Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1825

Search results for: absorption spectra

1825 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network

Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita

Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: exciton, refractive index change, extinction ratio, GaAs

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1824 An Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study of CoTi Thin Films

Authors: Jose Alberto Duarte Moller, Cynthia Deisy Gomez Esparza

Abstract:

The cobalt-titanium system was grown as thin films in an INTERCOVAMEX V3 sputtering system, equipped with four magnetrons assisted by DC pulsed and direct DC. A polished highly oriented (400) silicon wafer was used as substrate and the growing temperature was 500 oC. Xray Absorption Spectroscopy experiments were carried out in the SSRL in the 4-3 beam line. The Extenden X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra have been numerically processed by WINXAS software from the background subtraction until the normalization and FFT adjustment. Analyzing the absorption spectra of cobalt in the CoTi2 phase we can appreciate that they agree in energy with the reference spectra that corresponds to the CoO, which indicates that the valence where upon working is Co2+. The RDF experimental results were then compared with those RDF´s generated theoretically by using FEFF software, from a model compound of CoTi2 phase obtained by XRD. The fitting procedure is a highly iterative process. Fits are also checked in R-space using both the real and imaginary parts of Fourier transform. Finally, the presence of overlapping coordination shells and the correctness of the assumption about the nature of the coordinating atom were checked.

Keywords: XAS, EXAFS, FEFF, CoTi

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1823 Studies of Substituent and Solvent Effect on Spectroscopic Properties Of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 Coumarin

Authors: Sanjay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper reports the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 coumarin derivatives having -OH, -CH3 and -CF3 substituent at different positions in various solvents (Polar and Non-Polar). The first excited singlet state dipole moment and ground state dipole moment were calculated using Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt-Dimroth equations and were compared for all the coumarin studied. In all cases the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet state than in the ground state indicating a substantial redistribution of Π-electron density in the excited state. The angle between the excited singlet state and ground state dipole moment is also calculated. The red shift of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for all the coumarin studied upon increasing the solvent polarity indicating that the electronic transitions were Π → Π* nature.

Keywords: coumarin, solvent effects, absorption spectra, emission spectra, excited singlet state dipole moment, ground state dipole moment, solvatochromism

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1822 In vivo Spectroscopic Study on the Effects of Ionising and Non-Ionising Radiation on Some Biophysical Properties of Rat Blood

Authors: S. H. Allehyani, H. S. Ibrahim, F. M. Ali, E. Sayd, T. Abou Aiad

Abstract:

The present study aimed to analyse the radiation risk associated with the exposure of haemoglobin (Hb) of rat red blood cells (rbcs) exposed to a 50-Hz 6-kV/m electric field, a fast neutron dose of 1 mSv, and mixed radiation from fast neutrons and an electric field distributed over a period of three weeks at a rate of 5 days/week and 8 hours/day. The dielectric measurements and the absorption spectra for the haemoglobin molecule in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 5 MHz were measured for all of the samples. The dielectric relaxation results demonstrated an increase in the dielectric increment (∆ε) for the rbcs from all of the irradiated animals, which indicates an increase in the electric dipole. Moreover, the results revealed a decrease in the relaxation time (τ) and the molecular radius (r) of the irradiated molecules, which indicates that the increase in ∆ε is mainly due to a pronounced increase in the centre of mass of the charge on the electric dipole of the Hb molecule. The results from the absorption spectra indicate that the ratio of met-haemoglobin to oxy-haemoglobin is altered by irradiation. Moreover, the results from the delayed effect studies show that the structure and function of the newly generated Hb molecules are altered and dissimilar to that of healthy Hb.

Keywords: rat red blood cell haemoglobin, dielectric properties, absorption spectra, biochemical analysis

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1821 Spectroscopic Characterization Approach to Study Ablation Time on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis by Laser Ablation Technique

Authors: Suha I. Al-Nassar, K. M. Adel, F. Zainab

Abstract:

This work was devoted for producing ZnO nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength= 1064 nm, Rep. rate= 10 Hz, Pulse duration= 6 ns and laser energy 50 mJ. Solution of nanoparticles is found stable in the colloidal form for a long time. The effect of ablation time on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has four peaks at 256, 259, 265, 322 nm for ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 sec) respectively, our results show that UV–vis spectra show a blue shift in the presence of CTAB with decrease the ablation time and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also, FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–445cm^−1.

Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, spectroscopic characterization

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1820 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, electrodeposition, optical band gap, optical conductivity, electrical conductivity

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1819 Spectroscopic Studies and Reddish Luminescence Enhancement with the Increase in Concentration of Europium Ions in Oxy-Fluoroborate Glasses

Authors: Mahamuda Sk, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash G.

Abstract:

The different concentrations of Eu3+ ions doped in Oxy-fluoroborate glasses of composition 60 B2O3-10 BaF2-10 CaF2-15 CaF2- (5-x) Al2O3 -x Eu2O3 where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%, have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and are characterized through absorption and photoluminescence (PL), decay, color chromaticity and Confocal measurements. The absorption spectra of all the glasses consists of six peaks corresponding to the transitions 7F0→5D2, 7F0→5D1, 7F1→5D1, 7F1→5D0, 7F0→7F6 and 7F1→7F6 respectively. The experimental oscillator strengths with and without thermal corrections have been evaluated using absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4) have been evaluated from the photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses. PL spectra of all the glasses have been recorded at excitation wavelengths 395 nm (conventional excitation source) and 410 nm (diode laser) to observe the intensity variation in the PL spectra. All the spectra consists of five emission peaks corresponding to the transitions 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4). Surprisingly no concentration quenching is observed on PL spectra. Among all the glasses the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum intensity for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The JO parameters derived from the photoluminescence spectra have been used to evaluate the essential radiative properties such as transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR) and peak stimulated emission cross-section (σse) for the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The decay rates of the 5D0 fluorescent level of Eu3+ ions in the title glasses are found to be single exponential for all the studied Eu3+ ion concentrations. A marginal increase in lifetime of the 5D0 level has been noticed with increase in Eu3+ ion concentration from 0.1 mol% to 2.0 mol%. Among all the glasses, the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum values of branching ratio, stimulated emission cross-section and quantum efficiency for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The color chromaticity coordinates are also evaluated to confirm the reddish luminescence from these glasses. These color coordinates exactly fall in the bright red region. Confocal images also recorded to confirm reddish luminescence from these glasses. From all the obtained results in the present study, it is suggested that the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration is suitable to emit bright red color laser.

Keywords: Europium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, laser, luminescence

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1818 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah

Abstract:

This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial

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1817 Photoluminescent Properties of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Supported Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanoparticles Doped with Cerium (Ⅲ) Ions

Authors: Mitsunobu Iwasaki, Akifumi Iseda

Abstract:

Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium (Ⅲ) ions (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce3+) has attracted a great attention because it can efficiently convert the blue light into a very broad yellow emission band, which produces white light emitting diodes and is applied for panel displays. To improve the brightness and resolution of the display, a considerable attention has been directed to develop fine phosphor particles. We have prepared YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors by environmental-friendly wet process. The peak maximum of absorption spectra of surface plasmon of Ag nanopaticles are close to that of the excitation spectra (460 nm) of YAG:Ce3+. It can be expected that Ag nanoparticles supported onto the surface of YAG:Ce3+ (Ag-YAG:Ce3+) enhance the absorption of Ce3+ ions. In this study, we have prepared Ag-YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors and investigated their photoluminescent properties. YCl3・6H2O and AlCl3・6H2O with a molar ratio of Y:Al=3:5 were dissolved in ethanol (100 ml), and CeCl3•7H2O (0.3 mol%) was further added to the above solution. Then, NaOH (4.6×10-2 mol) dissolved in ethanol (50 ml) was added dropwise to the mixture under reflux over 2 hours, and the solution was further refluxed for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, precipitates in the reaction mixture were heated at 673 K for 1 hour. After the calcination, the particles were immersed in AgNO3 solution for 1 hour, followed by sintering at 1123 K for 1 hour. YAG:Ce3+ were confirmed to be nanocrystals with a crystallite size of 50-80 nm in diameter. Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ were single nanometers in diameter. The excitation and emission spectra were 454 nm and 539 nm at a maximum wavelength, respectively. The emission intensity was maximum for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ immersed into 0.5 mM AgCl (Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)). The absorption maximum (461 nm) was increased for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ in comparison with that for YAG:Ce3+, indicating that the absorption was enhanced by the addition of Ag. The external and internal quantum efficiencies became 11.2 % and 36.9 % for Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM), respectively. The emission intensity and absorption maximum of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)×n (n=1, 2, 3) were increased with an increase of the number of supporting times (n), respectively. The external and internal quantum efficiencies were increased for the increase of n, respectively. The external quantum efficiency of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM) (n=3) became twice as large as that of YAG:Ce. In conclusion, Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ increased absorption and quantum efficiency. Therefore, the support of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photoluminescent properties of YAG:Ce3+.

Keywords: plasmon, quantum efficiency, silver nanoparticles, yttrium aluminum garnet

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1816 Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting

Authors: Hoda Aleali, Nastran Mansour, Maryam Mirzaie

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Z-scan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample.The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.

Keywords: nanoscale materials, silver sulfide nanoparticles, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear scattering, optical limiting

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1815 Normal Coordinate Analysis, Molecular Structure, Vibrational, Electronic Spectra, and NMR Investigation of 4-Amino-3-Phenyl-1H-1,2,4-Triazole-5(4H)-Thione by Ab Initio HF and DFT Method

Authors: Khaled Bahgat

Abstract:

In the present work, the characterization of 4-Amino-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (APTT) molecule was carried out by quantum chemical method and vibrational spectral techniques. The FT-IR (4000–400 cm_1) and FT-Raman (4000–100 cm_1) spectra of APTT were recorded in solid phase. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the APTT was recorded in the range of 200–400 nm. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of APTT in the ground state have been calculated by HF and DFT methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational frequency assignments were made by normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMF). The molecular stability and bond strength were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelength, HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time depended DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of the molecule were calculated using the gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. Finally, the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, FT-Raman and UV spectra of the title compound which shows better agreement with observed spectra.

Keywords: 4-amino-3-phenyl-1H-1, 2, 4-triazole-5(4H)-thione, vibrational assignments, normal coordinate analysis, quantum mechanical calculations

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1814 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah

Abstract:

Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, emission, optical, physical

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1813 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂/RGO Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li

Abstract:

Novel AgInS2/SnS2/RGO (AISR) heterojunctions photocatalysts were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AISR nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AISR photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, laser flash photolysis technique was conducted to test the lifetime of charge carriers of the fabricated nanocomposites. The interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed.

Keywords: AISR heterojunctions, electron-hole pairs, SPV spectra, charges transfer mechanism

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1812 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang

Abstract:

For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: graphene, quantum dot, size, photoluminescence

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1811 Spectroscopic and 1.08mm Laser Properties of Nd3+ Doped Oxy-Fluoro Borate Glasses

Authors: Swapna Koneru, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash Gaddem

Abstract:

The different concentrations of neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) oxy fluoroborate (OFB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded and have been analyzed using Judd–Ofelt theory. The dipole strengths are parameterized in terms of three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) to elucidate the glassy matrix around Nd3+ ion as well as to determine the 4F3/2 metastable state radiative properties such as the transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-section (σa) have been measured for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses exhibit two peaks at 1085 and 1328 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions have been obtained for all the glasses upon 808 nm diode laser excitation in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2.0 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses due to the concentration quenching. The decay curves of all these glasses show single exponential behavior. The spectroscopy of Nd3+ in these glasses is well understood and laser properties can be accurately determined from measured spectroscopic properties. The results obtained are compared with reports on similar glasses. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.08 µm laser applications.

Keywords: glasses, luminescence, optical properties, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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1810 Electronic Structure Studies of Mn Doped La₀.₈Bi₀.₂FeO₃ Multiferroic Thin Film Using Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure

Authors: Ghazala Anjum, Farooq Hussain Bhat, Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Multiferroic materials are vital for new application and memory devices, not only because of the presence of multiple types of domains but also as a result of cross correlation between coexisting forms of magnetic and electrical orders. In spite of wide studies done on multiferroic bulk ceramic materials their realization in thin film form is yet limited due to some crucial problems. During the last few years, special attention has been devoted to synthesis of thin films like of BiFeO₃. As they allow direct integration of the material into the device technology. Therefore owing to the process of exploration of new multiferroic thin films, preparation, and characterization of La₀.₈Bi₀.₂Fe₀.₇Mn₀.₃O₃ (LBFMO3) thin film on LaAlO₃ (LAO) substrate with LaNiO₃ (LNO) being the buffer layer has been done. The fact that all the electrical and magnetic properties are closely related to the electronic structure makes it inevitable to study the electronic structure of system under study. Without the knowledge of this, one may never be sure about the mechanism responsible for different properties exhibited by the thin film. Literature review reveals that studies on change in atomic and the hybridization state in multiferroic samples are still insufficient except few. The technique of x-ray absorption (XAS) has made great strides towards the goal of providing such information. It turns out to be a unique signature to a given material. In this milieu, it is time honoured to have the electronic structure study of the elements present in the LBFMO₃ multiferroic thin film on LAO substrate with buffer layer of LNO synthesized by RF sputtering technique. We report the electronic structure studies of well characterized LBFMO3 multiferroic thin film on LAO substrate with LNO as buffer layer using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Present exploration has been performed to find out the valence state and crystal field symmetry of ions present in the system. NEXAFS data of O K- edge spectra reveals a slight shift in peak position along with growth in intensities of low energy feature. Studies of Mn L₃,₂- edge spectra indicates the presence of Mn³⁺/Mn⁴⁺ network apart from very small contribution from Mn²⁺ ions in the system that substantiates the magnetic properties exhibited by the thin film. Fe L₃,₂- edge spectra along with spectra of reference compound reveals that Fe ions are present in +3 state. Electronic structure and valence state are found to be in accordance with the magnetic properties exhibited by LBFMO/LNO/LAO thin film.

Keywords: magnetic, multiferroic, NEXAFS, x-ray absorption fine structure, XMCD, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

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1809 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li

Abstract:

AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.

Keywords: AIS nanocomposites, electron-hole pairs, charges transfer, DFTcaculations

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1808 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of Visible Light Induced Materials

Authors: M. Muneer, Waseem Raza

Abstract:

Nano-crystalline materials of pure and metal-doped semiconducting materials have been successfully synthesized using sol gel and hydrothermal methods. The prepared materials were characterized by standard analytical techniques, i.e., XRD, SEM, EDX, UV–vis Spectroscopy and FTIR. The (XRD) analysis showed that the obtained particles are present in partial crystalline nature and exhibit no other impurity phase. The EDX and (SEM) images depicted that metals have been successfully loaded on the surface of the semiconductor. FTIR showed an additional absorption band at 910 cm−1, characteristic of absorption band indicating the incorporation of dopant into the lattice in addition to a broad and strong absorption band in the region of 410–580 cm−1 due to metal–O stretching. The UV–vis absorption spectra of synthesized particles indicate that the doping of metals into the lattice shift the absorption band towards the visible region. Thermal analysis, measurement of the synthesized sample showed that the thermal stability of pure semiconducting material is decreased due to increase in dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles was studied by measuring the change in concentration of three different chromophoric dyes as a function of irradiation time. The photocatalytic activity of doped materials were found to increase with increase in dopant concentration.

Keywords: photocatalysis, metal doped semicondcutors, dye degradation, visible light active materials

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1807 Deciphering Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Folic Acid for the Applications of Tissue Engineering and Biofuel Cell

Authors: Sharda Nara, Bansi Dhar Malhotra

Abstract:

Investigation of the vitamins as an electron transfer mediator could significantly assist in merging the area of tissue engineering and electronics required for the implantable therapeutic devices. The present study report that the molecules of folic acid released by Providencia rettgeri via fermentation route under the anoxic condition of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) exhibit characteristic electrochemical and optical properties, as indicated by absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and cyclic voltammetry studies. The absorption spectroscopy has depicted an absorption peak at 263 nm with a small bulge around 293 nm on day two of bacterial culture, whereas an additional peak was observed at 365 nm on the twentieth day. Furthermore, the PL spectra has indicated that the maximum emission occurred at various wavelengths 420, 425, 440, and 445 nm when excited by 310, 325, 350, and 365 nm. The change of emission spectra with varying excitation wavelength might be indicating the presence of tunable optical bands in the folic acid molecules co-related with the redox activity of the molecules. The results of cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation and reduction occurred at 0.25V and 0.12V, respectively, indicating the electrochemical behavior of the folic acid. This could be inferred that the released folic acid molecules in a MFC might undergo inter as well as intra molecular electron transfer forming different intermediate states while transferring electrons to the electrode surface. Synchronization of electrochemical and optical properties of folic acid molecules could be potentially promising for the designing of electroactive scaffold and biocompatible conductive surface for the applications of tissue engineering and biofuel cells, respectively.

Keywords: biofuel cell, electroactivity, folic acid, tissue engineering

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1806 Strong Down-Conversion Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A. Mardhiah

Abstract:

Studies on Samarium doped glasses possess lot of interest due to their potential applications for high-density optical memory, optical communication device, the design of laser and color display etc. Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results of physical properties are found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultra violet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm and 706 nm respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, down-conversion, emission

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1805 Quantitative and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Saponins from Three Kenyan Ruellia Species: Ruellia prostrata, Ruellia lineari-bracteolata and Ruellia bignoniiflora

Authors: Christine O. Wangia, Jennifer A. Orwa, Francis W. Muregi, Patrick G. Kareru, Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Eric Guantai

Abstract:

Ruellia (syn. Dipteracanthus) species are wild perennial creepers belonging to the Acanthaceae family. These species are reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, gastroprotective, anticancer, and immuno-stimulant properties. Phytochemical screening of both aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruellia species revealed the presence of saponins. Saponins have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immuno-stimulant, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and antiulcerogenic activities. The objective of this study was to quantify and analyze the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of saponins in crude extracts of three Kenyan Ruellia species namely Ruellia prostrata (RPM), Ruellia lineari-bracteolata (RLB) and Ruellia bignoniiflora (RBK). Sequential organic extraction of the ground whole plant material was done using petroleum ether (PE), chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and absolute methanol by cold maceration, while aqueous extraction was by hot maceration. The plant powders and extracts were mixed with spectroscopic grade KBr and compressed into a pellet. The infrared spectra were recorded using a Shimadzu FTIR spectrophotometer of 8000 series in the range of 3500 cm-1 - 500 cm-1. Quantitative determination of the saponins was done using standard procedures. Quantitative analysis of saponins showed that RPM had the highest quantity of crude saponins (2.05% ± 0.03), followed by RLB (1.4% ± 0.15) and RBK (1.25% ± 0.11), respectively. FTIR spectra revealed the spectral peaks characteristic for saponins in RPM, RLB, and RBK plant powders, aqueous and methanol extracts; O-H absorption (3265 - 3393 cm-1), C-H absorption ranging from 2851 to 2924 cm-1, C=C absorbance (1628 - 1655 cm-1), oligosaccharide linkage (C-O-C) absorption due to sapogenins (1036 - 1042 cm-1). The crude saponins from RPM, RLB and RBK showed similar peaks to their respective extracts. The presence of the saponins in extracts of RPM, RLB and RBK may be responsible for some of the biological activities reported in the Ruellia species.1

Keywords: Ruellia bignoniiflora, Ruellia linearibracteolata, Ruellia prostrata, Saponins

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1804 Spectral Properties of Commutants of Unbounded Self-Adjoint Operators with Simple Spectra

Authors: Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Shem Aywa

Abstract:

An operator B is a commutant of the unbounded Selfadjoint operator with simple spectra F if FB is an extension of BF. The properties of the commutant are determined by those of the operator F. In this article, we use the spectral decomposition of Self-adjoint Unbounded operators and the structure of the underlying space to determine the nature of the commutants. We have shown that the spectrum of these commutants is a subset of the real number set and also established the effect of the spectral properties of the unbounded Self-adjoint operators with simple spectra to the spectrum of its commutants. Finally, we have shown that the spectral measure of the unbounded Selfadjoint operator with simple spectra is a scalar multiple of that of its commutant.

Keywords: unbounded operators, self-adjoint operators, spectral theorem, operators with simple spectra

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1803 Composition Dependent Spectroscopic Studies of Sm3+-Doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: K. Swapna, Sk. Mahamuda, Ch, Annapurna, A. Srinivasa Rao, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

Samarium ions doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite (AFTT) Glasses have been prepared by using the melt quenching technique and characterized through various spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay spectral studies. From the measured absorption spectra of Sm3+ ions in AFTT glasses, the optical band gap and Urbach energies have been evaluated. The spectroscopic parameters such as oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ωλ), spontaneous emission probability (AR), branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) of various excited levels have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using J-O analysis. A strong luminescence in the reddish-orange spectral region has been observed for all the Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses. It consisting four emission transitions occurring from the 4G5/2metastable state to the lower lying states 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 upon exciting the sample with a 478 nm line of an argon ion laser. The stimulated emission cross-sections (σe) and branching ratios (βmeas) were estimated from the emission spectra for all emission transitions. Correlation of the radiative lifetime with the experimental lifetime measured from the day curves allows us to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared glasses. In order to know the colour emission of the prepared glasses under near UV excitation, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 colour chromaticity diagram. The aforementioned spectral studies carried out on Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses allowed us to conclude that, these glasses are best suited for orange-red visible lasers.

Keywords: fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses, judd-ofelt intensity parameters, lifetime, stimulated emission cross-section

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1802 Spectroscopic Studies of Dy³⁺ Ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite Glasses for Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: K. Swapna

Abstract:

A Series of Alkali-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy³⁺ ions have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and photoluminescence decay to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices such as lasers and white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Raman spectrum recorded for an undoped glass is used to measure the phonon energy of the host glass and various functional groups present in the host glass (AEBT). The intensities of the electronic transitions and the ligand environment around the Dy³⁺ ions were studied by applying Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory to the recorded absorption spectra of the glasses. The evaluated J-O parameters are subsequently used to measure various radiative parameters such as transition probability (AR), radiative branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) for the prominent fluorescent levels of Dy³⁺ ions in the as-prepared glasses. The luminescence spectra recorded at 387 nm excitation show three emission transitions (⁴F9/2→⁶H15/2 (blue), ⁴F9/2→⁶H13/2 (yellow) and ⁴F9/2 → ⁶H11/2 (red)) of which the yellow transition observed at 575 nm is found to be highly intense. The experimental branching ratio (βexp) and stimulated emission crosssection (σse) were measured from luminescence spectra. The experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral profiles are combined with radiative lifetimes to measure quantum efficiencies of the as-prepared glasses. The yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates are found to vary with Dy³⁺ ion concentrations. The aforementioned results reveal that these glasses are aptly suitable for w-LEDs and laser devices.

Keywords: glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence, I-H model

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1801 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo

Abstract:

Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

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1800 Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.

Keywords: FT-NIR, dough, e-nose, proofing, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1799 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: dysprosium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1798 Systematic NIR of Internal Disorder and Quality Detection of Apple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji, Saeed Alzahrani

Abstract:

The importance of fruit quality and freshness is potential in today’s life. Most recent studies show and automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic convener belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300 nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950 nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950 nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics design, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1797 Novel NIR System for Detection of Internal Disorder and Quality of Apple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The importance of fruit quality and freshness is potential in today’s life. Most recent studies show and automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic conveyer belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics design, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1796 New NIR System for Detecting the Internal Disorder and Quality of Apple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The importance of fruit quality and freshness is potential in today’s life. Most recent studies show and automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic conveyer belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics design, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 315