difference between benign and malignant uptake of the radiotracer. However significant difference (p-value 0.015), in uptake was seen in malignant (L/C = 3.51 ± 1.02) and benign lesion (L/C = 2.50±0.42) on MIBI scan. Three of thirty benign lesions did not show significant MIBI uptake. Seven malignant appeared as false negatives. Specificity of the scan was 86.66%, and its Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 81.25% whereas the sensitivity of scan was 79.31%. In excluding the axial metastasis from the lesions, the sensitivity of MIBI scan increased to 91.66% and the NPV also increased to 92.85%. Conclusion: MIBI scintigraphy provides its usefulness by distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. MIBI also correctly identifies metastatic lesions. The negative predictive value of the scan points towards its ability to accurately diagnose the normal (benign) cases. However, biopsy remains the gold standard and a definitive diagnostic modality in musculoskeletal tumors. MIBI scan provides useful information in preoperative assessment and in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.

Keywords: benign, malignancies, MDP bone scan, MIBI scintigraphy

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6 Epidemiology of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Pakistan: Incidence, Clinical Subtypes, Tumor Stage and Localization

Authors: Warda Jabeen, Romaisa Shamim Khan, Osama Shakeel, Ahmed Faraz Bhatti, Raza Hussain

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Background: The worldwide incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has been on the rise over the past few decades. Primary prevention and early treatment remain the focus of management to reduce the burden of disease. This entails identification of risk factors to prompt early diagnosis. In Pakistan, there is a scarcity of clinico-pathological data relating to cutaneous malignant melanoma. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients presenting with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Pakistan, and to compare the results with other studies. Method: Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre is currently the only dedicated cancer hospital in the country, accepting patients from all over Pakistan. Majority of the patients, however, belong to the northern half of the country. From the recorded data of the hospital, all cutaneous melanoma cases were identified and evaluated. Results: Between 1997 and 2017, a total of 169 cutaneous melanoma patients were registered at Shaukat Khanum. Mean age was 47.5 years. The highest incidence of melanoma was seen in the age group 40-59 years (n=69, 40.8%). Most commonly reported clinical subtype was unspecified melanoma (n=154, 91%). Amongst those in which T stage was reported, the most frequently observed T-stage at presentation was T4 (n=23, 13.6%). With regards to body distribution, in our study CM was seen most commonly in the lower limb including the hip. The yearly incidence of melanoma has increased/remained stable from 2007 to 2017. Conclusion: cutaneous malignant melanoma is a fairly common disease in Pakistan. Patients tend to present at a more advanced stage as compared to patients in developed countries. Identification of risk factors and tumor characteristics is therefore of paramount importance to deal with these patients.

Keywords: epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma, cutaneous malignant melanoma, Pakistan, skin cancer

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5 From Cultural Policy to Social Practice: Literary Festivals as a Platform for Social Inclusion in Pakistan

Authors: S. Jabeen

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Though Pakistan has a rich cultural history and a diverse population; its global image is tarnished with labels of Muslim ‘fundamentalism’ and ‘extremism.’ Cultural policy is a tool that can be used by the government of Pakistan to ameliorate this image, but instead, this fundamentalist reputation is reinforced in the 2005 draft of Pakistan’s cultural policy. With its stern focus on a homogenized cultural identity, this 2005 draft bases itself largely on forced participation from the largely Muslim public and leaves little or no benefits to them or cultural minorities in Pakistan. The effects of this homogenized ‘Muslim’ identity linger ten years later where the study and celebration of the cultural heritage of Pakistan in schools and educational festivals focus entirely on creating and maintaining a singular ‘Islamic’ cultural identity. The current lack of inclusion has many adverse effects that include the breeding of extremist mindsets through the usurpation of minority rights and lack of safe cultural public spaces. This paper argues that Pakistan can improve social inclusivity and boost its global image through cultural policy. The paper sets the grounds for research by surveying the effectiveness of different cultural policies across nations with differing socioeconomic status. Then, by sampling two public literary festivals in Pakistan as case studies, the National Youth Peace Festival hosted with a nationalistic agenda using public funds and the Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) that aims to boost the cultural literacy scene of Lahore using both private and public efforts, this paper looks at the success of the private, more inclusive LLF. A revision of cultural policy is suggested that combines public and private efforts to host cultural festivals for the sake of cultural celebration and human development, without a set nationalistic agenda. Consequently, this comparison which is grounded in the human capabilities approach, recommends revising the 2005 draft of the Cultural Policy to improve human capabilities in order to support cultural diversity and ultimately contribute to economic growth in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural policy, festivals, human capabilities, Pakistan

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4 A Cross Culture Analysis of Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapies: Highly Effective for Gastropathic Disorders among Three Ethnic Communities of South West Pakistan

Authors: Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Raees Khan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shayan Jamshed, Humera Jabeen, Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Gastropathic disorders are increasing rapidly and millions patients are reported every years across the world. Herbal medicines and traditional phytotherapies are very effective for many diseases including gastropathic ailments. Many communities and study region have their own unique remedies for such diseases. The current study was aimed to investigate and document high valued medicinal plants and folk remedies for different gastropathic disorders among the three ethnic groups of three regions in South West Pakistan. A total of 104 semi-structured interviews involving experts of traditional knowledge in 21 localities of the three regions (D.I. Khan, Zhob and Mianwali) were conducted. The interviews were especially focused on the documentation of folk herbal remedies. The collected data was analyzed using different quantitative methods. The highly effective plants from all localities were identified with the help of local interviewers and collected for proper taxonomic identification. A total of 56 medicinal plants and 33 effective recipes for 12 gastropathic diseases were documented from all the three ethnic groups in 21 localities. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were most prominently used for different gastropathic diseases. Diarrhea, vomiting and dysentery were the most commonly diseases treated with herbal remedies. It was observed that the three communities shared knowledge about the use of medicinal plants, 35 species were commonly reported from all three areas. However, each community had also their own unique uses of medicinal plants, e.g. 23 plants species were only used in Zhob, 20 plant species were only reported in D.I. Khan and 16 species in Mianwali. The present study reveals that different communities and ethnic groups share some traditional knowledge and also have their own unique knowledge of plants utilization. Gastropathic disorder is increasing very rapidly and the traditional cross-cultural knowledge of medicinal plants use can be very effective for its cure.

Keywords: cross cultural, ethnic groups, gastropathy, phytotherapies, South West Pakistan

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3 Moringa olifera Curate The Toxic Potential of CuO Nanoparticles in Oreochromis mossambicus

Authors: Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Asad

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The study assessed the curative potential of Moringa olifera seeds against copper oxide nanoparticles induced toxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus. In order to investigate the curative potential of M. olifera seeds, firstly we examine its chemical composition, secondary metabolites, and bioactive compounds including hydroxyl-cinnamic acids, flavanols and hydroxybenzoic acids through standard methods and high performance liquid chromatography. In current study, the potential sub-lethal toxic dose of CuO-NPs (0.12 mg/l) was investigated through pilot experiment and three non-lethal doses (low=32, medium=48 and high=96 mg/l) of M. olifera were selected on the basis of its LC50 value for O. mossambicus. The experimental fish, O. mossambicus (n=100 of approximately 20 g each) were procured from Manawan Fisheries Complex, Lahore, and acclimatized for two weeks in glass aquaria. Experiment was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. During acclimatization and experimental period, fish received the commercial fish feed at 2.5% body weight daily. In order to assess the curative effect of M. olifera against CuO NPs induced toxicity, O. mossambicus were randomly divided into five groups and were designated as control (C) without any treatment, positive control (G*) exposed to potential toxic dose of CuO-NPs at 0.12 mg/l, and three treated groups namely G1, G2, and G3 co-treated with 0.12 mg/l of CuO-NPs plus different doses of M. olifera seed extract at 32, 48, and 96 mg/l, respectively for 56 days. Fish were exposed to waterborne CuO NPs and M. olifera seed extract. CuO-NPs treatment was ceased after 28 days but the doses of M. olifera were continued for 56 days. Blood was taken after 28 and 56 days through caudal venipuncture. Liver and intestine were taken for oxidative stress and histological studies after 56 days. In M. olifera seeds, moisture contents, crude protein, lipids, carbohydrates and ash were recorded as 3.8, 37.83, 32.52, 46.12, and 7.75%, respectively on dry weight basis. Total energy was recorded as 627.36 kcal/100g. Qualitative analysis of M. olifera seeds showed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolics, while its quantitative analysis showed the considerable amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids as 134.75, 170.15, 1.57, and 0.4 µg/mg, respectively. Analysis of bioactive compounds in M. olifera seeds showed the presence of hydroxy-cinnamic acids (6.07 µg/ml), flavanols (71.72 µg/ml), and hydroxyl benzoic acids (97.82 µg/ml). The results showed that M. oliefera seed extract at 48 and 56 mg/l was able to cure against the toxic effects of CuO-NPs. The significant changes were observed in G* and G1 for sero-hepatic enzymes, anti-oxidants and histological profile. The investigations of this study showed that M. olifera is a good curative agent against potential induced toxicity of CuO-NPs in O. mossambicus. The curative effect of M. olifera is attributed to the presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds. This study suggested the use of M. olifera to curate different ailments in fish and other organisms.

Keywords: CuO nanoparticles, curative, Moringa olifera, Oreochromis mossambicus

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2 Gene Expression Profiling of Iron-Related Genes of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1

Authors: Shagufta Jabeen, Faez Jesse Firdaus Abdullah, Zunita Zakaria, Nurulfiza Mat Isa, Yung Chie Tan, Wai Yan Yee, Abdul Rahman Omar

Abstract:

Pasteurella multocida is associated with acute, as well as, chronic infections in avian and bovine such as pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes. Iron is one of the most important nutrients for pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella and acts as a cofactor or prosthetic group in several essential enzymes and is needed for amino acid, pyrimidine, and DNA biosynthesis. In our recent study, we showed that 2% of Pasteurella multocida serotype A strain PMTB2.1 encode for iron regulating genes (Accession number CP007205.1). Genome sequencing of other Pasteurella multocida serotypes namely PM70 and HB01 also indicated up to 2.5% of the respective genome encode for iron regulating genes, suggesting that Pasteurella multocida genome comprises of multiple systems for iron uptake. Since P. multocida PMTB2.1 has more than 40 CDs out of 2097 CDs (approximately 2%), encode for iron-regulated. The gene expression profiling of four iron-regulating genes namely fbpb, yfea, fece and fur were characterized under iron-restricted environment. The P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was grown in broth with and without iron chelating agent and samples were collected at different time points. Relative mRNA expression profile of these genes was determined using Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay. The data analysis, normalization with two house-keeping genes and the quantification of fold changes were carried out using Bio-Rad CFX manager software version 3.1. Results of this study reflect that iron reduced environment has significant effect on expression profile of iron regulating genes (p < 0.05) when compared to control (normal broth) and all evaluated genes act differently with response to iron reduction in media. The highest relative fold change of fece gene was observed at early stage of treatment indicating that PMTB2.1 may utilize its periplasmic protein at early stage to acquire iron. Furthermore, down-regulation expression of fece with the elevated expression of other genes at later time points suggests that PMTB2.1 control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins. Moreover, significantly high relative fold change (p ≤ 0.05) of fbpb gene is probably associated with the ability of P. multocida to directly use host iron complex such as hem, hemoglobin. In addition, the significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in fbpb and yfea expressions also reflects the utilization of multiple iron systems in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1. The findings of this study are very much important as relative scarcity of free iron within hosts creates a major barrier to microbial growth inside host and utilization of outer-membrane proteins system in iron acquisition probably occurred at early stage of infection with P. multocida. In conclusion, the presence and utilization of multiple iron system in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 revealed the importance of iron in the survival of P. multocida.

Keywords: iron-related genes, real-time PCR, gene expression profiling, fold changes

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1 Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Subspecies multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1

Authors: Shagufta Jabeen, Faez J. Firdaus Abdullah, Zunita Zakaria, Nurulfiza M. Isa, Yung C. Tan, Wai Y. Yee, Abdul R. Omar

Abstract:

Pasteurella multocida (PM) is an important veterinary opportunistic pathogen particularly associated with septicemic pasteurellosis, pneumonic pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes. P. multocida serotype A has been reported to cause fatal pneumonia and septicemia. Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida of serotype A Malaysian isolate PMTB2.1 was first isolated from buffaloes died of septicemia. In this study, the genome of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was sequenced using third-generation sequencing technology, PacBio RS2 system and analyzed bioinformatically via de novo analysis followed by in-depth analysis based on comparative genomics. Bioinformatics analysis based on de novo assembly of PacBio raw reads generated 3 contigs followed by gap filling of aligned contigs with PCR sequencing, generated a single contiguous circular chromosome with a genomic size of 2,315,138 bp and a GC content of approximately 40.32% (Accession number CP007205). The PMTB2.1 genome comprised of 2,176 protein-coding sequences, 6 rRNA operons and 56 tRNA and 4 ncRNAs sequences. The comparative genome sequence analysis of PMTB2.1 with nine complete genomes which include Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Escherichia coli and five P. multocida complete genome sequences including, PM70, PM36950, PMHN06, PM3480, PMHB01 and PMTB2.1 was carried out based on OrthoMCL analysis and Venn diagram. The analysis showed that 282 CDs (13%) are unique to PMTB2.1and 1,125 CDs with orthologs in all. This reflects overall close relationship of these bacteria and supports the classification in the Gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In addition, genomic distance analysis among all nine genomes indicated that PMTB2.1 is closely related with other five Pasteurella species with genomic distance less than 0.13. Synteny analysis shows subtle differences in genetic structures among different P.multocida indicating the dynamics of frequent gene transfer events among different P. multocida strains. However, PM3480 and PM70 exhibited exceptionally large structural variation since they were swine and chicken isolates. Furthermore, genomic structure of PMTB2.1 is more resembling that of PM36950 with a genomic size difference of approximately 34,380 kb (smaller than PM36950) and strain-specific Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICE) which was found only in PM36950 is absent in PMTB2.1. Meanwhile, two intact prophages sequences of approximately 62 kb were found to be present only in PMTB2.1. One of phage is similar to transposable phage SfMu. The phylogenomic tree was constructed and rooted with E. coli, A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis based on OrthoMCL analysis. The genomes of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 were clustered with bovine isolates of P. multocida strain PM36950 and PMHB01 and were separated from avian isolate PM70 and swine isolates PM3480 and PMHN06 and are distant from Actinobacillus and Haemophilus. Previous studies based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) unable to show a clear phylogenetic relatedness between Pasteurella multocida and the different host. In conclusion, this study has provided insight on the genomic structure of PMTB2.1 in terms of potential genes that can function as virulence factors for future study in elucidating the mechanisms behind the ability of the bacteria in causing diseases in susceptible animals.

Keywords: comparative genomics, DNA sequencing, phage, phylogenomics

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