Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 888

Search results for: un-doped and Ni doped CdZnS Quantum Dots (QDs)

888 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Ni Doped CdZnS

Authors: Sabit Horoz, Ahmet Ekicibil, Omer Sahin, M. Akyol

Abstract:

In this study, CdZnS and Ni-doped CdZnS quantum dots(QDs) were prepared by the wet-chemical method at room temperature using mercaptoethanol as a capping agent. The structural and magnetic properties of the CdZnS and CdZnS doped with different concentrations of Ni QDs were examined by XRD and magnetic susceptibility measurements, respectively. The average particles size of cubic QDs obtained by full-width half maxima (FWHM) analysis, increases with increasing doping concentrations. The investigation of the magnetic properties showed that the Ni-doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, un-doped CdZnS is diamagnetic.

Keywords: un-doped and Ni doped CdZnS Quantum Dots (QDs), co-precipitation method, structural and optical properties of QDs, diluted magnetic semiconductor materials (DMSMs)

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887 Ultrastrong Coupling of CdZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots and Breathing Plasmons in Aluminum Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanocavities in Near-Ultraviolet Spectrum

Authors: Li Li, Lei Wang, Chenglin Du, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Wei Cai, Jingjun Xu

Abstract:

Strong coupling between excitons of quantum dots and plasmons in nanocavites can be realized at room temperature due to the strong confinement of the plasmon fields, which offers building blocks for quantum information systems or ultralow-power switches and lasers. In this work, by using cathodoluminescence, ultrastrong coupling with Rabi splitting above 1 eV between breathing plasmons in Aluminum metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and excited state of CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots was reported in near-UV spectrum. Analytic analysis and full-wave electromagnetic simulations provide the evidence for the strong coupling and confirm the hybridization of the QDs exciton and LSP breathing mode. This study opens the way for new emerging applications based on strongly coupled light-matter states all over the visible region down to ultra-violet frequencies.

Keywords: breathing mode, plasmonics, quantum dot, strong coupling, ultraviolet

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886 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau

Abstract:

Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence

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885 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong

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In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

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884 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner

Abstract:

Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

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883 CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Naphthalene

Authors: Zhengyu Yan, Yan Yu, Jianqiu Chen

Abstract:

A novel sensing system has been designed for naphthalene detection based on the quenched fluorescence signal of CdS quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the system reduced significantly after adding CdS quantum dots to the water pollution model because of the fluorescent static quenching f mechanism. Herein, we have demonstrated the facile methodology can offer a convenient and low analysis cost with the recovery rate as 97.43%-103.2%, which has potential application prospect.

Keywords: CdS quantum dots, modification, detection, naphthalene

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882 Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Undoped and Fe Doped TiO₂ (Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂; X=0.01, 0.02, 0.03) Nanoparticles

Authors: Sudhakar Saroj, Satya Vir Singh

Abstract:

Undoped and Fe doped TiO₂, Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂ (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) have been synthesized by solution combustion method using Titanium (IV) oxide as a precursor, and also were characterized by XRD, DRS, FTIR, XPS, SEM, and EDX. The formation of anatase phase of undoped and Fe TiO₂ nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD, and the average crystallite size was determined by Debye-Scherer's equation. The DRS analysis indicates the shifting of light absorbance in visible region from UV region with increasing the doping concentration in TiO₂. The vibrational band of the Ti-O lattice was confirmed by the FT-IR spectrum. The XPS results confirm the presence of elements of titanium, oxygen and iron in the synthesized samples and determine the binding energy of elements. SEM image of the above-synthesized nanoparticles showed the spherical shape of nanoparticles. The purities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by EDX analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were tested by studying the degradation of dye (Direct Blue 199) in the photocatalytic reactor. The Ti₀.₉₇Fe₀.₀₃O₂ photocatalyst shows highest photodegradation activity among all the synthesized undoped and Fe doped TiO₂ photocatalyst.

Keywords: direct blue 199, nanoparticles, TiO₂, photodegradation

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881 Quantum Dots with Microwave Propagation in Future Quantum Internet Protocol for Mobile Telephony

Authors: A. B. R. Hazarika

Abstract:

In the present paper, Quantum dots of ZnS are used to study the faster microwave propagation in space and on earth which will be difficult to bypass as quantum key encryption-decryption is difficult to decode. The present study deals with Quantum internet protocol which is much faster, safer and secure in microwave propagation than the present Internet Protocol v6, which forms the aspect of our study. Assimilation of hardware, Quantum dots with Quantum protocol theory beautifies the aspect of the study. So far to author’s best knowledge, the study on mobile telephony with Quantum dots long-term evolution (QDLTE) has not been studied earlier, which forms the aspect of the study found that the Bitrate comes out to be 102.4 Gbps.

Keywords: encryption, decryption, internet protocol, microwave, mobile telephony, quantum key encryption, quantum dots

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880 InP/ZnS Core-Shell and InP/ZnS/ZnS Core-Multishell Quantum Dots for Improved luminescence Efficiency

Authors: Imen Harabi, Hanae Toura, Safa Jemai, Bernabe Mari Soucase

Abstract:

A promising alternative to traditional Quantum Dots QD materials, which contain toxic heavy elements such as lead and cadmium, sheds light on indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) Owing to improve the quantum yields of photoluminescence and other properties. InP, InP/ZnS core/shell and InP/ZnS/ZnS core/shell/shell Quantum Dots (QDs) were synthetized by the hot injection method. The optical and structural properties of the core InP QDs, InP/ZnS QDs, and InP/ZnS/ZnS QDs have being considered by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The average diameter of InP, InP/ZnS, and InP/ZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) was varying between 10 nm, 5.4 nm, and 4.10 nm. This experience revealed that the surface morphology of the Quantum Dots has a more regular spherical form with color variation of the QDs in solution. The emission peak of colloidal InP Quantum Dots was around 530 nm, while in InP/ZnS, the emission peak is displayed and located at 598 nm. whilst for InP/ZnS/ZnS is placed at 610 nm. Furthermore, an enhanced PL emission due to a passivation effect in the ZnS-covered InP QDs was obtained. Add the XRD information FWHM of the principal peak of InP QDs was 63 nm, while for InP/ZnS was 41 nm and InP/ZnS/ZnS was 33 nm. The effect of the Zinc stearate precursor concentration on the optical, structural, surface chemical of InP and InP/ZnS and InP/ZnS/ZnS QDs will be discussed.

Keywords: indium phosphide, quantum dot, nanoparticle, core-shell, multishell, luminescence

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879 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: Nour Hassan Ismail, Abdelmonem Nassar, Khaled Baz

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Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper, new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: quantum dots, nano-particles, LSPR

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878 Studies on H2S Gas Sensing Performance of Al2O3-Doped ZnO Thick Films at Ppb Level

Authors: M. K. Deore

Abstract:

The thick films of undoped and Al2O3 doped- ZnO were prepared by screen printing technique. AR grade (99.9 % pure) Zinc Oxide powder were mixed mechanochemically in acetone medium with Aluminium Chloride (AlCl2) material in various weight percentages such as 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt % to obtain Al2O3 - ZnO composite. The prepared materials were sintered at 1000oC for 12h in air ambience and ball milled to ensure sufficiently fine particle size. The electrical, structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis of pure and doped ZnO shows the polycrystalline nature. The surface morphology of the films was studied by SEM. The final composition of each film was determined by EDAX analysis. The gas response of undoped and Al2O3- doped ZnO films were studied for different gases such as CO, H2, NH3, and H2S at operating temperature ranging from 50 oC to 450 o C. The pure film shows the response to H2S gas (500ppm) at 300oC while the film doped with 3 wt.% Al2O3 gives the good response to H2S gas(ppb) at 350oC. The selectivity, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

Keywords: thick films, ZnO-Al2O3, H2S gas, sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time

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877 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: doping, quantum confinement, optical band gap, PbS

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876 Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects

Authors: Defne Akay, Bekir S. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.

Keywords: coulomb impurity, graphene cones, graphene quantum dots, topological defects

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875 Size Distribution Effect of InAs/InP Self–Organized Quantum Dots on Optical Properties

Authors: Abdelkader Nouri, M’hamed Bouslama, Faouzi Saidi, Hassan Maaref, Michel Gendry

Abstract:

Self-organized InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been grown on 3,1% InP (110) lattice mismatched substrate by Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy (SSMBE). Stranski-Krastanov mode growth has been used to create self-assembled 3D islands on InAs wetting layer (WL). The optical quality depending on the temperature and power is evaluated. In addition, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images shows inhomogeneous island dots size distribution due to temperature coalescence. The quantum size effect was clearly observed through the spectra photoluminescence (PL) shape.

Keywords: AFM, InAs QDs, PL, SSMBE

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874 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal

Abstract:

We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

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873 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots

Authors: H. Paredes Gutiérrez, S. T. Pérez-Merchancano

Abstract:

Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.

Keywords: quantum semiconductors, nanostructures, quantum dots, spin polarization

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872 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav

Abstract:

Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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871 Biocompatibility and Sensing Ability of Highly Luminescent Synthesized Core-Shell Quantum Dots

Authors: Mohan Singh Mehata, R. K. Ratnesh

Abstract:

CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm were developed by using chemical route and following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. The prepared QDs have been examined by using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases with respect to the core, indicating that the radiative rate increases by the formation of shell around core, as evident by the measurement of PL lifetime. Further, the PL of bovine serum albumin is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shall QDs and follow the Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among all the QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity hence most biocompatibility.

Keywords: biocompatibility, core-shell quantum dots, photoluminescence and lifetime, sensing ability

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870 Comparison of Pbs/Zns Quantum Dots Synthesis Methods

Authors: Mahbobeh Bozhmehrani, Afshin Farah Bakhsh

Abstract:

Nanoparticles with PbS core of 12 nm and shell of approximately 3 nm were synthesized at PbS:ZnS ratios of 1.01:0.1 using Merca Ptopropionic Acid as stabilizing agent. PbS/ZnS nanoparticles present a dramatically increase of Photoluminescence intensity, confirming the confinement of the PbS core by increasing the Quantum Yield from 0.63 to 0.92 by the addition of the ZnS shell. In this case, the synthesis by microwave method allows obtaining nanoparticles with enhanced optical characteristics than those of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal method.

Keywords: Pbs/Zns, quantum dots, colloidal method, microwave

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869 Electrical and Optical Properties of Polyaniline: Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots Nanocomposites

Authors: Akhtar Rasool, Tasneem Zahra Rizvi

Abstract:

In this study, a series of the cadmium sulphide quantum dots/polyaniline nanocomposites with varying compositions were prepared by in-situ polymerization technique and were characterized using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to find out the energy band gap of the nanoparticles and the nanocomposites. Temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity and temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity were investigated to study the charge transport mechanism in the nanocomposites. DC conductivity was found to be a typical for a semiconducting behavior following Mott’s 1D variable range hoping model. The frequency dependent AC conductivity followed the universal power law.

Keywords: conducting polymers, nanocomposites, polyaniline composites, quantum dots

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868 Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides

Authors: Pavel Kotin, Sergey Dotofeev, Daniil Kozlov, Alexey Garshev

Abstract:

We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.

Keywords: colloidal quantum dots, shape evolution, silver doping, tetrapods

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867 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh

Abstract:

According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: memristor, quantum dot, resistive switching, thin film

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866 White Light Emitting Carbon Dots- Surface Modification of Carbon Dots Using Auxochromes

Authors: Manasa Perikala, Asha Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs), a young member of Carbon nanomaterial family, has gained a lot of research attention across the globe due to its highly luminescent emission properties, non-toxic behavior, stable emission properties, and zero re-absorption lose. These dots have the potential to replace the use of traditional semiconductor quantum dots in light-emitting devices (LED’s, fiber lasers) and other photonic devices (temperature sensor, UV detector). However, One major drawback of Carbon dots is that, till date, the actual mechanism of photoluminescence (PL) in carbon dots is still an open topic of discussion among various researchers across the globe. PL mechanism of CDs based on wide particle size distribution, the effect of surface groups, hybridization in carbon, and charge transfer mechanisms have been proposed. Although these mechanisms explain PL of CDs to an extent, no universally accepted mechanism to explain complete PL behavior of these dots is put forth. In our work, we report parameters affecting the size and surface of CDs, such as time of the reaction, synthesis temperature and concentration of precursors and their effects on the optical properties of the carbon dots. The effect of auxochromes on the emission properties and re-modification of carbon surface using an external surface functionalizing agent is discussed in detail. All the explanations have been supported by UV-Visible absorption, emission spectroscopies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. Once the origin of PL in CDs is understood, parameters affecting PL centers can be modified to tailor the optical properties of these dots, which can enhance their applications in the fabrication of LED’s and other photonic devices out of these carbon dots.

Keywords: carbon dots, photoluminescence, size effects on emission in CDs, surface modification of carbon dots

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865 Analysis of the Contribution of Drude and Brendel Model Terms to the Dielectric Function

Authors: Christopher Mkirema Maghanga, Maurice Mghendi Mwamburi

Abstract:

Parametric modeling provides a means to deeper understand the properties of materials. Drude, Brendel, Lorentz and OJL incorporated in SCOUT® software are some of the models used to study dielectric films. In our work, we utilized Brendel and Drude models to extract the optical constants from spectroscopic data of fabricated undoped and niobium doped titanium oxide thin films. The individual contributions by the two models were studied to establish how they influence the dielectric function. The effect of dopants on their influences was also analyzed. For the undoped films, results indicate minimal contribution from the Drude term due to the dielectric nature of the films. However as doping levels increase, the rise in the concentration of free electrons favors the use of Drude model. Brendel model was confirmed to work well with dielectric films - the undoped titanium Oxide films in our case.

Keywords: modeling, Brendel model, optical constants, titanium oxide, Drude Model

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864 Electronic Spectral Function of Double Quantum Dots–Superconductors Nanoscopic Junction

Authors: Rajendra Kumar

Abstract:

We study the Electronic spectral density of a double coupled quantum dots sandwich between superconducting leads, where one of the superconducting leads (QD1) are connected with left superconductor lead and (QD1) also connected right superconductor lead. (QD1) and (QD2) are coupling to each other. The electronic spectral density through a quantum dots between superconducting leads having s-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Such junction is called superconducting –quantum dot (S-QD-S) junction. For this purpose, we have considered a renormalized Anderson model that includes the double coupled of the superconducting leads with the quantum dots level and an attractive BCS-type effective interaction in superconducting leads. We employed the Green’s function technique to obtain superconducting order parameter with the BCS framework and Ambegaoker-Baratoff formalism to analyze the electronic spectral density through such (S-QD-S) junction. It has been pointed out that electronic spectral density through such a junction is dominated by the attractive the paring interaction in the leads, energy of the level on the dot with respect to Fermi energy and also on the coupling parameter of the two in an essential way. On the basis of numerical analysis we have compared the theoretical results of electronic spectral density with the recent transport existing theoretical analysis. QDs is the charging energy that may give rise to effects based on the interplay of Coulomb repulsion and superconducting correlations. It is, therefore, an interesting question to ask how the discrete level spectrum and the charging energy affect the DC and AC Josephson transport between two superconductors coupled via a QD. In the absence of a bias voltage, a finite DC current can be sustained in such an S-QD-S by the DC Josephson effect.

Keywords: quantum dots, S-QD-S junction, BCS superconductors, Anderson model

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863 In situ One-Step Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots-Metal Free and Zinc Phthalocyanines Conjugates: Investigation of Photophysicochemical Properties

Authors: G. Fomo, O. J. Achadu, T. Nyokong

Abstract:

Nanoconjugates of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and 4-(tetrakis-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-mercaptopyridinephthalocyanine (H₂Pc(OPyF₃)₄) or 4-(tetrakis-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-mercaptopyridinephthalocyaninato) zinc (II) (ZnPc(OPyF₃)₄) were synthesized via a novel in situ one-step route. The bottom-up approach for the prepared conjugates could ensure the intercalation of the phthalocyanines (Pcs) directly onto the edges or surface of the GQDs and or non-covalent coordination using the π-electron systems of both materials. The as-synthesized GQDs and their Pcs conjugates were characterized using different spectroscopic techniques and their photophysicochemical properties evaluated. The singlet oxygen quantum yields of the Pcs in the presence of GQDs were enhanced due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurrence within the conjugated hybrids. Hence, these nanoconjugates are potential materials for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photocatalysis applications.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, metal free fluorinated phthalocyanine, zinc fluorinated phthalocyanine, photophysicochemical properties

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862 Influence of CA, SR and BA Substitution on lafeo3Performances During Chemical Looping Processes

Authors: Rong Sun, Laihong Shen

Abstract:

La-based perovskite oxygen carriers, especially the doped-La(M)FeO₃, showed excellent performances during chemical looping processes. However, the mechanisms of the undoped and doped La(M)FeO₃ are not clear at present, making the mechanisms clear may help the development of chemical looping technologies. In this paper, the method based on the density function theory (DFT) was used to analysis the influence of Ca, Sr, and Ba doping of La on the electronic structure, while the CO oxidation mechanisms on the surface of LaFeO₃ and Ca-doped LaFeO₃ oxygen carriers were also analyzed. The results showed that the band gap was decreased by the doping of low valence. While the doping of low valence element Ca, Sr, and Ba at La site simultaneously resulted to the moving of the valence band toward high energy and made the valence band cross the Fermi energy level. This was resulted from the holes generated by divalent ion substitution. The holes can change the total magnetization from antiferromagnet to weakly ferromagnetism. The calculation results about the formation of oxygen vacancy showed that substitutions of Ca, Sr, and Ba caused a large drop in oxygen vacancy formation energy, indicating that the bulk oxygen transport was improved. Based on the optimized bulk of the undoped and Ca-doped LaFeO₃(010) surface, the CO adsorption was analyzed. The results indicated that the adsorption energy increased by divalent ion substitution, meaning that the adsorption stability decreased. The results can provide a certain theoretical basis for the development of perovskite oxides in chemical looping technologies.

Keywords: chemical looping technologies, lanthanum ferrate (LaFeO₃), divalent ion substitution, CO oxidation

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861 Investigation of Physical Properties of W-Doped CeO₂ and Mo-Doped CeO₂: A Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: Aicha Bouhlala, Sabah Chettibi

Abstract:

A systematic investigation on structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Ce₀.₇₅A₀.₂₅O₂ (A = W, Mo) is performed using first-principles calculations within the framework Full-Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation potential has been treated using the generalized gradient approximation (WC-GGA) developed by Wu-Cohen. The host compound CeO2 was doped with transition metal atoms W and Mo in the doping concentration of 25% to replace the Ce atom. In structural properties, the equilibrium lattice constant is observed for the W-doped CeO₂ compound which exists within the value of 5.314 A° and the value of 5.317 A° for Mo-doped CeO2. The present results show that Ce₀.₇₅A₀.₂₅O₂ (A=W, Mo) systems exhibit semiconducting behavior in both spin channels. Although undoped CeO₂ is a non-magnetic semiconductor. The band structure of these doped compounds was plotted and they exhibit direct band gap at the Fermi level (EF) in the majority and minority spin channels. In the magnetic properties, the doped atoms W and Mo play a vital role in increasing the magnetic moments of the supercell and the values of the total magnetic moment are found to be 1.998 μB for Ce₀.₇₅W₀.₂₅O₂ and to be 2.002 μB for Ce₀.₇₅Mo₀.₂₅O₂ compounds. Calculated results indicate that the magneto-electronic properties of the Ce₁₋ₓAₓO₂(A= W, Mo) oxides supply a new way to the experimentalist for the potential applications in spintronics devices.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, DFT, CeO₂, properties

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860 Bandgap Engineering of CsMAPbI3-xBrx Quantum Dots for Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Deborah Eric, Abbas Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Lead halide perovskites quantum dots have attracted immense scientific and technological interest for successful photovoltaic applications because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties. In this paper, we have simulated CsMAPbI3-xBrx based quantum dots to implement their use in intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). These types of materials exhibit optical and electrical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts due to quantum confinement. The conceptual framework provides a route to analyze the electronic properties of quantum dots. This layer of quantum dots optimizes the position and bandwidth of IB that lies in the forbidden region of the conventional bandgap. A three-dimensional MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) with geometries including spherical, cubic, and conical has been embedded in the CsPbBr3 matrix. Bound energy wavefunction gives rise to miniband, which results in the formation of IB. If there is more than one miniband, then there is a possibility of having more than one IB. The optimization of QD size results in more IBs in the forbidden region. One band time-independent Schrödinger equation using the effective mass approximation with step potential barrier is solved to compute the electronic states. Envelope function approximation with BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition is used in combination with the Schrödinger equation for the calculation of eigen energies and Eigen energies are solved for the quasi-bound states using an eigenvalue study. The transfer matrix method is used to study the quantum tunneling of MAPbI3 QD through neighbor barriers of CsPbI3. Electronic states are computed using Schrödinger equation with effective mass approximation by considering quantum dot and wetting layer assembly. Results have shown the varying the quantum dot size affects the energy pinning of QD. Changes in the ground, first, second state energies have been observed. The QD is non-zero at the center and decays exponentially to zero at boundaries. Quasi-bound states are characterized by envelope functions. It has been observed that conical quantum dots have maximum ground state energy at a small radius. Increasing the wetting layer thickness exhibits energy signatures similar to bulk material for each QD size.

Keywords: perovskite, intermediate bandgap, quantum dots, miniband formation

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859 Elaboration and Characterization of CdxZn1-XS Thin Films Deposed by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Zellagui Rahima, Chaumont Denis, Boughelout Abderrahman, Adnane Mohamed

Abstract:

Thin films of CdxZn1-xS were deposed by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates for photovoltaic applications. The thin films CdZnS were synthesized by chemical bath (CBD) with different deposition protocols for optimized the parameter of deposition as the temperature, time of deposition, concentrations of ion and pH. Surface morphology, optical and chemical composition properties of thin film CdZnS were investigated by SEM, EDAX, spectrophotometer. The transmittance is 80% in visible region 300 nm – 1000 nm; it has been observed in that films the grain size is between 50nm and 100nm measured by SEM image and we also note that the shape of particle is changing with the change in concentration. This result favors of application these films in solar cells; the chemical analysis with EDAX gives information about the presence of Cd, Zn and S elements and investigates the stoichiometry.

Keywords: thin film, solar cells, transmition, cdzns

Procedia PDF Downloads 169