Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 460

Search results for: K doped ZnO

460 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Ni Doped CdZnS

Authors: Sabit Horoz, Ahmet Ekicibil, Omer Sahin, M. Akyol


In this study, CdZnS and Ni-doped CdZnS quantum dots(QDs) were prepared by the wet-chemical method at room temperature using mercaptoethanol as a capping agent. The structural and magnetic properties of the CdZnS and CdZnS doped with different concentrations of Ni QDs were examined by XRD and magnetic susceptibility measurements, respectively. The average particles size of cubic QDs obtained by full-width half maxima (FWHM) analysis, increases with increasing doping concentrations. The investigation of the magnetic properties showed that the Ni-doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, un-doped CdZnS is diamagnetic.

Keywords: un-doped and Ni doped CdZnS Quantum Dots (QDs), co-precipitation method, structural and optical properties of QDs, diluted magnetic semiconductor materials (DMSMs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
459 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong


In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
458 Photocatalytic Activity of Pure and Doped CeO2 Nanoparticles

Authors: Mohamed Khedr, Ahmed Farghali, Waleed El Rouby, Abdelrhman Hamdeldeen


Pure CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 were successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. The effect of hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and precursors were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The prepared pure and doped CeO2 nanoparticles were used as photo-catalyst for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Gd doped CeO2 nano-particles have the best catalytic degradation effect for MB under UV irradiation. The degradation pathways of MB were followed using liquid chromatography (LC/MS) and it was found that Gd doped CeO2 was able to oxidize MB dye with a complete mineralization of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-.

Keywords: CeO2, doped CeO2, photocatalysis, methylene blue

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
457 Optical and Luminescence Studies on Dy³+ Singly Doped and Dy³+/Ce³+ Co-doped Alumina Borosilicate Glasses for Photonics Device Application

Authors: M. Monisha, Sudha D. Kamath


We investigate the optical and photoluminescence properties from Dy³+ singly doped and Dy³+ co-doped with Ce³+alumino borosilicate glasses prepared using high temperature melt-quenching technique. The glass composition formula is 25SiO₂-(40-x-y)B2O₃-10Al₂O₃-15NaF-10ZnO-xDy₂O₃ yCe₂O₃ where, x = 0.5 mol% and y = 0, 0.1, and 0.5 mol%. The XRD study reveals the amorphous nature of both singly doped and co-doped glasses. Absorption study on Dy3+ singly doped glass shows nearly twelve absorption peaks arising from the ground level of Dy³+ ions (⁶H₁₅/₂) to various upper levels, and for Dy³+/Ce³+ co-doped glasses, few of the transitions in the visible region are suppressed. The absorption band edge is shifted towards the higher wavelength region on increasing Ce3+concentration. The decrease in indirect energy bandgap and increase in Urbach energy of the prepared glasses is observed due to codoping with Ce3+ ions. The photoluminescence studies on singly doped glass under 350 nm excitation showed three peaks at the blue (482 nm), yellow (575 nm), and red (663 nm) region. For codoped glasses, the emission peak at 403 nm is raised due to the 4d to 5f transition of Ce3+ ions. Lifetime values (ms) of co-doped glass is found to be higher than singly doped glass. Under 350 nm excitation, CIE coordinates of the co-doped glasses moved towards the bright white light region. The correlated color temperature (CCT) values were obtained in the range 4500 – 4700 K. Thus, the prepared glasses can be used for photonics device applications.

Keywords: absorption spectra, borosilicate glasses, Ce³+, Dy³+, photoluminescence

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456 Investigation on Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition Metals Doped Zinc Selenide

Authors: S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, H. A. Bentounes, B. Bouadjemi


The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of some transition metals doped ZnSe. Calculations are carried out by varying the doped atoms. Four 3D transition elements were used as a dopant: Cr, Mn, Co and Cu in order to induce spin polarization. Our results show that, Mn and Cu-doped ZnSe could be used in spintronic devices only if additional dopants are introduced, on the contrary, transition elements showing delocalized quality such as Cr, and Co doped ZnSe might be promising candidates for application in spintronic.

Keywords: spin-up, spin-down, magnetic properties, transition metal, composite materials

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455 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner


Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

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454 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed


Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films, nanostructure, gas sensor

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453 Hafnium Doped Zno Nanostructures: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis for Optoelectronic Applications

Authors: Mohamed Achehboune, Mohammed Khenfouch, Issam Boukhoubza, Bakang Mothudi, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been attracting growing interest in recent years; their optical and electrical properties make them useful as attractive and promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study, pure and Hafnium doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using a green processing method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated structural and optical spectroscopies and electrical measurements. The synthesis and chemical composition of pure and Hafnium doped ZnO were confirmed by SEM observation. The XRD studies of Hafnium doped ZnO demonstrate the formation of wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of doped material have improved after the doping process. The experimental results obtained for our material show that Hf doped ZnO nanostructures could be a promising material in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaic cell and light emitting diode devices.

Keywords: green synthesis, hafnium-doped-zinc oxide, nanostructures, optoelectronic

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452 Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor

Authors: S. Manjunatha, M. S. Dharmaprakash


Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.

Keywords: nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
451 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal


We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

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450 Thermoelectric Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Te Doped Cu₃SbSe₄: Promising Thermoelectric Material

Authors: Kriti Tyagi, Bhasker Gahtori


Various groups have attempted on enhancing the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Cu₃SbSe₄ compound by employing doping process. Efforts are made to study the thermoelectric performance of Cu₃SbSe₄ material doped with Te in different compositions (i. e. Cu₃Sb₁₋ₓTeₓSe₄, x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02). The different doping concentration has been selected to identify the suitable doping to increase the thermoelectric performance. Compared to pristine Cu₃SbSe₄, an enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit was achieved for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄. This improvement can be attributed to the reduction of thermal conductivity for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄.

Keywords: figure-of-merit, polycrystalline, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
449 Structure and Optical Properties of Potassium Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Lila A. Alkhattaby, Norah A. Alsayegh, Mohammad S. Ansari, Mohammad O. Ansari


In this work, we doped zinc oxide ZnO with potassium K we have synthesized using the sol-gel method. Structural properties were depicted by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy distribution spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies confirm the nanosized of the particles and favored orientations along the (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (112) planes confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The optical properties study using the UV-Vis spectroscopy. The band gap decreases from 4.05 eV to 3.88 eV, the lowest band gap at 10% doped concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy results show two main peaks, a sharp peak at ≈ 384 nm in the UV region and a broad peak around 479 nm in the visible region. The highest intensity of the band-edge luminescence was for 2% doped concentration because of the combined effect of the decreased probability of nonradiative recombination and has better crystallinity.

Keywords: K doped ZnO, photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy

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448 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang


RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
447 Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Co and Mn Doped CDTE

Authors: A. Zitouni, S. Bentata, B. Bouadjemi, T. Lantri, W. Benstaali, A. Zoubir, S. Cherid, A. Sefir


The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of transition metal Co and Mn doped zinc-blende semiconductor CdTe were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states. We find that the Co and Mn doped zinc blende CdTe show half-metallic behavior with a total magnetic moment of 6.0 and 10.0 µB, respectively.The results obtained, make the Co and Mn doped CdTe a promising candidate for application in spintronics.

Keywords: first-principles, half-metallic, diluted magnetic semiconductor, magnetic moment

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446 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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445 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂

Authors: Sherif Ismail


Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.

Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysis

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444 Doped and Co-doped ZnO Based Nanoparticles and their Photocatalytic and Gas Sensing Property

Authors: Neha Verma, Manik Rakhra


Statement of the Problem: Nowadays, a tremendous increase in population and advanced industrialization augment the problems related to air and water pollutions. Growing industries promoting environmental danger, which is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. For safeguard, the environment, detection of perilous gases and release of colored wastewater is required for eutrophication pollution. Researchers around the globe are trying their best efforts to save the environment. For this remediation advanced oxidation process is used for potential applications. ZnO is an important semiconductor photocatalyst with high photocatalytic and gas sensing activities. For efficient photocatalytic and gas sensing properties, it is necessary to prepare a doped/co-doped ZnO compound to decrease the electron-hole recombination rates. However, lanthanide doped and co-doped metal oxide is seldom studied for photocatalytic and gas sensing applications. The purpose of this study is to describe the best photocatalyst for the photodegradation of dyes and gas sensing properties. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Economical framework has to be used for the synthesis of ZnO. In the depth literature survey, a simple combustion method is utilized for gas sensing and photocatalytic activities. Findings: Rare earth doped and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were the best photocatalysts for photodegradation of organic dyes and different gas sensing applications by varying various factors such as pH, aging time, and different concentrations of doping and codoping metals in ZnO. Complete degradation of dye was observed only in min. Gas sensing nanodevice showed a better response and quick recovery time for doped/co-doped ZnO. Conclusion & Significance: In order to prevent air and water pollution, well crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid and economic method, which is used as photocatalyst for photodegradation of organic dyes and gas sensing applications to sense the release of hazardous gases from the environment.

Keywords: ZnO, photocatalyst, photodegradation of dye, gas sensor

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443 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee


In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: Cr-doped ZnO, ferromagnetic properties, magnetization, sputtering, thin film

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442 Rare Earth Metal Ion-Doped SiO2 Nanocomposite Membranes for Gas Separation in Steam Atmosphere

Authors: Md. Hasan Zahir


Y2O3-doped silica membranes were synthesized with the sol-gel method by using a tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sol mixed with yttrium nitrate hexahydrate. These solutions were used to fabricate hydrogen separation microporous membranes with a sandwich-type structure on γ-Al2O3 supported by tubular α-Al2O3. Pore size distribution measurements were conducted directly on the membranes before and after hydrothermal treatment with a nano-permporometer. The gas permeance properties of the membranes were measured in the temperature range 100–500°C. The Y-doped SiO2 membrane (Si/Y = 3/1) was found to exhibit asymptotically stable permeances of 2.39×10-7 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for He and 6.19 ×10-10 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for CO2, with a high selectivity of 386 (He/CO2) at 500°C for 20 h in the presence of steam. The Y-doped silica membranes exhibit very high gas permeances for molecules with smaller kinetic diameters. The apparent activation energies of the H2 permeance at 400°C were 24.2±0.2 and 21.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 for SiO2 and Si/Y, respectively. Very high permeances were obtained for N2 and O2, 2.2 and 5 × 10-8 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 respectively, which demonstrates that these materials are promising air purification and/or separation systems that block larger impurity molecules by molecular sieving effects. Y-doped SiO2 exhibits greater hydrothermal stability at high temperatures and higher selectivity than SiO2 membranes.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, gas separation, hydrothermal stability, rare earth doped-Silica

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441 Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

Authors: ChoLiang Chung, YuMin Chen


C-doped TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning successfully. Different amounts of carbon were added into the nanofibers by using chitosan, aiming to shift the wave length that is required to excite the photocatalyst from ultraviolet light to visible light. Different amounts of carbon and different atmosphere fibers were calcined at 500oC, and the optical characteristic of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers had been changed. characterizes of nanofibers were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), UV-vis, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD is used to identify the phase composition of nanofibers. The morphology of nanofibers were explored by FE-SEM and AFM. Optical characteristics of absorption were measured by UV-Vis. Three dimension surface images of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers revealed different effects of processing. The results of XRD showed that the phase of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers transformed to rutile phase and anatase phase successfully. The results of AFM showed that the surface morphology of nanofibers became smooth after high temperature treatment. Images from FE-SEM revealed the average size of nanofibers. UV-vis results showed that the band-gap of TiO2 were reduced. Finally, we found out C-doped TiO2 nanofibers can change countenance of nanofiber and make it smoother.

Keywords: carbon, TiO2, chitosan, electrospinning

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440 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Gd Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method

Authors: S. M. AL-Shomar, N. B. Ibrahim, Sahrim Hj. Ahmad


ZnO thin films with various Gd doping concentration (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 mol/L) have been synthesized by sol–gel method on quartz substrates at annealing temperature of 600 ºC. X-ray analysis reveals that ZnO(Gd) films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. No peaks that correspond to Gd metal clusters or gadolinium acetylacetonate are detected in the patterns. The position of the main peak (101) shifts to higher angles after doping. The surface morphologies studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that the grain size and the films thickness reduced gradually with the increment of Gd concentration. The roughness of ZnO film investigated by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the films are smooth and high dense grain. The roughness of doped films decreased from 6.05 to 4.84 rms with the increment of dopant concentration.The optical measurements using a UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that the Gd doped ZnO thin films have high transmittance (above 80%) in the visible range and the optical band gap increase with doping concentration from 3.13 to 3.39 eV. The doped films show low electrical resistivity 2.6 × 10-3Ω high doping concentration.

Keywords: Gd doped ZnO, electric, optics, microstructure

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439 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal


Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films, Electrical conductivity

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438 Studies on H2S Gas Sensing Performance of Al2O3-Doped ZnO Thick Films at Ppb Level

Authors: M. K. Deore


The thick films of undoped and Al2O3 doped- ZnO were prepared by screen printing technique. AR grade (99.9 % pure) Zinc Oxide powder were mixed mechanochemically in acetone medium with Aluminium Chloride (AlCl2) material in various weight percentages such as 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt % to obtain Al2O3 - ZnO composite. The prepared materials were sintered at 1000oC for 12h in air ambience and ball milled to ensure sufficiently fine particle size. The electrical, structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis of pure and doped ZnO shows the polycrystalline nature. The surface morphology of the films was studied by SEM. The final composition of each film was determined by EDAX analysis. The gas response of undoped and Al2O3- doped ZnO films were studied for different gases such as CO, H2, NH3, and H2S at operating temperature ranging from 50 oC to 450 o C. The pure film shows the response to H2S gas (500ppm) at 300oC while the film doped with 3 wt.% Al2O3 gives the good response to H2S gas(ppb) at 350oC. The selectivity, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

Keywords: thick films, ZnO-Al2O3, H2S gas, sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time

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437 Investigation of Physical Properties of W-Doped CeO₂ and Mo-Doped CeO₂: A Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: Aicha Bouhlala, Sabah Chettibi


A systematic investigation on structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Ce₀.₇₅A₀.₂₅O₂ (A = W, Mo) is performed using first-principles calculations within the framework Full-Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation potential has been treated using the generalized gradient approximation (WC-GGA) developed by Wu-Cohen. The host compound CeO2 was doped with transition metal atoms W and Mo in the doping concentration of 25% to replace the Ce atom. In structural properties, the equilibrium lattice constant is observed for the W-doped CeO₂ compound which exists within the value of 5.314 A° and the value of 5.317 A° for Mo-doped CeO2. The present results show that Ce₀.₇₅A₀.₂₅O₂ (A=W, Mo) systems exhibit semiconducting behavior in both spin channels. Although undoped CeO₂ is a non-magnetic semiconductor. The band structure of these doped compounds was plotted and they exhibit direct band gap at the Fermi level (EF) in the majority and minority spin channels. In the magnetic properties, the doped atoms W and Mo play a vital role in increasing the magnetic moments of the supercell and the values of the total magnetic moment are found to be 1.998 μB for Ce₀.₇₅W₀.₂₅O₂ and to be 2.002 μB for Ce₀.₇₅Mo₀.₂₅O₂ compounds. Calculated results indicate that the magneto-electronic properties of the Ce₁₋ₓAₓO₂(A= W, Mo) oxides supply a new way to the experimentalist for the potential applications in spintronics devices.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, DFT, CeO₂, properties

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436 Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching

Authors: Zhemi Xu, Dewei Chu, Sean Li


Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.

Keywords: metal oxides, self-assembly nanoparticles, multi-level resistive switching, multi-layer thin film

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435 Structural and Optical Study of Cu doped ZnS Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: Hamid Merzouk, D. T. Talantikite, H. Haddad, Amel Tounsi


ZnS is an important II-VI binary compound with large band-gap energy at room temperature. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. The depositions are performed by a simple chemical bath deposition route. Structural properties are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical transmittance is investigated by the UV-visible spectroscopy at room temperature.

Keywords: chemical, bath, method, Cu, doped, ZnS, thin, films

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434 Study Of Cu Doped Zns Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: H. Merzouka, D. T. Talantikitea, S. Fettouchib, L. Nessarkb


Recently New nanosized materials studies are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made in design and control fabrication of nano-structured semiconductors such as zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Cu doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and copper acetate as Cu ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuK radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1. The transmittance is more than 70 % is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Cu doping.

Keywords: Cu doped ZnS, nanostructured, thin films, CBD, XRD, FTIR

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433 Insight into the Electrocatalytic Activities of Nitrogen-Doped Graphyne and Graphdiyne Families: A First-Principles Study

Authors: Bikram K. Das, Kalyan K. Chattopadhyay


The advent of 2-D materials in the last decade has induced a fresh spur of growth in fuel cell technology as these materials have some highly promising traits that can be exploited to felicitate Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) in an efficient way. Among the various 2-D carbon materials, graphyne (Gy) and graphdiyne (Gdy)1 with their intrinsic non-uniform charge distribution holds promises in this purpose and it is expected2 that substitutional Nitrogen (N) doping could further enhance their efficiency. In this regard, dispersive force corrected density functional theory is used to map the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics of five different kinds of N doped graphyne and graphdiyne systems (namely αGy, βGy, γGy, RGy and 6,6,12Gy and Gdy) in alkaline medium. The best doping site for each of the Gy/ Gdy system is determined comparing the formation energies of the possible doping configurations. Similarly, the best di-oxygen (O₂) adsorption sites for the doped systems are identified by comparing the adsorption energies. O₂ adsorption on all N doped Gy/ Gdy systems is found to be energetically favorable. ORR on a catalyst surface may occur either via the Eley-Rideal (ER) or the Langmuir–Hinschelwood (LH) pathway. Systematic studies performed on the considered systems reveal that all of them favor the ER pathway. Further, depending on the nature of di-oxygen adsorption ORR can follow either associative or dissociative mechanism; the possibility of occurrence of both the mechanisms is tested thoroughly for each N doped Gy/ Gdy. For the ORR process, all the Gy/Gdy systems are observed to prefer the efficient four-electron pathway but the expected monotonically exothermic reaction pathway is found only for N doped 6,6,12Gy and RGy following the associative pathway and for N doped βGy, γGy and Gdy following the dissociative pathway. Further computation performed for these systems reveals that for N doped 6,6,12Gy, RGy, βGy, γGy and Gdy the overpotentials are 1.08 V, 0.94 V, 1.17 V, 1.21 V and 1.04 V respectively depicting N doped RGy is the most promising material, to carry out ORR in alkaline medium, among the considered ones. The stability of the ORR intermediate states with the variation of pH and electrode potentials is further explored with Pourbiax diagrams and the activities of these systems in the alkaline medium are compared with the prior reported B/N doped identical systems for ORR in an acidic medium in terms of a common descriptor.

Keywords: graphdiyne, graphyne, nitrogen-doped, ORR

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432 Insertion Loss Improvement of a Two-Port Saw Resonator Based on AlN via Alloying with Transition Metals

Authors: Kanouni Fares


This paper describes application of X-doped AlN (X=Sc, Cr and Y) to wideband surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators in 200–300 MHz range. First, it is shown theoretically that Cr doped AlN thin film has the highest piezoelectric strain constant, accompanied by a lowest mechanical softening compared to Sc doped AlScN and Y doped AlN thin films for transition metals concentrations ranging from 0 to 25%. Next, the impact of transition metals (Sc, Cr and Y) concentration have been carried out for the first time, in terms of surface wave velocity, electrode reflectivity, transduction coefficient and distributed finger capacitance. Finely, the insertion loss of two-port SAW resonator based on AlXN (X=Sc, Cr and Y) deposited on sapphire substrate is obtained using P-matrix model, and it is shown that AlCrN-SAW resonator exhibit lower insertion loss compared to those based on AlScN and AlYN for metal concentrations of 25%.This finding may position Cr doped AlN as a prime piezoelectric material for low loss SAW resonators whose performance can be tuned via Cr composition.

Keywords: P-Matrix, SAW-delay line, interdigital transducer, nitride aluminum, metals transition

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431 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao


In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients

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