Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 265

Search results for: storey drift

265 Seismic Performance of Two-Storey RC Frame Designed EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, A. Azmi, M. I. Adiyanto


This main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the seismic performance of double bay two-storey reinforced concrete frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading which designed using Eurocode 8 (EC8) by taking into account of seismic loading. The prototype model of reinforced concrete frame was constructed in one-half scale tested under in-plane lateral cyclic loading starts with ±0.2% drift, ±0.25% up to ±3.0% drift with the increment of ±0.25%. The performance of the RC frame is evaluated in terms of the hysteresis loop (load vs. displacement), stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, stress-strain relationship and equivalent viscous damping. Visual observation of the crack pattern after testing were observed where the beam- column joint suffer the most severe damage as it is the critical part in moment resisting frame. Spalling of concrete starts occurred at ±2.0% drift and become worse at ±2.5% drift. The experimental result shows that the maximum lateral strength of specimen is 99.98 kN and ductility of the specimen is µ=4.07 which lies between 3≤µ≤6 in order to withstand moderate to severe earthquakes.

Keywords: ductility, equivalent viscous damping, hysteresis loops, lateral strength, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
264 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal


During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
263 Fragility Assessment for Vertically Irregular Buildings with Soft Storey

Authors: N. Akhavan, Sh. Tavousi Tafreshi, A. Ghasemi


Seismic behavior of irregular structures through the past decades indicate that the stated buildings do not have appropriate performance. Among these subjects, the current paper has investigated the behavior of special steel moment frame with different configuration of soft storey vertically. The analyzing procedure has been evaluated with respect to incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), and numeric process was carried out by OpenSees finite element analysis package. To this end, nine 2D steel frames, with different numbers of stories and irregularity positions, which were subjected to seven pairs of ground motion records orthogonally with respect to Ibarra-Krawinkler deterioration model, have been investigated. This paper aims at evaluating the response of two-dimensional buildings incorporating soft storey which subjected to bi-directional seismic excitation. The IDAs were implemented for different stages of PGA with various ground motion records, in order to determine maximum inter-storey drift ratio. According to statistical elements and fracture range (standard deviation), the vulnerability or exceedance from above-mentioned cases has been examined. For this reason, fragility curves for different placement of soft storey in the first, middle and the last floor for 4, 8, and 16 storey buildings have been generated and compared properly.

Keywords: special steel moment frame, soft storey, incremental dynamic analysis, fragility curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
262 Effect of Column Stiffness and Orientation on Seismic Behaviour of Buildings with Vertical Irregularities

Authors: Saraswati Verma, Ankit Batra


In the modern day, structures are designed with a lot of complexities due to economical, aesthetical, and functional needs causing various levels of irregularities to be induced. In the past, several studies have repeatedly shown that irregular structures suffer more damage than regular structures during earthquakes. The present study makes an effort to study the contribution of the orientation of columns in the seismic behaviour of buildings with vertical irregularities namely, soft storey irregularity, mass irregularity and geometric irregularity. The response of the various models is analysed using sap2000 version 14. The parameters through which a comparative response is investigated are displacement, variation in the stiffness contribution, and inter-storey drift. Models with different configurations of column orientations were studied for each vertical irregularity and it was observed that column orientation contributed significantly in affecting a better seismic response. Square columns of the same cross-sectional area showed a good response as compared to that of rectangular columns. The study concludes that as displacement values for buildings with a soft storey and mass irregularity are very high, square columns could be used to minimise the effect of displacement in x and y-axis. In buildings with geometric irregularity, exterior column orientations can be played with to enhance the stiffness in the shorter direction to control the displacement and drift values in both x and y directions.

Keywords: soft storey, mass irregularity, geometric irregularity, column orientation, square column

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
261 Effect of Masonry Infill in R.C. Framed Buildings

Authors: Pallab Das, Nabam Zomleen


Effective dissipation of lateral loads that are coming due to seismic force determines the strength, durability and safety concern of the structure. Masonry infill has high stiffness and strength capabilities which can be put into an effective utilization for lateral load dissipation by incorporating it into building construction, but masonry behaves in highly nonlinear manner, so it is highly important to find out generalized, yet a rational approach to determine its nonlinear behavior and failure mode and it’s response when it is incorporated into building. But most of the countries do not specify the procedure for design of masonry infill wall. Whereas, there are many analytical modeling method available in literature, e.g. equivalent diagonal strut method, finite element modeling etc. In this paper the masonry infill is modeled and 6-storey bare framed building and building with masonry infill is analyzed using SAP-200014 in order to find out inter-storey drift by time-history analysis and capacity curve by Pushover analysis. The analysis shows that, while, the structure is well within CP performance level for both the case, whereas, there is considerable reduction of inter-storey drift of about 28%, when the building is analyzed with masonry infill wall.

Keywords: capacity curve, masonry infill, nonlinear analysis, time history analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
260 Comparative Performance Study of Steel Plate Shear Wall with Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall

Authors: Amit S. Chauhan, S. Mandal


The structural response of shear walls subjected to various types of loads is difficult to predict precisely. They are incorporated in buildings to resist lateral forces and support the gravity loads. The steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are used as lateral load resisting systems for buildings and acts as an alternative to reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSWs). This paper compares the behavior of SPSW with the RCSW incorporated in a building frame having G+6 storey, located in Zone III, using the technique of Equivalent Static Method (ESM) as per Indian Standard Criteria For Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures IS 1893:2002. This paper intends to evaluate several parameters such as lateral displacement at tip, inter-storey drift, weight of steel and volume of concrete with the alteration of the shear wall with respect to different types viz., SPSW and RCSW. The strip model employed in this study is a widely accepted analytical tool for SPSW analysis. SPSW can be modelled as truss members by using a series of diagonal tension strips positioned at 45-degree angles. In this paper, by replacing the SPSWs with the tension strips, the G+6 building has been analyzed using STAAD.Pro V8i. Based on the present study, it can be concluded that structure with SPSWs is much better then structure with RCSWs.

Keywords: equivalent static method, inter-storey drift, lateral displacement, Steel plate shear wall, strip model

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
259 Nonparametric Specification Testing for the Drift of the Short Rate Diffusion Process Using a Panel of Yields

Authors: John Knight, Fuchun Li, Yan Xu


Based on a new method of the nonparametric estimator of the drift function, we propose a consistent test for the parametric specification of the drift function in the short rate diffusion process using observations from a panel of yields. The test statistic is shown to follow an asymptotic normal distribution under the null hypothesis that the parametric drift function is correctly specified, and converges to infinity under the alternative. Taking the daily 7-day European rates as a proxy of the short rate, we use our test to examine whether the drift of the short rate diffusion process is linear or nonlinear, which is an unresolved important issue in the short rate modeling literature. The testing results indicate that none of the drift functions in this literature adequately captures the dynamics of the drift, but nonlinear specification performs better than the linear specification.

Keywords: diffusion process, nonparametric estimation, derivative security price, drift function and volatility function

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
258 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao


In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
257 Concept Drifts Detection and Localisation in Process Mining

Authors: M. V. Manoj Kumar, Likewin Thomas, Annappa


Process mining provides methods and techniques for analyzing event logs recorded in modern information systems that support real-world operations. While analyzing an event-log, state-of-the-art techniques available in process mining believe that the operational process as a static entity (stationary). This is not often the case due to the possibility of occurrence of a phenomenon called concept drift. During the period of execution, the process can experience concept drift and can evolve with respect to any of its associated perspectives exhibiting various patterns-of-change with a different pace. Work presented in this paper discusses the main aspects to consider while addressing concept drift phenomenon and proposes a method for detecting and localizing the sudden concept drifts in control-flow perspective of the process by using features extracted by processing the traces in the process log. Our experimental results are promising in the direction of efficiently detecting and localizing concept drift in the context of process mining research discipline.

Keywords: abrupt drift, concept drift, sudden drift, control-flow perspective, detection and localization, process mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
256 Impact of Natural Period and Epicentral Distance on Storey Lateral Displacements

Authors: Saida Dorbani, M'hammed Badaoui, Djilali Benouar


This paper deals with the effect of the building design and epicentral distance on the storey lateral displacement, for several reinforced concrete buildings (6, 9 and 12 stories), with three floor plans: symmetric, mono symmetric, and unsymmetrical. These structures are subjected to seismic accelerations from the Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 21st, Mw=6.5). The objective of this study is to highlight the impact of the fundamental period and epicentral distance on storey displacements for a given earthquake. The seismic lateral displacement is carried out in both longitudinal and transverse direction by the response spectrum method.

Keywords: natural period, epicenter distance, reinforced concrete buildings, storey displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
255 Seismic Behaviour of Bi-Symmetric Buildings

Authors: Yogendra Singh, Mayur Pisode


Many times it is observed that in multi-storeyed buildings the dynamic properties in the two directions are similar due to which there may be a coupling between the two orthogonal modes of the building. This is particularly observed in bi-symmetric buildings (buildings with structural properties and periods approximately equal in the two directions). There is a swapping of vibrational energy between the modes in the two orthogonal directions. To avoid this coupling the draft revision of IS:1893 proposes a minimum separation of more than 15% between the frequencies of the fundamental modes in the two directions. This study explores the seismic behaviour of bi-symmetrical buildings under uniaxial and bi-axial ground motions. For this purpose, three different types of 8 storey buildings symmetric in plan are modelled. The first building has square columns, resulting in identical periods in the two directions. The second building, with rectangular columns, has a difference of 20% in periods in orthogonal directions, and the third building has half of the rectangular columns aligned in one direction and other half aligned in the other direction. The numerical analysis of the seismic response of these three buildings is performed by using a set of 22 ground motions from PEER NGA database and scaled as per FEMA P695 guidelines to represent the same level of intensity corresponding to the Design Basis Earthquake. The results are analyzed in terms of the displacement-time response of the buildings at roof level and corresponding maximum inter-storey drift ratios.

Keywords: bi-symmetric buildings, design code, dynamic coupling, multi-storey buildings, seismic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
254 Estimation of Seismic Deformation Demands of Tall Buildings with Symmetric Setbacks

Authors: Amir Alirezaei, Shahram Vahdani


This study estimates the seismic demands of tall buildings with central symmetric setbacks by using nonlinear time history analysis. Three setback structures, all 60-story high with setback in three levels, are used for evaluation. The effects of irregularities occurred by setback, are evaluated by determination of global-drift, story-displacement and story drift. Story-displacement is modified by roof displacement and first story displacement and story drift is modified by global drift. All results are calculated at the center of mass and in x and y direction. Also the absolute values of these quantities are determined. The results show that increasing of vertical irregularities increases the global drift of the structure and enlarges the deformations in the height of the structure. It is also observed that the effects of geometry irregularity in the seismic deformations of setback structures are higher than those of mass irregularity.

Keywords: deformation demand, drift, setback, tall building

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
253 Estimation of Seismic Drift Demands for Inelastic Shear Frame Structures

Authors: Ali Etemadi, Polat H. Gulkan


The drift spectrum derived through the continuous shear-beam and wave propagation theory is known to be useful appliance to measure of the demand of pulse like near field ground motions on building structures. As regards, many of old frame buildings with poor or non-ductile column elements, pass the elastic limits and blurt the post yielding hysteresis degradation responses when subjected to such impulsive ground motions. The drift spectrum which, is based on a linear system cannot be predicted the overestimate drift demands arising from inelasticity in an elastic plastic systems. A simple procedure to estimate the drift demands in shear-type frames which, respond over the elastic limits is described and effect of hysteresis degradation behavior on seismic demands is clarified. Whereupon the modification factors are proposed to incorporate the hysteresis degradation effects parametrically. These factors are defined with respected to the linear systems. The method can be applicable for rapid assessment of existing poor detailed, non-ductile buildings.

Keywords: drift spectrum, shear-type frame, stiffness and strength degradation, pinching, smooth hysteretic model, quasi static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
252 Using Seismic Base Isolation Systems in High-Rise Hospital Buildings and a Hybrid Proposal

Authors: Elif Bakkaloglu, Necdet Torunbalci


The fact of earthquakes in Turkiye is an inevitable natural disaster. Therefore, buildings must be prepared for this natural hazard. Especially in hospital buildings, earthquake resistance is an essential point because hospitals are one of the first places where people come after an earthquake. Although hospital buildings are more suitable for horizontal architecture, it is necessary to construct and expand multi-storey hospital buildings due to difficulties in finding suitable places as a result of excessive urbanization, difficulties in obtaining appropriate size land and decrease in suitable places and increase in land values. In Turkiye, using seismic isolators in public hospitals, which are placed in first-degree earthquake zone and have more than 100 beds, is made obligatory by general instruction. As a result of this decision, it may sometimes be necessary to construct seismic isolated multi-storey hospital buildings in cities where those problems are experienced. Although widespread use of seismic isolators in Japan, there are few multi-storey buildings in which seismic isolators are used in Turkiye. As it is known, base isolation systems are the most effective methods of earthquake resistance, as number of floors increases, center of gravity moves away from base in multi-storey buildings, increasing the overturning effect and limiting the use of these systems. In this context, it is aimed to investigate structural systems of multi-storey buildings which built using seismic isolation methods in the World. In addition to this, a working principle is suggested for disseminating seismic isolators in multi-storey hospital buildings. The results to be obtained from the study will guide architects who design multi-storey hospital buildings in their architectural designs and engineers in terms of structural system design.

Keywords: earthquake, energy absorbing systems, hospital, seismic isolation systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
251 Experimental Study on Single Bay RC Frame Designed Using EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, M. S. Syaref, M. I. Adiyanto, M. Mohamed


A one-half scale of single-bay two-storey RC frame together with foundation beam and mass concrete block is investigated. Moment resisting RC frame was designed using EC8 by including the provision for seismic loading and detailing of its connection. The objective of the experimental work is to determine seismic behaviour RC frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading using displacement control method. A double actuator is placed at centre of the mass concrete block at top of frame to represent the seismic load. The percentage drifts are starting from ±0.01% until ±2.25% with increment of ±0.25% drift. The ultimate lateral load of 158.48 kN was recorded at +2.25% drift in pushing and -126.09 kN in pulling direction. From the experimental hysteresis loops, the parameters such as lateral strength capacity, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping can be obtained. RC frame behaves in the elastic manner followed by inelastic behaviour after reaches the yield limit. The ductility value for this type frame is 4 which lies between the limit 3 and 6. Therefore, it is recommended to build this RC frame for moderate seismic regions under Ductility Class Medium (DCM) such as in Sabah, East Malaysia.

Keywords: single bay, moment resisting RC frame, ductility class medium, inelastic behavior, seismic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
250 Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns

Authors: Vinay Agrawal, Suyash Garg, Ravindra Nagar, Vinay Chandwani


Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Keywords: equivalent static analysis, floating column, open ground storey, response spectrum analysis, shear wall, stiffness irregularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
249 Vibration Control of Building Using Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers Considering Real Earthquake Time History

Authors: Rama Debbarma, Debanjan Das


The performance of multiple tuned mass dampers to mitigate the seismic vibration of structures considering real time history data is investigated in this paper. Three different real earthquake time history data like Kobe, Imperial Valley and Mammoth Lake are taken in the present study. The multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD) are distributed at each storey. For comparative study, single tuned mass damper (STMD) is installed at top of the similar structure. This study is conducted for a fixed mass ratio (5%) and fixed damping ratio (5%) of structures. Numerical study is performed to evaluate the effectiveness of MTMDs and overall system performance. The displacement, acceleration, base shear and storey drift are obtained for both combined system (structure with MTMD and structure with STMD) for all earthquakes. The same responses are also obtained for structure without damper system. From obtained results, it is investigated that the MTMD configuration is more effective for controlling the seismic response of the primary system with compare to STMD configuration.

Keywords: Earthquake, multiple tuned mass dampers, single tuned mass damper, Time history.

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
248 Adaptive Online Object Tracking via Positive and Negative Models Matching

Authors: Shaomei Li, Yawen Wang, Chao Gao


To improve tracking drift which often occurs in adaptive tracking, an algorithm based on the fusion of tracking and detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, object tracking is posed as a binary classification problem and is modeled by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. Secondly, tracking object frame by frame via particle filtering. Thirdly, validating the tracking reliability based on both positive and negative models matching. Finally, relocating the object based on SIFT features matching and voting when drift occurs. Object appearance model is updated at the same time. The algorithm cannot only sense tracking drift but also relocate the object whenever needed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms on many challenging sequences.

Keywords: object tracking, tracking drift, partial least squares analysis, positive and negative models matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
247 Dynamic Response Analysis of Structure with Random Parameters

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


In this paper, we propose a method for the dynamic response of multi-storey structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example of three-storey structures. This equation is integrated numerically using Newmark’s method. The numerical results are obtained by the proposed method. The simulation accounting the interval analysis method results are compared with a probabilistic approach results. The interval analysis method provides a mean curve that is between an upper and lower bound obtained from the probabilistic approach.

Keywords: multi-storey structure, dynamic response, interval analysis method, random parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
246 The Estimation Method of Inter-Story Drift for Buildings Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to reduce seismic damage. The inter-story drift ratio which is the major index of the seismic capacity assessment is employed for estimating the seismic damage of buildings. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the structural responses of building demands significantly high computational cost due to increasing number of high-rise and large buildings. To estimate the inter-story drift ratio of buildings from the earthquake efficiently, this paper suggests the estimation method of inter-story drift for buildings using an artificial neural network (ANN). In the method, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is integrated with optimization algorithm to optimize the variable through evolutionary learning that refers to evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN). The estimation method estimates the inter-story drift without seismic response analysis when the new earthquakes are subjected to buildings. The effectiveness of the estimation method is verified through a simulation using multi-degree of freedom system.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, inter-story drift ratio, artificial neural network, radial basis function neural network, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
245 Evaluating Probable Bending of Frames for Near-Field and Far-Field Records

Authors: Majid Saaly, Shahriar Tavousi Tafreshi, Mehdi Nazari Afshar


Most reinforced concrete structures are designed only under heavy loads with large transverse reinforcement spacing and therefore suffer severe failure after intense ground movements. The main goal of this article is to compare the shear and axial failure of concrete bending frames available in Tehran using incremental dynamic analysis under near- and far-field records. For this purpose, IDA analyses were carried out on seven far-fault records and five records of near-faults on 5, 10, and 15-story concrete frames and IDA analyses. The results show that in two-dimensional models of short-rise, mid-rise and high-rise reinforced concrete frames located on Type-3 soil, increasing the distance of the transverse reinforcement can increase the maximum gap between floors up to 37%. According to the existing results on 5, 10, and 15-storey reinforced concrete models on Type-3 soil, records with characteristics such as permanent displacement create maximum drift values between floors more than far-fault earthquakes. In all short-rise, mid-rise, and high-rise models, in far-fault seismic excitation records, changes of probable failure or increase of failure are much higher than in the near-fault record. However, in near-fault frame records, the probable failures at very low seismic intensities are obtained compared to far-fault records.

Keywords: IDA, failure curve, directivity, maximum floor drift, fling step, evaluating probable bending of frames, near-field and far-field earthquake records

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
244 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir


History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

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243 Diagrid Structural System

Authors: K. Raghu, Sree Harsha


The interrelationship between the technology and architecture of tall buildings is investigated from the emergence of tall buildings in late 19th century to the present. In the late 19th century early designs of tall buildings recognized the effectiveness of diagonal bracing members in resisting lateral forces. Most of the structural systems deployed for early tall buildings were steel frames with diagonal bracings of various configurations such as X, K, and eccentric. Though the historical research a filtering concept is developed original and remedial technology- through which one can clearly understand inter-relationship between the technical evolution and architectural esthetic and further stylistic transition buildings. Diagonalized grid structures – “diagrids” - have emerged as one of the most innovative and adaptable approaches to structuring buildings in this millennium. Variations of the diagrid system have evolved to the point of making its use non-exclusive to the tall building. Diagrid construction is also to be found in a range of innovative mid-rise steel projects. Contemporary design practice of tall buildings is reviewed and design guidelines are provided for new design trends. Investigated in depths are the behavioral characteristics and design methodology for diagrids structures, which emerge as a new direction in the design of tall buildings with their powerful structural rationale and symbolic architectural expression. Moreover, new technologies for tall building structures and facades are developed for performance enhancement through design integration, and their architectural potentials are explored. By considering the above data the analysis and design of 40-100 storey diagrids steel buildings is carried out using E-TABS software with diagrids of various angle to be found for entire building which will be helpful to reduce the steel requirement for the structure. The present project will have to undertake wind analysis, seismic analysis for lateral loads acting on the structure due to wind loads, earthquake loads, gravity loads. All structural members are designed as per IS 800-2007 considering all load combination. Comparison of results in terms of time period, top storey displacement and inter-storey drift to be carried out. The secondary effect like temperature variations are not considered in the design assuming small variation.

Keywords: diagrid, bracings, structural, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
242 Drift-Wave Turbulence in a Tokamak Edge Plasma

Authors: S. Belgherras Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, S. M. A. Bekkouche


Tokamak plasma is far from having a stable background. The study of turbulent transport is an important part of the current research and advanced scenarios were devised to minimize it. To do this, we used a three-wave interaction model which allows to investigate the occurrence drift-wave turbulence driven by pressure gradients in the edge plasma of a tokamak. In order to simulate the energy redistribution among different modes, the growth/decay rates for the three waves was added. After a numerical simulation, we can determine certain aspects of the temporal dynamics exhibited by the model. Indeed for a wide range of the wave decay rate, an intermittent transition from periodic behavior to chaos is observed. Then, a control strategy of chaos was introduced with the aim of reducing or eliminating the weak turbulence.

Keywords: wave interaction, plasma drift waves, wave turbulence, tokamak, edge plasma, chaos

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
241 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: R. S. Malik, S. K. Madan, V. K. Sehgal


Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, displacement, pushover analysis, dual structures, storey drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
240 Seismic Response Control of 20-Storey Benchmark Building Using True Negative Stiffness Device

Authors: Asim Qureshi, R. S. Jangid


Seismic response control of structures is generally achieved by using control devices which either dissipate the input energy or modify the dynamic properties of structure.In this paper, the response of a 20-storey benchmark building supplemented by viscous dampers and Negative Stiffness Device (NSD) is assessed by numerical simulations using the Newmark-beta method. True negative stiffness is an adaptive passive device which assists the motion unlike positive stiffness. The structure used in this study is subjected to four standard ground motions varying from moderate to severe, near fault to far-field earthquakes. The objective of the present study is to show the effectiveness of the adaptive negative stiffness device (NSD and passive dampers together) relative to passive dampers alone. This is done by comparing the responses of the above uncontrolled structure (i.e., without any device) with the structure having passive dampers only and also with the structure supplemented with adaptive negative stiffness device. Various performance indices, top floor displacement, top floor acceleration and inter-storey drifts are used as comparison parameters. It is found that NSD together with passive dampers is quite effective in reducing the response of aforementioned structure relative to structure without any device or passive dampers only. Base shear and acceleration is reduced significantly by incorporating NSD at the cost of increased inter-storey drifts which can be compensated using the passive dampers.

Keywords: adaptive negative stiffness device, apparent yielding, NSD, passive dampers

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
239 Development of a Non-Dispersive Infrared Multi Gas Analyzer for a TMS

Authors: T. V. Dinh, I. Y. Choi, J. W. Ahn, Y. H. Oh, G. Bo, J. Y. Lee, J. C. Kim


A Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) multi-gas analyzer has been developed to monitor the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from various industries. The NDIR technique for gas measurement is based on the wavelength absorption in the infrared spectrum as a way to detect particular gasses. NDIR analyzers have popularly applied in the Tele-Monitoring System (TMS). The advantage of the NDIR analyzer is low energy consumption and cost compared with other spectroscopy methods. However, zero/span drift and interference are its urgent issues to be solved. Multi-pathway technique based on optical White cell was employed to improve the sensitivity of the analyzer in this work. A pyroelectric detector was used to detect the Infrared radiation. The analytical range of the analyzer was 0 ~ 200 ppm. The instrument response time was < 2 min. The detection limits of CO and SO2 were < 4 ppm and < 6 ppm, respectively. The zero and span drift of 24 h was less than 3%. The linearity of the analyzer was less than 2.5% of reference values. The precision and accuracy of both CO and SO2 channels were < 2.5% of relative standard deviation. In general, the analyzer performed well. However, the detection limit and 24h drift should be improved to be a more competitive instrument.

Keywords: analyzer, CEMS, monitoring, NDIR, TMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
238 Improved Non-Ideal Effects in AlGaN/GaN-Based Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Wei-Chou Hsu, Ching-Sung Lee, Han-Yin Liu


This work uses H2O2 oxidation technique to improve the pH sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). 10-nm-thick Al2O3 was grown on the surface of the AlGaN. It was found that the pH sensitivity was improved from 41.6 mV/pH to 55.2 mV/pH. Since the H2O2-grown Al2O3 was served as a passivation layer and the problem of Fermi-level pinning was suppressed for the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process. Hysteresis effect in the ISFET with the H2O2 treatment also became insignificant. The hysteresis effect was observed by dipping the ISFETs into different pH value solutions and comparing the voltage difference between the initial and final conditions. The hysteresis voltage (Vhys) of the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process was improved from 8.7 mV to 4.8 mV. The hysteresis effect is related to the buried binding sites which are related to the material defects like threading dislocations in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure which was grown by the hetero-epitaxy technique. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 passivate these material defects and the Al2O3 has less material defects. The long-term stability of the ISFET is estimated by the drift effect measurement. The drift measurement was conducted by dipping the ISFETs into a specific pH value solution for 12 hours and the ISFETs were operating at a specific quiescent point. The drift rate is estimated by the drift voltage divided by the total measuring time. It was found that the drift rate of the ISFET was improved from 10.1 mV/hour to 1.91 mV/hour in the pH 7 solution, from 14.06 mV/hour to 6.38 mV/pH in the pH 2 solution, and from 12.8 mV/hour to 5.48 mV/hour in the pH 12 solution. The drift effect results from the capacitance variation in the electric double layer. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 provides an additional capacitance connection in series with the electric double layer. Therefore, the capacitance variation of the electric double layer became insignificant. Generally, the H2O2 oxidation process is a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for the AlGaN/GaN-based ISFET. Furthermore, the performance of the AlGaN/GaN ISFET was improved effectively and the non-ideal effects were suppressed.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN, Al2O3, hysteresis effect, drift effect, reliability, passivation, pH sensors

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237 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language

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236 Seismic Behavior and Loss Assessment of High–Rise Buildings with Light Gauge Steel–Concrete Hybrid Structure

Authors: Bing Lu, Shuang Li, Hongyuan Zhou


The steel–concrete hybrid structure has been extensively employed in high–rise buildings and super high–rise buildings. The light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, including light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure, is a new–type steel–concrete hybrid structure, which possesses some advantages of light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure. The seismic behavior and loss assessment of three high–rise buildings with three different concrete hybrid structures were investigated through finite element software, respectively. The three concrete hybrid structures are reinforced concrete column–steel beam (RC‒S) hybrid structure, concrete–filled steel tube column–steel beam (CFST‒S) hybrid structure, and tubed concrete column–steel beam (TC‒S) hybrid structure. The nonlinear time-history analysis of three high–rise buildings under 80 earthquakes was carried out. After simulation, it indicated that the seismic performances of three high–rise buildings were superior. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the maximum inter–storey drifts of three high–rise buildings are significantly lower than 1/50. The inter–storey drift and floor acceleration of high–rise building with CFST‒S hybrid structure were bigger than those of high–rise buildings with RC‒S hybrid structure, and smaller than those of high–rise building with TC‒S hybrid structure. Then, based on the time–history analysis results, the post-earthquake repair cost ratio and repair time of three high–rise buildings were predicted through an economic performance analysis method proposed in FEMA‒P58 report. Under frequent earthquakes, basic earthquakes and rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of three high-rise buildings were less than 5% and 15 days, respectively. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of high-rise buildings with TC‒S hybrid structure were the most among three high rise buildings. Due to the advantages of CFST-S hybrid structure, it could be extensively employed in high-rise buildings subjected to earthquake excitations.

Keywords: seismic behavior, loss assessment, light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, high–rise building, time–history analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 63