Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2769

Search results for: open-air stage

2769 Significance of Tridimensional Volume of Tumor in Breast Cancer Compared to Conventional TNM Stage

Authors: Jaewoo Choi, Ki-Tae Hwang, Eunyoung Ko


Backgrounds/Aims: Patients with breast cancer are currently classified according to TNM stage. Nevertheless, the actual volume would be mis-estimated, and it would bring on inappropriate diagnosis. Tridimensional volume-stage derived from the ellipsoid formula was presented as useful measure. Methods: The medical records of 480 consecutive breast cancer between January 2001 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups according to tumor volume by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the ranges of each volume-stage were that V1 was below 2.5 cc, V2 was exceeded 2.5 and below 10.9 cc, and V3 was exceeded 10.9 cc. We analyzed outcomes of volume-stage and compared disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between size-stage and volume-stage with variant intrinsic factor. Results: In the T2 stage, there were patients who had a smaller volume than 4.2 cc known as maximum value of T1. These findings presented that patients in T1c had poorer DFS than T2-lesser (mean of DFS 48.7 vs. 51.8, p = 0.011). Such is also the case in OS (mean of OS 51.1 vs. 55.3, p = 0.006). The cumulative survival curves for V1, V2 compared T1, T2 showed similarity in DFS (HR 1.9 vs. 1.9), and so did it for V3 compared T3 (HR 3.5 vs. 2.6) significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tumor volume had good feasibility on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. We proposed that volume-stage should be considered for an additional stage indicator, particularly in early breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, tridimensional volume of tumor, TNM stage, volume stage

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2768 Rail-To-Rail Output Op-Amp Design with Negative Miller Capacitance Compensation

Authors: Muhaned Zaidi, Ian Grout, Abu Khari bin A’ain


In this paper, a two-stage op-amp design is considered using both Miller and negative Miller compensation techniques. The first op-amp design uses Miller compensation around the second amplification stage, whilst the second op-amp design uses negative Miller compensation around the first stage and Miller compensation around the second amplification stage. The aims of this work were to compare the gain and phase margins obtained using the different compensation techniques and identify the ability to choose either compensation technique based on a particular set of design requirements. The two op-amp designs created are based on the same two-stage rail-to-rail output CMOS op-amp architecture where the first stage of the op-amp consists of differential input and cascode circuits, and the second stage is a class AB amplifier. The op-amps have been designed using a 0.35mm CMOS fabrication process.

Keywords: op-amp, rail-to-rail output, Miller compensation, Negative Miller capacitance

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2767 Two-Stage Flowshop Scheduling with Unsystematic Breakdowns

Authors: Fawaz Abdulmalek


The two-stage flowshop assembly scheduling problem is considered in this paper. There are more than one parallel machines at stage one and an assembly machine at stage two. The jobs will be processed into the flowshop based on Johnson rule and two extensions of Johnson rule. A simulation model of the two-stage flowshop is constructed where both machines at stage one are subject to random failures. Three simulation experiments will be conducted to test the effect of the three job ranking rules on the makespan. Johnson Largest heuristic outperformed both Johnson rule and Johnson Smallest heuristic for two performed experiments for all scenarios where each experiments having five scenarios.

Keywords: flowshop scheduling, random failures, johnson rule, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2766 A Priority Based Imbalanced Time Minimization Assignment Problem: An Iterative Approach

Authors: Ekta Jain, Kalpana Dahiya, Vanita Verma


This paper discusses a priority based imbalanced time minimization assignment problem dealing with the allocation of n jobs to m < n persons in which the project is carried out in two stages, viz. Stage-I and Stage-II. Stage-I consists of n1 ( < m) primary jobs and Stage-II consists of remaining (n-n1) secondary jobs which are commenced only after primary jobs are finished. Each job is to be allocated to exactly one person, and each person has to do at least one job. It is assumed that nature of the Stage-I jobs is such that one person can do exactly one primary job whereas a person can do more than one secondary job in Stage-II. In a particular stage, all persons start doing the jobs simultaneously, but if a person is doing more than one job, he does them one after the other in any order. The aim of the proposed study is to find the feasible assignment which minimizes the total time for the two stage execution of the project. For this, an iterative algorithm is proposed, which at each iteration, solves a constrained imbalanced time minimization assignment problem to generate a pair of Stage-I and Stage-II times. For solving this constrained problem, an algorithm is developed in the current paper. Later, alternate combinations based method to solve the priority based imbalanced problem is also discussed and a comparative study is carried out. Numerical illustrations are provided in support of the theory.

Keywords: assignment, imbalanced, priority, time minimization

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2765 The Abnormality of Blood Cells Parasitized by Plasmodium vivax

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar, Phiman Thirarattanasunthon, Bhukdee PhunPhuech, Nuoil Phiwklam


Introduction: Malaria due to Plasmodium vivax has placed huge burdens on the health, longevity, and general prosperity of large sections of the human population. This study aimed at prospectively collecting information on the clinical profile of Plasmodium vivax from subjects acutely infected with P. vivax residing in some of the highest malaria transmission regions in Thailand. Methods: A retrospective study of malaria cases, hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and parasitological results on admission, age, and gender were mined from medical records at Phop Phra Hospital located in endemic areas of Tak Province, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of admission to the hospital to determine the present of parasite and also parasite count by thick and thin film examination, and also Complete blood count (CBC) parameters. Results: Results showed that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (276 cases) had a high monocyte count (mean=390 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously lower during later stage (any stage with gametocyte, mean=230 cells/µL) of infection (P value=0.021) whereas, patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had a low basophil count (mean=20 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously higher during later stage of infection (mean at stage with gametocyte=70 cells/µL) (P value=0.033). In addition, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count (mean=1180 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=1350 cells/µL)(P value=0.011) whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count (mean=60 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=80 cells/µL) (P value=0.01). Conclusion: This study indicated that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had high monocyte count and low basophil count during initial stage of infection which was continuously lower during later stage of infection. Patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count than patients with only one stage infection whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count than patients with only one stage infection. This information contributes to better understanding of pathological characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infection.

Keywords: plasmodium vivax, Thailand, asexual erythrocytic stages, hematological parameters

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2764 Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Hamid Hatami


This experiment was included two cultivars i.e. Habbit and L17 (Main factor) with six fertilizer treatments i.e. control, seed inoculated with rhyzobium, base nitrogen + top-dress urea at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed inoculated with rhyzobium + top-dress nitrogen at R2 stage, seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage (sub factors ), as split-plot on the basis of RCBD with 3 replications at 2014. Treatment fertilizer of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top- dress humax at R2 stage and base nitrogen + top-dress urea in R2 stage had a significant superiority than the other fertilizer treatment in biological yield. L17 and Habbit with base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and yield economical 5600 and 5767 kg/ha respectively, showed the most economical yield and Habbit cultivar with control and economical yield 3085 kg/ha showed the least economical yield among all the treatments. Results showed that fertilizer treatment of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and Habbit variety were suitable in this study.

Keywords: soybean, humax, rhyzobium, habbit

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2763 A Passive Reaction Force Compensation for a Linear Motor Motion Stage Using Pre-Compressed Springs

Authors: Kim Duc Hoang, Hyeong Joon Ahn


Residual vibration of the system base due to a high-acceleration motion of a stage may reduce life and productivity of the manufacturing device. Although a passive RFC can reduce vibration of the system base, spring or dummy mass should be replaced to tune performance of the RFC. In this paper, we develop a novel concept of the passive RFC mechanism for a linear motor motion stage using pre-compressed springs. Dynamic characteristic of the passive RFC can be adjusted by pre-compression of the spring without exchanging the spring or dummy mass. First, we build a linear motor motion stage with pre-compressed springs. Then, the effect of the pre-compressed spring on the passive RFC is investigated by changing both pre-compressions and stiffness of springs. Finally, the effectiveness of the passive RFC using pre-compressed springs was verified with both simulations and experiments.

Keywords: linear motor motion stage, residual vibration, passive RFC, pre-compressed spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2762 Application of Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution Technique in Tommy Atkins Mangoes

Authors: Rafael A. B. De Medeiros, Zilmar M. P. Barros, Carlos B. O. De Carvalho, Eunice G. Fraga Neta, Maria I. S. Maciel, Patricia M. Azoubel


The use of the sugar substitution technique (D3S) in mango was studied. It consisted of two stages and the use of ultrasound in one or both stages was evaluated in terms of water loss and solid gain. Higher water loss results were found subjecting the fruit samples to ultrasound in the first stage followed by immersion of the samples in Stevia-based solution with application of ultrasound in the second stage, while higher solids gain were obtained without application of ultrasound in second stage. Samples were evaluated in terms of total carotenoids content and total color difference. Samples submitted to ultrasound in both D3S stages presented higher carotenoid retention compared to samples sonicated only in the first stage. Color of man goes after the D3S process showed notable changes.

Keywords: Mangifera indica L., quality, Stevia rebaudiana, ultrasound

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2761 Assessment of Germination Loss Due to Dusky Cotton Bug (Oxycarenus laetus) in Relation to Cotton Boll Stage and Bug Intensity

Authors: Ali Hassan, Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Rafique Shahid, Farazia Hassan, Shumaila Rasool


Dusky cotton bug (Oxycarenus laetus) has attained the status of major insect pest of cotton. It is also known as seed bug due to its property of feeding on seeds. It causes floral abscission at flowering stage and reduction in seed germination. Present study was carried out to assess germination loss caused by dusky bug with respect to crop stage and insect intensity. Treatments consisted of three stages immature boll, mature boll and opened boll as well three levels of dusky bug i.e., 50 bugs per boll, 40 bugs per boll along with zero level kept as control. Results showed that the germination percentage was highest in control treatment where no insect was released followed by treatment where 40 insects released and minimum germination showed by treatment in which 50 insects were released. The germination percentage of seeds surpassed after control treatment in the treatment where dusky bugs exposure was given at boll opening stage than on mature boll stage. Minimum germination was observed in immature boll stage. Interaction between crop stages and dusky bug levels showed that germination percentage of seeds was maximum in control treatment then boll opening stage followed by mature boll stage. Minimum seed germination was recorded in dusky bug treatment at immature boll stage which was 34% where 50 insects were released. From the results it is clear that dusky bug should be managed properly at all reproductive stages but immature stage is most critical.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, Oxycarenus laetus, seed bug, seed germination

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2760 Key Issues in Transfer Stage of BOT Project: Experience from China

Authors: Wang Liguang, Zhang Xueqing


The build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery system has provided effective routes to mobilize private sector funds, innovative technologies, management skills and operational efficiencies for public infrastructure development and have been widely used in China during the last 20 years. Many BOT projects in China will be smoothly transferred to the government soon and the transfer stage, which is considered as the last stage, must be studied carefully and handled well to achieve the overall success of BOT projects. There will be many issues faced by both the public sector and private sector in the transfer stage of BOT projects, including project post-assessment, technology and documents transfer, personal training and staff transition, etc. and sometimes additional legislation is needed for future operation and management of facilities. However, most previous studies focused on the bidding, financing, and building and operation stages instead of transfer stage. This research identifies nine key issues in the transfer stage of BOT projects through a comprehensive study on three cases in China, and the expert interview and expert discussion meetings are held to validate the key issues and give detail analysis. A proposed framework of transfer management is prepared based on the experiences derived and lessons drawn from the case studies and expert interview and discussions, which is expected to improve the transfer management of BOT projects in practice.

Keywords: BOT project, key issues, transfer management, transfer stage

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2759 Leadership Development for Nurses as Educators

Authors: Abeer Alhazmi


Introduction: Clinical education is considered a significant part of the learning process for nurses and nursing students. However, recruiting high- caliber individuals to train them to be tomorrow’s educators/teachers has been a recurrent challenge. One of the troubling challenges in this field is the absent of proper training programmes to train educators to be future education professionals and leaders. Aim: To explore the impact of a stage 1 and stage 2 clinical instructor courses on developing leadership skills for nurses as educators.Theoretical Framework: Informed by a symbolic interactionist framework, this research explored the Impact of stage 1 and stage 2 clinical instructor courses on nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and leadership skills. Method: Using Glaserian grounded theory method the data were derived from 3 focus groups and 15 in-depth interviews with nurse educators/clinical instructors and nurses who attended stage 1 and stage 2 clinical instructor courses at King Abdu-Aziz University Hospital (KAUH). Findings: The findings of the research are represented in the core category exploring new identity as educator and its two constituent categories Accepting change, and constructing educator identity. The core and sub- categories were generated through a theoretical exploration of the development of educator’s identity throughout stage 1 and stage 2 clinical instructor courses. Conclusion: The social identity of the nurse educators was developed and changed during and after attending stage 1 and stage 2 clinical instructor courses. In light of an increased understanding of the development process of educators identity and role, the research presents implications and recommendations that may contribute to the development of nursing educators in general and in Saudi Arabia in specific.

Keywords: clinical instructor course, educators, identity work, clinical nursing

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2758 High Efficient Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Processing Wastewater by Two Stage Thermophilic Fermentation and Electrohydrogenesis

Authors: Peerawat Khongkliang, Prawit Kongjan, Tsuyoshi Imai, Poonsuk Prasertsan, Sompong O-Thong


A two-stage thermophilic fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert cassava starch processing wastewater into hydrogen gas. Maximum hydrogen yield from fermentation stage by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum PSU-2 was 248 mL H2/g-COD at optimal pH of 6.5. Optimum hydrogen production rate of 820 mL/L/d and yield of 200 mL/g COD was obtained at HRT of 2 days in fermentation stage. Cassava starch processing wastewater fermentation effluent consisted of acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid. The effluent from fermentation stage was used as feedstock to generate hydrogen production by microbial electrolysis cell (MECs) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V in second stage with additional 657 mL H2/g-COD was produced. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC were 330 % with COD removals of 95 %. The overall hydrogen yield was 800-900 mL H2/g-COD. Microbial community analysis of electrohydrogenesis by DGGE shows that exoelectrogens belong to Acidiphilium sp., Geobacter sulfurreducens and Thermincola sp. were dominated at anode. These results show two-stage thermophilic fermentation, and electrohydrogenesis process improved hydrogen production performance with high hydrogen yields, high gas production rates and high COD removal efficiency.

Keywords: cassava starch processing wastewater, biohydrogen, thermophilic fermentation, microbial electrolysis cell

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2757 Effects of Different Climate Zones, Building Types, and Primary Fuel Sources for Energy Production on Environmental Damage from Four External Wall Technologies for Residential Buildings in Israel

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky


The goal of the present study is to evaluate environmental damage from four wall technologies under the following conditions: four climate zones in Israel, two building (conventional vs. low-energy) types, and two types of fuel source [natural gas vs. photovoltaic (PV)]. The hierarchical ReCiPe method with a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA test is applied. It was revealed that in a hot climate in Israel in a conventional building fueled by natural gas, OE is dominant (90 %) over the P&C stage (10 %); in a mild climate in Israel in a low-energy building with PV, the P&C stage is dominant (85 %) over the OE stage (15 %). It is concluded that if PV is used in the building sector in Israel, (i) the P&C stage becomes a significant factor that influences the environment, (ii) autoclaved aerated block is the best external wall technology, and (iii) a two-stage nested mixed ANOVA can be used to evaluate environmental damage via ReCiPe when wall technologies are compared.

Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA), photovoltaic, ReCiPe method, residential buildings

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2756 A Two-Stage Bayesian Variable Selection Method with the Extension of Lasso for Geo-Referenced Data

Authors: Georgiana Onicescu, Yuqian Shen


Due to the complex nature of geo-referenced data, multicollinearity of the risk factors in public health spatial studies is a commonly encountered issue, which leads to low parameter estimation accuracy because it inflates the variance in the regression analysis. To address this issue, we proposed a two-stage variable selection method by extending the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) to the Bayesian spatial setting, investigating the impact of risk factors to health outcomes. Specifically, in stage I, we performed the variable selection using Bayesian Lasso and several other variable selection approaches. Then, in stage II, we performed the model selection with only the selected variables from stage I and compared again the methods. To evaluate the performance of the two-stage variable selection methods, we conducted a simulation study with different distributions for the risk factors, using geo-referenced count data as the outcome and Michigan as the research region. We considered the cases when all candidate risk factors are independently normally distributed, or follow a multivariate normal distribution with different correlation levels. Two other Bayesian variable selection methods, Binary indicator, and the combination of Binary indicator and Lasso were considered and compared as alternative methods. The simulation results indicated that the proposed two-stage Bayesian Lasso variable selection method has the best performance for both independent and dependent cases considered. When compared with the one-stage approach, and the other two alternative methods, the two-stage Bayesian Lasso approach provides the highest estimation accuracy in all scenarios considered.

Keywords: Lasso, Bayesian analysis, spatial analysis, variable selection

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2755 Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program

Authors: Mikhail Bouniaev


The paper reviews design and implementation of a Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following a four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate a strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.

Keywords: active learning, assessment, calculus, cognitive demand, mathematics, stage-by-stage development of mental action theory

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2754 Assessment the Correlation of Rice Yield Traits by Simulation and Modelling Methods

Authors: Davood Barari Tari


In order to investigate the correlation of rice traits in different nitrogen management methods by modeling programming, an experiment was laid out in rice paddy field in an experimental field at Caspian Coastal Sea region from 2013 to 2014. Variety used was Shiroudi as a high yielding variety. Nitrogen management was in two methods. Amount of nitrogen at four levels (30, 60, 90, and 120 Kg N ha-1 and control) and nitrogen-splitting at four levels (T1: 50% in base + 50% in maximum tillering stage, T2= 33.33% basal +33.33% in maximum tillering stage +33.33% in panicle initiation stage, T3=25% basal+37.5% in maximum tillering stage +37.5% in panicle initiation stage, T4: 25% in basal + 25% in maximum tillering stage + 50% in panicle initiation stage). Results showed that nitrogen traits, total grain number, filled spikelets, panicle number per m2 had a significant correlation with grain yield. Results related to calibrated and validation of rice model methods indicated that correlation between rice yield and yield components was accurate. The correlation between panicle length and grain yield was minimum. Physiological indices was simulated with low accuracy. According to results, investigation of the correlation between rice traits in physiological, morphological and phenological characters and yield by modeling and simulation methods are very useful.

Keywords: rice, physiology, modelling, simulation, yield traits

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2753 Effects of Hypoxic Duration at Different Growth Stages on Yield Potential of Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: S. Boonlertnirun, R. Suvannasara, K. Boonlertnirun


Hypoxia has negative effects on growth and crop yield, its severity is so varied depending on crop growth stages, duration of hypoxia and crop species. The objective was to evaluate the sensitive growth stage and the duration of hypoxia negatively affecting growth and yield of waxy corn. Pot experiment was conducted using a split plot in randomized complete block with 3 growth stages: V3 (3-4 true leaves), V7 (7-8 true leaves), and R1 (silking stage), and three hypoxic durations: 6, 9, and 12 days, in an open–ended outdoor greenhouse during January to March 2013. The results revealed that different growth stages had significantly (p < 0.5) different responses to hypoxia, seeing that the sensitive growth stage affecting plant height, yield and yield components was mostly detected in V7 growth stage whereas leaf greenness and days to silking were sensitive to hypoxia at R1 growth stage. Different hypoxic durations significantly affected the yield and yield components, hypoxic duration of twelve days showed the most negative effect greater than the others. In this present study, it can be concluded that waxy corn plants were waterlogged at V7 growth stage for twelve days had the most negative effect on yield and yield components.

Keywords: hypoxia duration, waxy corn, growth stage, Zea mays L.

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2752 3-D Visualization and Optimization for SISO Linear Systems Using Parametrization of Two-Stage Compensator Design

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori, Keisuke Hashimoto


In this paper, we consider the two-stage compensator designs of SISO plants. As an investigation of the characteristics of the two-stage compensator designs, which is not well investigated yet, of SISO plants, we implement three dimensional visualization systems of output signals and optimization system for SISO plants by the parametrization of stabilizing controllers based on the two-stage compensator design. The system runs on Mathematica by using “Three Dimensional Surface Plots,” so that the visualization can be interactively manipulated by users. In this paper, we use the discrete-time LTI system model. Even so, our approach is the factorization approach, so that the result can be applied to many linear models.

Keywords: linear systems, visualization, optimization, Mathematica

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2751 A Study on the Functional Safety Analysis of Stage Control System Based on International Electronical Committee 61508-2

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Hye-Mi Kim, Sang-Hoon Seo, Jaden Cha


This International standard IEC 61508 sets out a generic approach for all safety lifecycle activities for systems comprised of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) elements that are used to perform safety functions. The control unit in stage control system is safety related facilities to control state and speed for stage system running, and it performs safety-critical function by stage control system. The controller unit is part of safety loops corresponding to the IEC 61508 and classified as logic part in the safety loop. In this paper, we analyze using FMEDA (Failure Mode Effect and Diagnostic Analysis) to verification for fault tolerance methods and functional safety of control unit. Moreover, we determined SIL (Safety Integrity Level) for control unit according to the safety requirements defined in IEC 61508-2 based on an analyzed functional safety.

Keywords: safety function, failure mode effect, IEC 61508-2, diagnostic analysis, stage control system

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2750 A Two-Stage Adaptation towards Automatic Speech Recognition System for Malay-Speaking Children

Authors: Mumtaz Begum Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Feizal Dani Rahman


Recently, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems were used to assist children in language acquisition as it has the ability to detect human speech signal. Despite the benefits offered by the ASR system, there is a lack of ASR systems for Malay-speaking children. One of the contributing factors for this is the lack of continuous speech database for the target users. Though cross-lingual adaptation is a common solution for developing ASR systems for under-resourced language, it is not viable for children as there are very limited speech databases as a source model. In this research, we propose a two-stage adaptation for the development of ASR system for Malay-speaking children using a very limited database. The two stage adaptation comprises the cross-lingual adaptation (first stage) and cross-age adaptation. For the first stage, a well-known speech database that is phonetically rich and balanced, is adapted to the medium-sized Malay adults using supervised MLLR. The second stage adaptation uses the speech acoustic model generated from the first adaptation, and the target database is a small-sized database of the target users. We have measured the performance of the proposed technique using word error rate, and then compare them with the conventional benchmark adaptation. The two stage adaptation proposed in this research has better recognition accuracy as compared to the benchmark adaptation in recognizing children’s speech.

Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition System, children speech, adaptation, Malay

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2749 A Method to Identify Areas for Hydraulic Fracturing by Using Production Logging Tools

Authors: Armin Shirbazo, Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Mohammad Vahab, Jalal Fahimpour


Hydraulic fracturing, especially multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, is a practical solution for wells with uneconomic production. The wide range of applications is appraised appropriately to have a stable well-production. Production logging tool, which is known as PLT in the oil and gas industry, is counted as one of the most reliable methods to evaluate the efficiency of fractures jobs. This tool has a number of benefits and can be used to prevent subsequent production failure. It also distinguishes different problems that occurred during well-production. In this study, the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing jobs is examined by using the PLT in various cases and situations. The performance of hydraulically fractured wells is investigated. Then, the PLT is employed to gives more information about the properties of different layers. The PLT is also used to selecting an optimum fracturing design. The results show that one fracture and three-stage fractures behave differently. In general, the one-stage fracture should be created in high-quality areas of the reservoir to have better performance, and conversely, in three-stage fractures, low-quality areas are a better candidate for fracturing

Keywords: multi-stage fracturing, horizontal well, PLT, fracture length, number of stages

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2748 2 Stage CMOS Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier Design Based On Inductive Coupling Technique in Submicron CMOS Process

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


This paper proposes one stage and two stage CMOS Complementary Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier (CRCDA) design based on Inductive and Transformer coupling techniques. Usually, Distributed amplifier is based on inductor coupling between gate and gate of MOSFET and between drain and drain of MOSFET. But this paper propose some new idea, by coupling with differential primary windings of transformer between gate and gate of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier and by coupling with differential secondary windings transformer of MOSFET between drain and drain of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier. This paper also proposes polynomial modeling of Silicon Transformer passive equivalent circuit from Nanyang Technological University which is used to extract frequency response of transformer. Cadence simulation results are used to verify validity of transformer polynomial modeling which can be used to design distributed amplifier without Cadence. 4 parameters of scattering matrix of 2 port of the propose circuit is derived as a function of 4 parameters of impedance matrix.

Keywords: CMOS regulated cascode distributed amplifier, silicon transformer modeling with polynomial, low power consumption, distribute amplification technique

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2747 Early Warning System of Financial Distress Based On Credit Cycle Index

Authors: Bi-Huei Tsai


Previous studies on financial distress prediction choose the conventional failing and non-failing dichotomy; however, the distressed extent differs substantially among different financial distress events. To solve the problem, “non-distressed”, “slightly-distressed” and “reorganization and bankruptcy” are used in our article to approximate the continuum of corporate financial health. This paper explains different financial distress events using the two-stage method. First, this investigation adopts firm-specific financial ratios, corporate governance and market factors to measure the probability of various financial distress events based on multinomial logit models. Specifically, the bootstrapping simulation is performed to examine the difference of estimated misclassifying cost (EMC). Second, this work further applies macroeconomic factors to establish the credit cycle index and determines the distressed cut-off indicator of the two-stage models using such index. Two different models, one-stage and two-stage prediction models, are developed to forecast financial distress, and the results acquired from different models are compared with each other, and with the collected data. The findings show that the two-stage model incorporating financial ratios, corporate governance and market factors has the lowest misclassification error rate. The two-stage model is more accurate than the one-stage model as its distressed cut-off indicators are adjusted according to the macroeconomic-based credit cycle index.

Keywords: Multinomial logit model, corporate governance, company failure, reorganization, bankruptcy

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2746 Thermal Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Cryopump

Authors: Yue Shuai Zhao, Rong Ping Shao, Wei Sun, Guo Hua Ren, Yong Wang, Li Chen Sun


A large-scale cryopump (DN1250) used in large vacuum leak detecting system was designed and its performance experimentally investigated by Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering. The cryopump was cooled by four closed cycle helium refrigerators (two dual stage refrigerators and two single stage refrigerators). Detailed numerical analysis of the heat transfer in the first stage array and the second stage array were performed by using computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). Several design parameters were considered to find the effect on the temperature distribution and the cooldown time. The variation of thermal conductivity and heat capacity with temperature was taken into account. The thermal analysis method based on numerical techniques was introduced in this study, the heat transfer in the first stage array and the second stage cryopanel was carefully analyzed to determine important considerations in the thermal design of the cryopump. A performance test system according to the RNEUROP standards was built to test main performance of the cryopump. The experimental results showed that the structure of first stage array which was optimized by the method could meet the requirement of the cryopump well. The temperature of the cryopanel was down to 10K within 300 min, and the result of the experiment was accordant with theoretical analysis' conclusion. The test also showed that the pumping speed for N2 of the pump was up to 57,000 L/s, and the crossover was over than 300,000 Pa•L.

Keywords: cryopump, temperature distribution, thermal analysis, CFD Simulation

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2745 Capacity Building of Extension Agents for Sustainable Dissemination of Agricultural Information and Technologies in Developing Countries

Authors: Michael T. Ajayi, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo


Farmers are in need of regular and relevant information relating to new technologies. Production of extension materials has been found to be useful in facilitating the process. Extension materials help to provide information to reach large numbers of farmers quickly and economically. However, as good as extension materials are, previous materials produced are not used by farmers. The reasons for this include lack of involvement of farmers in the production of the extension materials, most of the extension materials are not relevant to the farmers’ environments, the agricultural extension agents lack capacity to prepare the materials, and many extension agents lack commitment. These problems led to this innovative capacity building of extension agents. This innovative approach involves five stages. The first stage is the diagnostic survey of farmers’ environment to collect useful information. The second stage is the development and production of draft extension materials. The third stage is the field testing and evaluation of draft materials by the same farmers that were involved at the diagnostic stage. The fourth stage is the revision of the draft extension materials by incorporating suggestions from farmers. The fifth stage is the action plans. This process improves the capacity of agricultural extension agents in the preparation of extension materials and also promotes engagement of farmers and beneficiaries in the process. The process also makes farmers assume some level of ownership of the exercise and the extension materials.

Keywords: capacity building, extension agents, dissemination, information/technologies

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2744 Effect of Dimensional Reinforcement Probability on Discrimination of Visual Compound Stimuli by Pigeons

Authors: O. V. Vyazovska


Behavioral efficiency is one of the main principles to be successful in nature. Accuracy of visual discrimination is determined by the attention, learning experience, and memory. In the experimental condition, pigeons’ responses to visual stimuli presented on the screen of the monitor are behaviorally manifested by pecking or not pecking the stimulus, by the number of pecking, reaction time, etc. The higher the probability of rewarding is, the more likely pigeons will respond to the stimulus. We trained 8 pigeons (Columba livia) on a stagewise go/no-go visual discrimination task.16 visual stimuli were created from all possible combinations of four binary dimensions: brightness (dark/bright), size (large/small), line orientation (vertical/horizontal), and shape (circle/square). In the first stage, we presented S+ and 4 S-stimuli: the first that differed in all 4-dimensional values from S+, the second with brightness dimension sharing with S+, the third sharing brightness and orientation with S+, the fourth sharing brightness, orientation and size. Then all 16 stimuli were added. Pigeons rejected correctly 6-8 of 11 new added S-stimuli at the beginning of the second stage. The results revealed that pigeons’ behavior at the beginning of the second stage was controlled by probabilities of rewarding for 4 dimensions learned in the first stage. More or fewer mistakes with dimension discrimination at the beginning of the second stage depended on the number S- stimuli sharing the dimension with S+ in the first stage. A significant inverse correlation between the number of S- stimuli sharing dimension values with S+ in the first stage and the dimensional learning rate at the beginning of the second stage was found. Pigeons were more confident in discrimination of shape and size dimensions. They made mistakes at the beginning of the second stage, which were not associated with these dimensions. Thus, the received results help elucidate the principles of dimensional stimulus control during learning compound multidimensional visual stimuli.

Keywords: visual go/no go discrimination, selective attention, dimensional stimulus control, pigeon

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2743 Variations of the Modal Characteristics of the Feeding Stage with Different Preloaded Linear Guide

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yong-Run Chen, Wei-Cheng Shih, Chun-Wei Lin


This study was aimed to assess the variations of the modal characteristics of the feeding stage with different linear guide modulus. The dynamic characteristics of the feeding stage were characterized in terms of the modal stiffness, modal frequency and modal damping, which are assessed from the vibration tests. According to the experimental measurements, the actual preload of the linear guide modulus was found to deviate from the rated values as setting in factory. This may be due to the assemblage errors of guide modules. For the stage with linear guides, the dynamic stiffness was affected to change by the preload set on the rolling balls. The variation of the dynamic stiffness at first and second modes is 20.8 and 10.5%, respectively when the linear guide preload is adjusted from medium and high amount. But the modal damping ratio is reduced by 8.97 and 9.65%, respectively. For high-frequency mode, the modal stiffness increases by 171.2% and the damping ratio reduced by 34.4%. Current results demonstrate the importance in the determining the preloaded amount of linear guide modulus in practical application.

Keywords: contact stiffness, feeding stage, linear guides, modal characteristics, pre-load

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2742 Dental Students' Acquired Knowledge of the Pre-Contemplation Stage of Change

Authors: S. Curtin, A. Trace


Introduction: As patients can often be ambivalent about or resistant to any change in their smoking behavior the traditional ‘5 A’ model may be limited as it assumes that patients are ready and motivated to change. However, there is a stage model that is helpful to give guidance for dental students: the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This model allows students to understand the tasks and goals for the pre-contemplation stage. The TTM was introduced in early stages as a core component of a smoking cessation programme that was integrated into a Behavioral Science programme as applied to dentistry. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and illustrate the students’ current level of knowledge from the questions the students generated in order to engage patients in the tasks and goals of the pre-contemplation stage. Method: N=47 responses of fifth-year undergraduate dental students. These responses were the data set for this study and related to their knowledge base of appropriate questions for a dentist to ask at the pre-contemplation stage of change. A deductive -descriptive analysis was conducted on the data. The goals and tasks of the pre-contemplation stage of the TTM provided a template for this deductive analysis. Results: 51% of students generated relevant, open, exploratory questions for the pre-contemplation stage, whilst 100% of students generated closed questions. With regard to those questions appropriate for the pre-contemplation stage, 19% were open and exploratory, while 66% were closed questions. A deductive analysis of the open exploratory questions revealed that 53% of the questions addressed increased concern about the current pattern of behavior, 38% of the questions concerned increased awareness of a need for change and only 8% of the questions dealt with the envisioning of the possibility of change. Conclusion: All students formulated relevant questions for the pre-contemplation stage, and half of the students generated the open, exploratory questions that increased patients’ awareness of the need to change. More training is required to facilitate a shift in the formulation from closed to open questioning, especially given that, traditionally, smoking cessation was modeled on the ‘5 As’, and that the general training for dentists supports an advisory and directive approach.

Keywords: behaviour change, pre-contemplation stage, trans-theoretical model, undergraduate dentistry students

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2741 Adopting the Two-Stage Nested Mixed Analysis of Variance Test to the Eco Indicator 99 to Evaluate Building Technologies under LCA Uncertainties

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar


Eco-indicator 99 (EI99) considers fundamental life cycle assessment (LCA) uncertainties via egalitarian/egalitarian (e/e), hierarchist/hierarchist (h/h), individualist/individualist (i/i), individualist/average (i/a), egalitarian/average (e/a), and hierarchist/average (h/a) methodological options. The objective of this study is to provide a reliable two-stage nested mixed balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test as a supplemental test to EI99 to address the problematic combination of similarly and not similarly produced materials usually found in building technologies. The robustness of the test was determined from both the “EI99 (all options)” stage (including e/e, i/i, h/h, e/a, i/a, and h/a - all methodological options) and the “EI99 (perspectives)” stage (including e/e, i/i, and h/h methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with their particular weighting set or e/a, i/a, and h/a methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with the average weighting set) of evaluating building technologies.

Keywords: building technologies, LCA uncertainty, Eco-indicator 99, two-stage nested mixed ANOVA test

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2740 A Comparative Analysis on Survival in Patients with Node Positive Cutaneous Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma as per TNM 7th and TNM 8th Editions

Authors: Petr Daniel Edward Kovarik, Malcolm Jackson, Charles Kelly, Rahul Patil, Shahid Iqbal


Introduction: Recognition of the presence of extra capsular spread (ECS) has been a major change in TNM 8th edition published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer in 2018. Irrespective of size or number of lymph nodes, the presence of ECS makes N3b disease, stage IV disease. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to conduct a comparative analysis on survival outcomes in patients with lymph node positive cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (CHNSCC), based on their TNM 7th and TNM 8th editions classification. Materials and methods: From January 2010 to December 2020, 71 patients with CHNSCC were identified from our centre’s database who were treated with radical surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. All histopathological reports were reviewed and comprehensive nodal mapping was performed. The data were collected retrospectively and survival outcomes were compared using TNM 7th and 8th editions. Results: The median age of the whole group of 71 patients was 78 years, range 54 – 94 years, 63 were male and 8 female. In total, 2246 lymph nodes were analysed; 195 were positive for cancer. ECS was present in 130 lymph nodes, which led to a change in TNM staging. The details on N-stage as per TNM 7th edition was as follows; pN1 = 23, pN2a = 14, pN2b = 32, pN2c = 0, pN3 = 2. After incorporating the TNM 8th edition criterion (presence of ECS), the details on N-stage was as follows; pN1 = 6, pN2a = 5, pN2b = 3, pN2c = 0, pN3a = 0, pN3b = 57. This showed an increase in overall stage. According to TNM 7th edition, there were 23 patients were with stage III and remaining 48 patients, stage IV. As per TNM 8th edition, there were only 6 patients with stage III as compared to 65 patients with stage IV. For all patients, 2-year disease specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were 70% and 46%. 5-year DSS and OS rates were 66% and 20% respectively. Comparing the survival between stage III and stage IV of the two cohorts using both TNM 7th and 8th editions, there is an obvious greater survival difference between the stages if TNM 8th staging is used. However, meaningful statistics were not possible as the majority of patients (n = 65) were with stage IV and only 6 patients were stage III in the TNM 8th cohort. Conclusion: Our study provides a comprehensive analysis on lymph node data mapping in this specific patient population. It shows a better differentiation between stage III and stage IV in the TNM 8th edition as compared to the TNM 7th however meaningful statistics were not possible due to imbalance of patients in the sub-cohorts of the groups.

Keywords: cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, extra capsular spread, neck lymphadenopathy, TNM 7th and 8th editions

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