Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2538

Search results for: seismic protection

2538 A Theoretical Study of Multi-Leaf Spring in Seismic Response Control

Authors: M. Ezati Kooshki , H. Pourmohamad


Leaf spring dampers are used for commercial vehicles and heavy tracks. The main function of this damper in these vehicles is protection against damage and providing comfort for drivers by creating suspension between road and vehicle. This paper presents a new device, circular leaf spring damper, which is frequently used on vehicles, aiming to gain seismic protection of structures. Finite element analyses were conducted on several one-story structures using finite element software (Abaqus, v6.10-1). The time history analysis was conducted on the records of Kobe (1995) and San Fernando (1971) ground motions to demonstrate the advantages of using leaf spring in structures as compared to simple bracing system. This paper also suggests extending the use of this damper in structures, considering its large control force despite high cycle fatigue properties and low prices.

Keywords: bracing system, finite element analysis, leaf spring, seismic protection, time history analysis

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2537 Using Shape Memory Alloys for Structural Engineering Applications

Authors: Donatello Cardone


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential for use in the field of civil engineering. The author of this manuscript has been involved, since 1996, in several experimental and theoretical studies on the application of SMAs in structural engineering, within national and international research projects. This paper provides an overview of the main results achieved, including the conceptual design, implementation, and testing of different SMA-based devices, namely: (i) energy-dissipating braces for RC buildings, (ii) seismic isolation devices for buildings and bridges, (iii) smart tie-rods for arches and vaults and (iv) seismic restrainers for bridges. The main advantages of using SMA-based devices in the seismic protection of structures derive from the double-flag shape of their hysteresis loops, which implies three favourable features, i.e., self-centering capability, good energy dissipation capability, and high stiffness for small displacements. The main advantages of SMA-based units for steel tie-rods are associated with the thermal behaviour of superelastic SMAs, which is antagonistic compared to that of steel. This implies a strong reduction of force changes due to air temperature variations. Finally, SMA-based seismic restrainers proved to be effective in preventing bridge deck unseating and pounding.

Keywords: seismic protection of structures, shape memory alloys, structural engineering, steel tie-rods, seismic restrainers for bridges

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2536 Seismic Reliability of Two-DegreE-of-Freedom Systems with Supplemental Damping

Authors: A.D. García-Soto, Miguel Jaimes, J.G. Valdés-Vázquez, A. Hernández-Martínez


The seismic reliability of two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) systems with and without supplemental damping are computed. The used records are scaled from realistic records using standard incremental dynamic Analysis (IDA). The total normalized shear base is computed for both cases using different scaling factors, and it is considered as the demand. The seismic reliability is computed using codified design to stipulate the capacity and, after some assumptions, applying the first-order reliability method (FORM). The 2DOF considered can be thought as structures with non-linear behavior, with and without seismic protection, subjected to earthquake activity in Mexico City. It is found that the reliability of 2DOF structures retrofitted with supplemental damper at its first story is generally higher than the reliability of 2DOF structures without supplemental damping.

Keywords: 2DOF structures, IDA, FORM, seismic reliability

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2535 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Bu Seog Ju


This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: seismic, bridge, FEM, evaluation, numerical analysis

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2534 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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2533 The Effects of Damping Devices on Displacements, Velocities and Accelerations of Structures

Authors: Radhwane Boudjelthia


The most recent earthquakes that occurred in the world and particularly in Algeria, have killed thousands of people and severe damage. The example that is etched in our memory is the last earthquake in the regions of Boumerdes and Algiers (Boumerdes earthquake of May 21, 2003). For all the actors involved in the building process, the earthquake is the litmus test for construction. The goal we set ourselves is to contribute to the implementation of a thoughtful approach to the seismic protection of structures. For many engineers, the most conventional approach protection works (buildings and bridges) the effects of earthquakes is to increase rigidity. This approach is not always effective, especially when there is a context that favors the phenomenon of resonance and amplification of seismic forces. Therefore, the field of earthquake engineering has made significant inroads among others catalyzed by the development of computational techniques in computer form and the use of powerful test facilities. This has led to the emergence of several innovative technologies, such as the introduction of special devices insulation between infrastructure and superstructure. This approach, commonly known as "seismic isolation" to absorb the significant efforts without the structure is damaged and thus ensuring the protection of lives and property. In addition, the restraints to the construction by the ground shaking are located mainly at the supports. With these moves, the natural period of construction is increasing, and seismic loads are reduced. Thus, there is an attenuation of the seismic movement. Likewise, the insulation of the base mechanism may be used in combination with earthquake dampers in order to control the deformation of the insulation system and the absolute displacement of the superstructure located above the isolation interface. On the other hand, only can use these earthquake dampers to reduce the oscillation amplitudes and thus reduce seismic loads. The use of damping devices represents an effective solution for the rehabilitation of existing structures. Given all these acceleration reducing means considered passive, much research has been conducted for several years to develop an active control system of the response of buildings to earthquakes.

Keywords: earthquake, building, seismic forces, displacement, resonance, response

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2532 Seismic Protection of Automated Stocker System by Customized Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Y. P. Wang, J. K. Chen, C. H. Lee, G. H. Huang, M. C. Wang, S. W. Chen, Y. T. Kuan, H. C. Lin, C. Y. Huang, W. H. Liang, W. C. Lin, H. C. Yu


The hi-tech industries in the Science Park at southern Taiwan were heavily damaged by a strong earthquake early 2016. The financial loss in this event was attributed primarily to the automated stocker system handling fully processed products, and recovery of the automated stocker system from the aftermath proved to contribute major lead time. Therefore, development of effective means for protection of stockers against earthquakes has become the highest priority for risk minimization and business continuity. This study proposes to mitigate the seismic response of the stockers by introducing viscous fluid dampers in between the ceiling and the top of the stockers. The stocker is expected to vibrate less violently with a passive control force on top. Linear damper is considered in this application with an optimal damping coefficient determined from a preliminary parametric study. The damper is small in size in comparison with those adopted for building or bridge applications. Component test of the dampers has been carried out to make sure they meet the design requirement. Shake table tests have been further conducted to verify the proposed scheme under realistic earthquake conditions. Encouraging results have been achieved by effectively reducing the seismic responses of up to 60% and preventing the FOUPs from falling off the shelves that would otherwise be the case if left unprotected. Effectiveness of adopting a viscous fluid damper for seismic control of the stocker on top against the ceiling has been confirmed. This technique has been adopted by Macronix International Co., LTD for seismic retrofit of existing stockers. Demonstrative projects on the application of the proposed technique are planned underway for other companies in the display industry as well.

Keywords: hi-tech industries, seismic protection, automated stocker system, viscous fluid damper

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2531 New Modification Negative Stiffness Device with Constant Force-Displacement Characteristic for Seismic Protection of Structures

Authors: Huan Li, Jianchun Li, Yancheng Li, Yang Yu


As a seismic protection method of civil and engineering structures, weakening and damping is effective during the elastic region, while it somehow leads to the early yielding of the entire structure accompanying with large excursions and permanent deformations. Adaptive negative stiffness device is attractive for realizing yielding property without changing the stiffness of the primary structure. In this paper, a new modification negative stiffness device (MNSD) with constant force-displacement characteristic is proposed by combining a magnetic negative stiffness spring, a piecewise linear positive spring and a passive damper with a certain adaptive stiffness device. The proposed passive control MNSD preserves no effect under small excitation. When the displacement amplitude increases beyond the pre-defined yielding point, the force-displacement characteristics of the system with MNSD will keep constant. The seismic protection effect of the MNSD is evaluated by employing it to a single-degree-of-freedom system under sinusoidal excitation, and real earthquake waves. By comparative analysis, the system with MNSD performs better on reducing acceleration and displacement response under different displacement amplitudes than the scenario without it and the scenario with unmodified certain adaptive stiffness device.

Keywords: negative stiffness, adaptive stiffness, weakening and yielding, constant force-displacement characteristic

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2530 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

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2529 Vibration-Based Structural Health Monitoring of a 21-Story Building with Tuned Mass Damper in Seismic Zone

Authors: David Ugalde, Arturo Castillo, Leopoldo Breschi


The Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) are an effective system for mitigating vibrations in building structures. These dampers have traditionally focused on the protection of high-rise buildings against earthquakes and wind loads. The Camara Chilena de la Construction (CChC) building, built in 2018 in Santiago, Chile, is a 21-story RC wall building equipped with a 150-ton TMD and instrumented with six permanent accelerometers, offering an opportunity to monitor the dynamic response of this damped structure. This paper presents the system identification of the CChC building using power spectral density plots of ambient vibration and two seismic events (5.5 Mw and 6.7 Mw). Linear models of the building with and without the TMD are used to compute the theoretical natural periods through modal analysis and simulate the response of the building through response history analysis. Results show that natural periods obtained from both ambient vibrations and earthquake records are quite similar to the theoretical periods given by the modal analysis of the building model. Some of the experimental periods are noticeable by simple inspection of the earthquake records. The accelerometers in the first story better captured the modes related to the building podium while the upper accelerometers clearly captured the modes related to the tower. The earthquake simulation showed smaller accelerations in the model with TMD that are similar to that measured by the accelerometers. It is concluded that the system identification through power spectral density shows consistency with the expected dynamic properties. The structural health monitoring of the CChC building confirms the advantages of seismic protection technologies such as TMDs in seismic prone areas.

Keywords: system identification, tuned mass damper, wall buildings, seismic protection

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2528 Introduction of the Harmfulness of the Seismic Signal in the Assessment of the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Boukais Said, Kezmane Ali, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Hamizi Mohand


The principle of the seismic performance evaluation methods is to provide a measure of capability for a building or set of buildings to be damaged by an earthquake. The common objective of many of these methods is to supply classification criteria. The purpose of this study is to present a method for assessing the seismic performance of structures, based on Pushover method, we are particularly interested in reinforced concrete frame structures, which represent a significant percentage of damaged structures after a seismic event. The work is based on the characterization of seismic movement of the various earthquake zones in terms of PGA and PGD that is obtained by means of SIMQK_GR and PRISM software and the correlation between the points of performance and the scalar characterizing the earthquakes will be developed.

Keywords: seismic performance, pushover method, characterization of seismic motion, harmfulness of the seismic

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2527 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi


The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

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2526 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

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2525 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva


Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

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2524 Seismic Preparedness Challenge in Ionian Islands (Greece) through 'Telemachus' Project

Authors: A. Kourou, M. Panoutsopoulou


Nowadays, disaster risk reduction requires innovative ways of working collaboratively, monitoring tools, management methods, risk communication, and knowledge, as key factors for decision-making actors. Experience has shown that the assessment of seismic risk and its effective management is still an important challenge. In Greece, Ionian Islands region is characterized as the most seismic area of the country and one of the most active worldwide. It is well known that in case of a disastrous earthquake the local authorities need to assess the situation in the affected area and coordinate the disaster response. In particular, the main outcomes of 'Telemachus' project are the development of an innovative operational system that hosts the needed data of seismic risk management in the Ionian Islands and the implementation of educational actions for the involved target groups. This project is funded in the Priority Axis 'Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development' of Operational Plan 'Ionian Islands 2014-2020'. EPPO is one of the partners of the project and it is responsible, among others, for the development of proper training material. This paper presents the training material of 'Telemachus' and its usage as a helpful, managerial tool in case of earthquake emergency. This material is addressed to different target groups, such as civil protection staff, people that involved with the tourism industry, educators of disabled people, etc. Very positive aspect of the project is the involvement of end-users that should evaluate the training products; test standards; clarify the personnel’s roles and responsibilities; improve interagency coordination; identify gaps in resources; improve individual performance; and identify opportunities for improvement. It is worth mentioning that even though the abovementioned material developed is useful for the training of specific target groups on emergency management issues within Ionian Islands Region, it could be used throughout Greece and other countries too.

Keywords: education of civil protection staff, Ionian Islands Region of Greece, seismic risk, training material

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2523 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building Using Structural Information Modeling

Authors: Byungmin Cho, Dongchul Lee, Taejin Kim, Minhee Lee


The procedure for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings includes the seismic evaluation. In the evaluation step, it is assessed whether the buildings have satisfactory performance against seismic load. Based on the results of that, the buildings are upgraded. To evaluate seismic performance of the buildings, it usually goes through the model transformation from elastic analysis to inelastic analysis. However, when the data is not delivered through the interwork, engineers should manually input the data. In this process, since it leads to inaccuracy and loss of information, the results of the analysis become less accurate. Therefore, in this study, the process for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings using structural information modeling is suggested. This structural information modeling makes the work economic and accurate. To this end, it is determined which part of the process could be computerized through the investigation of the process for the seismic evaluation based on ASCE 41. The structural information modeling process is developed to apply to the seismic evaluation using Perform 3D program usually used for the nonlinear response history analysis. To validate this process, the seismic performance of an existing building is investigated.

Keywords: existing building, nonlinear analysis, seismic performance, structural information modeling

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2522 Advanced Seismic Retrofit of a School Building by a DFP Base Isolation Solution

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi


The study of a base isolation seismic retrofit solution for a reinforced concrete school building is presented in this paper. The building was assumed as a benchmark structure for a Research Project financed by the Italian Department of Civil Protection, and is representative of several similar public edifices designed with earlier Technical Standards editions, in Italy as well as in other earthquake-prone European countries. The structural characteristics of the building, and a synthesis of the investigation campaigns developed on it, are initially presented. The mechanical parameters, dimensions, locations and installation details of the base isolation system, incorporating double friction pendulum sliding bearings as protective devices, are then illustrated, along with the performance assessment analyses carried out in original and rehabilitated conditions according to a full non-linear dynamic approach. The results of the analyses show a remarkable enhancement of the seismic response capacities of the structure in base-isolated configuration. This allows reaching the high performance levels postulated in the rehabilitation design with notably lower costs and architectural intrusion as compared to traditional retrofit interventions designed for the same objectives.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, seismic assessment, r/c structures, school buildings, base isolation

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2521 MARTI and MRSD: Newly Developed Isolation-Damping Devices with Adaptive Hardening for Seismic Protection of Structures

Authors: Murast Dicleli, Ali SalemMilani


In this paper, a summary of analytical and experimental studies into the behavior of a new hysteretic damper, designed for seismic protection of structures is presented. The Multi-directional Torsional Hysteretic Damper (MRSD) is a patented invention in which a symmetrical arrangement of identical cylindrical steel cores is so configured as to yield in torsion while the structure experiences planar movements due to earthquake shakings. The new device has certain desirable properties. Notably, it is characterized by a variable and controllable-via-design post-elastic stiffness. The mentioned property is a result of MRSD’s kinematic configuration which produces this geometric hardening, rather than being a secondary large-displacement effect. Additionally, the new system is capable of reaching high force and displacement capacities, shows high levels of damping, and very stable cyclic response. The device has gone through many stages of design refinement, multiple prototype verification tests and development of design guide-lines and computer codes to facilitate its implementation in practice. Practicality of the new device, as offspring of an academic sphere, is assured through extensive collaboration with industry in its final design stages, prototyping and verification test programs.

Keywords: seismic, isolation, damper, adaptive stiffness

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2520 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz


Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design

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2519 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

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2518 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han


For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: algorithm, ground motion, response history analysis, selection

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2517 The Necessity of Retrofitting for Masonry Buildings in Turkey

Authors: Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel


Masonry buildings constitute major part of building stock in Turkey. Masonry buildings were built up especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions due to economic reasons. Almost all of these masonry buildings are not designed and detailed according to any design guidelines by designers. As a result of this, masonry buildings were totally collapsed or heavily damaged when subjected to destructive earthquake effects. Thus, these masonry buildings that were built up in our country must be retrofitted to improve their seismic performance. In this study, new seismic retrofitting techniques that is easy to apply and low-cost are summarized and the importance of seismic retrofitting is also emphasized for existing masonry buildings in Turkey.

Keywords: masonry buildings, earthquake effects, seismic retrofitting techniques, seismic performance

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2516 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das


Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

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2515 Preliminary Seismic Hazard Mapping of Papua New Guinea

Authors: Hadi Ghasemi, Mark Leonard, Spiliopoulos Spiro, Phil Cummins, Mathew Moihoi, Felix Taranu, Eric Buri, Chris Mckee


In this study the level of seismic hazard in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) was calculated for return period of 475 years, using modeled seismic sources and assigned ground-motion equations. The calculations were performed for bedrock site conditions (Vs30=760 m/s). From the results it is evident that the seismic hazard reaches its maximum level (i.e. PGA≈1g for 475 yr return period) at the Huon Peninsula and southern New Britain regions. Disaggregation analysis revealed that moderate to large earthquakes occurring along the New Britain Trench mainly control the level of hazard at these locations. The open-source computer program OpenQuake developed by Global Earthquake Model foundation was used for the seismic hazard computations. It should be emphasized that the presented results are still preliminary and should not be interpreted as our final assessment of seismic hazard in PNG.

Keywords: probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, Papua New Guinea, building code, OpenQuake

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2514 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

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2513 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames under Seismic Loads

Authors: W. Badla


A significant portion of the buildings constructed in Algeria is structural frames with infill panels which are usually considered as non structural components and are neglected in the analysis. However, these masonry panels tend to influence the structural response. Thus, these structures can be regarded as seismic risk buildings, although in the Algerian seismic code there is little guidance on the seismic evaluation of infilled frame buildings. In this study, three RC frames with 2, 4, and 8 story and subjected to three recorded Algerian accelerograms are studied. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling the infill panels and a fiber model is used to model RC members. This paper reports on the seismic evaluation of RC frames with brick infill panels. The results obtained show that the masonry panels enhance the load lateral capacity of the buildings and the infill panel configuration influences the response of the structures.

Keywords: seismic design, RC frames, infill panels, non linear dynamic analysis

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2512 Expected Present Value of Losses in the Computation of Optimum Seismic Design Parameters

Authors: J. García-Pérez


An approach to compute optimum seismic design parameters is presented. It is based on the optimization of the expected present value of the total cost, which includes the initial cost of structures as well as the cost due to earthquakes. Different types of seismicity models are considered, including one for characteristic earthquakes. Uncertainties are included in some variables to observe the influence on optimum values. Optimum seismic design coefficients are computed for three different structural types representing high, medium and low rise buildings, located near and far from the seismic sources. Ordinary and important structures are considered in the analysis. The results of optimum values show an important influence of seismicity models as well as of uncertainties on the variables.

Keywords: importance factors, optimum parameters, seismic losses, seismic risk, total cost

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2511 Seismic Fragility Functions of RC Moment Frames Using Incremental Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Seung-Won Lee, JongSoo Lee, Won-Jik Yang, Hyung-Joon Kim


A capacity spectrum method (CSM), one of methodologies to evaluate seismic fragilities of building structures, has been long recognized as the most convenient method, even if it contains several limitations to predict the seismic response of structures of interest. This paper proposes the procedure to estimate seismic fragility curves using an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) rather than the method adopting a CSM. To achieve the research purpose, this study compares the seismic fragility curves of a 5-story reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame obtained from both methods, an IDA method and a CSM. Both seismic fragility curves are similar in slight and moderate damage states whereas the fragility curve obtained from the IDA method presents less variation (or uncertainties) in extensive and complete damage states. This is due to the fact that the IDA method can properly capture the structural response beyond yielding rather than the CSM and can directly calculate higher mode effects. From these observations, the CSM could overestimate seismic vulnerabilities of the studied structure in extensive or complete damage states.

Keywords: seismic fragility curve, incremental dynamic analysis, capacity spectrum method, reinforced concrete moment frame

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2510 Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model in Seismic Data Denoising

Authors: Jianwei Ma, Diriba Gemechu


In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic random noise by preserving important features and information about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method is derived. We test the effectiveness of theproposed method for synthetic and real seismic data sets and the denoised result is compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising algorithm.

Keywords: anisotropic total fractional order variation, fractional order bounded variation, seismic random noise attenuation, split Bregman algorithm

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2509 Numerical Model of Low Cost Rubber Isolators for Masonry Housing in High Seismic Regions

Authors: Ahmad B. Habieb, Gabriele Milani, Tavio Tavio, Federico Milani


Housings in developing countries have often inadequate seismic protection, particularly for masonry. People choose this type of structure since the cost and application are relatively cheap. Seismic protection of masonry remains an interesting issue among researchers. In this study, we develop a low-cost seismic isolation system for masonry using fiber reinforced elastomeric isolators. The elastomer proposed consists of few layers of rubber pads and fiber lamina, making it lower in cost comparing to the conventional isolators. We present a finite element (FE) analysis to predict the behavior of the low cost rubber isolators undergoing moderate deformations. The FE model of the elastomer involves a hyperelastic material property for the rubber pad. We adopt a Yeoh hyperelasticity model and estimate its coefficients through the available experimental data. Having the shear behavior of the elastomers, we apply that isolation system onto small masonry housing. To attach the isolators on the building, we model the shear behavior of the isolation system by means of a damped nonlinear spring model. By this attempt, the FE analysis becomes computationally inexpensive. Several ground motion data are applied to observe its sensitivity. Roof acceleration and tensile damage of walls become the parameters to evaluate the performance of the isolators. In this study, a concrete damage plasticity model is used to model masonry in the nonlinear range. This tool is available in the standard package of Abaqus FE software. Finally, the results show that the low-cost isolators proposed are capable of reducing roof acceleration and damage level of masonry housing. Through this study, we are also capable of monitoring the shear deformation of isolators during seismic motion. It is useful to determine whether the isolator is applicable. According to the results, the deformations of isolators on the benchmark one story building are relatively small.

Keywords: masonry, low cost elastomeric isolator, finite element analysis, hyperelasticity, damped non-linear spring, concrete damage plasticity

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