Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Jinsiang Shaw

32 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Flexible Structure for Vibration Suppression Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Shih-Chieh Tseng

Abstract:

Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper use a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to suppress the disturbance. A fuzzy sliding mode controller is developed and applied to this system. Experimental results illustrate that the controller and MFC actuator are very effective in attenuating the structural vibration near the first resonant freuqency. Furthermore, this controller is shown to outperform the traditional skyhook controller, with nearly 90% of the vibration suppressed at the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: Vibration Suppression, skyhook controller, Fuzzy sliding mode controller, macro-fiber-composite actuator

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31 Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Jeng-Jie Huang

Abstract:

Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper employs a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to reject the disturbance. A notch filter with an adaptive tuning algorithm, the leaky filtered-X least mean square algorithm (leaky FXLMS algorithm), is developed and applied to the system. Experimental results show that the controller and MFC actuator was very effective in attenuating the structural vibration. Furthermore, this notch filter controller was compared with the traditional skyhook controller. It was found that its performance was better, with over 88% vibration suppression near the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: Vibration Suppression, notch filter, macro-fiber composite, skyhook controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
30 Specified Human Motion Recognition and Unknown Hand-Held Object Tracking

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Pik-Hoe Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to integrate human recognition, motion recognition, and object tracking technologies without requiring a pre-training database model for motion recognition or the unknown object itself. Furthermore, it can simultaneously track multiple users and multiple objects. Unlike other existing human motion recognition methods, our approach employs a rule-based condition method to determine if a user hand is approaching or departing an object. It uses a background subtraction method to separate the human and object from the background, and employs behavior features to effectively interpret human object-grabbing actions. With an object’s histogram characteristics, we are able to isolate and track it using back projection. Hence, a moving object trajectory can be recorded and the object itself can be located. This particular technique can be used in a camera surveillance system in a shopping area to perform real-time intelligent surveillance, thus preventing theft. Experimental results verify the validity of the developed surveillance algorithm with an accuracy of 83% for shoplifting detection.

Keywords: Automatic Tracking, Back Projection, Motion Recognition, Shoplifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
29 Development of an Autonomous Automated Guided Vehicle with Robot Manipulator under Robot Operation System Architecture

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Sheng-Xiang Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an autonomous automated guided vehicle (AGV) with a robot arm attached on top of it within the framework of robot operation system (ROS). ROS can provide libraries and tools, including hardware abstraction, device drivers, libraries, visualizers, message-passing, package management, etc. For this reason, this AGV can provide automatic navigation and parts transportation and pick-and-place task using robot arm for typical industrial production line use. More specifically, this AGV will be controlled by an on-board host computer running ROS software. Command signals for vehicle and robot arm control and measurement signals from various sensors are transferred to respective microcontrollers. Users can operate the AGV remotely through the TCP / IP protocol and perform SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping). An RGBD camera and LIDAR sensors are installed on the AGV, using these data to perceive the environment. For SLAM, Gmapping is used to construct the environment map by Rao-Blackwellized particle filter; and AMCL method (Adaptive Monte Carlo localization) is employed for mobile robot localization. In addition, current AGV position and orientation can be visualized by ROS toolkit. As for robot navigation and obstacle avoidance, A* for global path planning and dynamic window approach for local planning are implemented. The developed ROS AGV with a robot arm on it has been experimented in the university factory. A 2-D and 3-D map of the factory were successfully constructed by the SLAM method. Base on this map, robot navigation through the factory with and without dynamic obstacles are shown to perform well. Finally, pick-and-place of parts using robot arm and ensuing delivery in the factory by the mobile robot are also accomplished.

Keywords: Navigation, simultaneous localization and mapping, automated guided vehicle, robot operation system

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28 Development of Biotechnological Emulsion Based on Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Lourena M. Veríssimo, Lucas A. Machado, Renata Rutckeviski, Francisco H. Xavier Júnior, Éverton N. Alencar, Andreza R. V. Morais, Teresa R. F. Dantas, Christian M. Oliveira, Arnóbio A. Silva Júnior, Eryvaldo S. T. Egito

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain emulsion systems based on bullfrog oil (BO). The BO was extracted at 80ºC and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The critical Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLBc) Assay of the BO was performed through BO, Tween® 20, Span® 80 and deionized water mixtures using an Ultra-Turrax® and determined using dynamic light scattering, pH, electrical conductivity and creaming rate. Then, a pseudoternary phase diagram (PPD) was constructed by water titration. The GC/MS analysis of BO suggested Methyl Oleate (9.26%) as major compound. The HLBc was 12.1, wherein the correspondent emulsion showed a pH of 4.83±1.29, electrical conductivity of 103.65 µS, creaming rate of 2.51±0.54%, droplet size of 207.07±8.31 nm and polydispersity index of 0.212±0.005. The PPD showed different formulations characterized as O/W emulsions. Thus, the PPD proved to be a useful tool to produce BO emulsions, in which their constituents may vary within the range of the desired system.

Keywords: bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) oil, emulsion production, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis

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27 Radio Based Location Detection

Authors: M. Pallikonda Rajasekaran, J. Joshapath, Abhishek Prasad Shaw

Abstract:

Various techniques has been employed to find location such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and Beidou (compass). This paper currently deals with finding location using the existing FM signals that operates between 88-108 MHz. The location can be determined based on the received signal strength of nearby existing FM stations by mapping the signal strength values using trilateration concept. Thus providing security to users data and maintains eco-friendly environment at zero installation cost as this technology already existing FM stations operating in commercial FM band 88-108 MHZ. Along with the signal strength based trilateration it also finds azimuthal angle of the transmitter by employing directional antenna like Yagi-Uda antenna at the receiver side.

Keywords: Security, Privacy, location, direction, eco-friendly, received signal strength, trilateration, existing FM signals, zero installation cost

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26 Microfluidic Synthesis of Chlorophyll Extraction–Loaded PCL Composite Microparticles Developed as Health Food

Authors: Ching-Ju Hsiao, Mao-Chen Huang, Pei-Fan Chen, Ruo-Yun Chung, Jiun-Hua Chou, Chih-Hui Yang, Keng-Shiang Huang, Jei-Fu Shaw

Abstract:

Chlorophyll has many benefits for human body. It is known to improve the health of the circulatory, digestive, immune and detoxification systems of the body. However, Chl can’t be preserved at the environment of high temperature and light exposure for a long time due to it is chemical structure is easily degradable. This characteristic causes that human body is difficult to absorb Chl effective components. In order to solve this problem, we utilize polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer encapsulation technology to increase the stability of Chl. In particular, we also established a microfluidic platform provide the control of composite beads diameter. The new composite beads is potential to be a health food. Result show that Chl effective components via the microfludic platform can be encapsulated effectively and still preserve its effective components.

Keywords: Microfluidic, chlorophyll, PCL, PVA

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25 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column: Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors, especially when the water being treated had a low DO (such as leachate and high organic content waters), or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Thus, the present project aims to fill a part of this gap in the literature by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the design of an EC reactor (ECR1). In order to investigate the performance of ECR1, water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L, which is equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: Water Treatment, dissolved oxygen, electrocoagulation, flow column

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
24 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Andy Shaw, Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Al Shamma'A Ahmed

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, Microwave, syngas, plasma reactor

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23 Entrepreneurial Determinants Contributing to the Long Term Growth of Young Hi-Technology Start-Ups

Authors: A. Binnui, O. Kalinowska-Beszczynska, G. Shaw

Abstract:

It is postulated that innovative deployment of entrepreneurial activities leads to firm's growth. This paper draws upon the key predictions of the core theories on entrepreneurship and innovation to formulate a conceptual framework which can be used to depict the casual chain of events from which entrepreneurs can manage more innovatively and ultimately deliver higher growth which benefits of the regional and national economies. It examines the key firm-based factors extracted from the theories, namely the characteristics of entrepreneurial hi-tech firms, characteristics of innovating firms, and firm growth dynamics that lead to enhanced economic growth. The framework postulates that the key determinants extracted such as entrepreneurial demographics, firm characteristic, skills and competencies, research and development, product/service characteristics, market development, financial of the firm and internationalization might lead to the survival and long term development of high-technology startups.

Keywords: Growth, determinants, innovative entrepreneurial activities, entrepreneuship, hi-technology start-upws

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22 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola, Rafid Al-Khaddar

Abstract:

In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: Water, electrodes, Iron, electrocoagulation

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21 Online Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Hedonic Shopping Value and Website Quality

Authors: Chechen Liao, Hung Wen Shaw

Abstract:

Recently, online impulse buying has been growing rapidly. It has become a major issue of concern and provided a lot of opportunities for online businesses. This study examines the effect of hedonic shopping values on hedonic motivations, and in turn affecting the urge of impulse buying. The study also explores the effects of website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness on the urge of impulse buying. A total of 459 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that adventure shopping, value shopping, and social shopping have a positive effect on hedonic motivations, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness have a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. The result of this study validates the phenomenon of online impulse buying behavior. This study also suggests that having a good website quality is the most important factor for increasing the likelihood of consumer impulse purchase. The study could serve as a basis for future research regarding online impulse buying behavior.

Keywords: hedonic motivation, website quality, impulse buying, impulsiveness, hedonic shopping value

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20 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: longitudinal, Indian male youth, length dimensions, physical conditioning

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19 Automated Classification of Hypoxia from Fetal Heart Rate Using Advanced Data Models of Intrapartum Cardiotocography

Authors: Andy Shaw, Malarvizhi Selvaraj, Paul Fergus

Abstract:

Uterine contractions produced during labour have the potential to damage the foetus by diminishing the maternal blood flow to the placenta. In order to observe this phenomenon labour and delivery are routinely monitored using cardiotocography monitors. An obstetrician usually makes the diagnosis of foetus hypoxia by interpreting cardiotocography recordings. However, cardiotocography capture and interpretation is time-consuming and subjective, often lead to misclassification that causes damage to the foetus and unnecessary caesarean section. Both of these have a high impact on the foetus and the cost to the national healthcare services. Automatic detection of foetal heart rate may be an objective solution to help to reduce unnecessary medical interventions, as reported in several studies. This paper aim is to provide a system for better identification and interpretation of abnormalities of the fetal heart rate using RStudio. An open dataset of 552 Intrapartum recordings has been filtered with 0.034 Hz filters in an attempt to remove noise while keeping as much of the discriminative data as possible. Features were chosen following an extensive literature review, which concluded with FIGO features such as acceleration, deceleration, mean, variance and standard derivation. The five features were extracted from 552 recordings. Using these features, recordings will be classified either normal or abnormal. If the recording is abnormal, it has got more chances of hypoxia.

Keywords: hypoxia, foetus, intrapartum, cardiotocography

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18 Controlling of Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns -Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 35 0C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-35 0C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 35 0C to the vicinity of 28 0C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.8 0C and from 29.8 to 31.9 0C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 28 0C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 35 0C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water temperature, flow column

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17 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. For instance, the DO oxidises Fe (II) to Fe (III), As (III) to As (V), and cyanide to cyanate and then to ammonia. As well as, removal of nitrogenous compounds accomplishes by the presence of DO. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors especially when the water being treated has low DO (such as leachate and highly polluted waters with organic matter); or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Where, the presence of air bubbles increases the electrical resistance of the EC cell that increase the energy consumption in consequence. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container having a controllable working volume of 0.5 to 1 L. It supplied with a flow column that consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L which equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, electrocoagulation, flow column, aluminium electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
16 Financial Liberalization and Allocation of Bank Credit in Malaysia

Authors: Chow Fah Yee, Eu Chye Tan

Abstract:

The main purpose of developing a modern and sophisticated financial system is to mobilize and allocate the country’s resources for productive uses and in the process contribute to economic growth. Financial liberalization introduced in Malaysia in 1978 was said to be a step towards this goal. According to Mc-Kinnon and Shaw, the deregulation of a country’s financial system will create a more efficient and competitive market driven financial sector; with savings being channelled to the most productive users. This paper aims to assess whether financial liberalization resulted in bank credit being allocated to the more productive users, for the case of Malaysia by: firstly, using Chi-square test to if there exists a relationship between financial liberalization and bank lending in Malaysia. Secondly, to analyze on a comparative basis, the share of loans secured by 9 major economic sectors, using data on bank loans from 1975 to 2003. Lastly, present value analysis and rank correlation was used to determine if the recipients of bigger loans are the more efficient users. Chi-square test confirmed the generally observed trend of an increase in bank credit with the adoption of financial liberalization. While the comparative analysis of loans showed that the bulk of credit were allocated to service sectors, consumer loans and property related sectors, at the expense of industry. Results for rank correlation analysis showed that there is no relationship between the more productive users and amount of loans obtained. This implies that the recipients (sectors) that received more loans were not the more efficient sectors.

Keywords: Economics, financial liberalization, allocation of resources, bank credit

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15 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: treatment, electrocoagulation, water temperature, flow column

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14 Print Media Framing of National Disasters: A Content Analysis of the Daily Graphic and Daily Guide

Authors: Abena Abokoma Asemanyi

Abstract:

The study examined how the National Disasters are framed in the print media: a study of Daily Graphic newspaper in Ghana. The communication theories employed to conduct this study was Agenda Setting Theory by McCombs and Shaw and the Framing theory by Goffman and Entman. The media’s coverage of National Disasters are of much concern to the general public. This research seeks to know how the Daily Graphic framed National Disasters that occurred in January 2015 and June 2015 respectively. The January 2015 National Disasters was termed as Fire Outbreaks while the June 2015 National Disasters was Twin Disasters. A total of 43 disaster news stories were analysed for this study. Out of the total number, 9 headline stories were analysed in the month of January 2015 and 34 headline stories were looked at in the month of June 2015. The study came up with five (5) themes. Through Content Analysis, the study also revealed that the theme of Action featured more than the other themes which are Fear, Violence, Sympathy and Confusion. Finally, the study showed the number of days disaster news headlines lasted in the Daily Graphic during the period stated above. It was revealed that the Fire Outbreaks in January 2015 appeared in the Daily Graphic for 8 days while the Twin Disasters appeared in 16 days in June 2015.

Keywords: Ghana, national disaster framing, daily graphic, daily guide

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13 An Appraisal of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Mental Toughness of Cricketers

Authors: Punam Shaw

Abstract:

Relationship often refers to the acquaintance or association between two or more things, which are interrelated and interdependent. The socio-economic status is obviously a blending of two states, would, therefore, be a ranking of an individual by the society he or she lives in, and in terms of his/her material belonging, cultural possessions along with the degree of respect, power and influence wield. Hence, education, income and occupation of an individual play a significant role in society. Positive mental attitude leads to achieve the set goal, and improve performance particularly in team cohesiveness, which may be determined by various interrelated aspects, which can predict the future assessment in their respective field accordingly. The study intended to examine and explore the relationship between Socio-economic Status and Mental Toughness of cricketers. For the present study descriptive survey research method was used and selected 40 (male=20 female=20) U-17 years registered players under Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB), as the sample population. Modified Socio-Economic Status Scale was used to collect the data regarding players, socioeconomic Status and to assess the mental toughness; Scott Barry Kaufman questionnaire was used. The data had been analysed through applying Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and t-test as statistical techniques. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive correlation between socioeconomic Status and Mental Toughness among cricketers, it was found that significant difference was presented between male and female SES group. It was further revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female cricketers and in their different socioeconomic class with respect to their mental toughness.

Keywords: Relationship, socio-economic status, mental toughness, cricketers

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12 Numerical Investigation on Feasibility of Electromagnetic Wave as Water Hardness Detection in Water Cooling System Industrial

Authors: S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew, K. H. Teng, A. Shaw, M. Ateeq, A. Al-Shamma'a, S. Wylie

Abstract:

Numerical and experimental of using novel electromagnetic wave technique to detect water hardness concentration has been presented in this paper. Simulation is powerful and efficient engineering methods which allow for a quick and accurate prediction of various engineering problems. The RF module is used in this research to predict and design electromagnetic wave propagation and resonance effect of a guided wave to detect water hardness concentration in term of frequency domain, eigenfrequency, and mode analysis. A cylindrical cavity resonator is simulated and designed in the electric field of fundamental mode (TM010). With the finite volume method, the three-dimensional governing equations were discretized. Boundary conditions for the simulation were the cavity materials like aluminum, two ports which include transmitting and receiving port, and assumption of vacuum inside the cavity. The design model was success to simulate a fundamental mode and extract S21 transmission signal within 2.1 – 2.8 GHz regions. The signal spectrum under effect of port selection technique and dielectric properties of different water concentration were studied. It is observed that the linear increment of magnitude in frequency domain when concentration increase. The numerical results were validated closely by the experimentally available data. Hence, conclusion for the available COMSOL simulation package is capable of providing acceptable data for microwave research.

Keywords: frequency domain, electromagnetic wave technique, signal spectrum, water hardness concentration

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11 Use Multiphysics Simulations and Resistive Pulse Sensing to Study the Effect of Metal and Non-Metal Nanoparticles in Different Salt Concentration

Authors: Chun-Lin Chiang, Che-Yen Lee, Yu-Shan Yeh, Jiunn-Haur Shaw

Abstract:

Wafer fabrication is a critical part of the semiconductor process, when the finest linewidth with the improvement of technology continues to decline and the structure development from 2D towards to 3D. The nanoparticles contained in the slurry or in the ultrapure water which used for cleaning have a large influence on the manufacturing process. Therefore, semiconductor industry is hoping to find a viable method for on-line detection the nanoparticles size and concentration. The resistive pulse sensing technology is one of the methods that may cover this question. As we know that nanoparticles properties of material differ significantly from their properties at larger length scales. So, we want to clear that the metal and non-metal nanoparticles translocation dynamic when we use the resistive pulse sensing technology. In this study we try to use the finite element method that contains three governing equations to do multiphysics coupling simulations. The Navier-Stokes equation describes the laminar motion, the Nernst-Planck equation describes the ion transport, and the Poisson equation describes the potential distribution in the flow channel. To explore that the metal nanoparticles and the non-metal nanoparticles in different concentration electrolytes, through the nanochannel caused by ion current changes. Then the reliability of the simulation results was verified by resistive pulse sensing test. The existing results show that the lower ion concentration, the greater effect of nanoparticles on the ion concentration in the nanochannel. The conductive spikes are correlated with nanoparticles surface charge. Then we can be concluded that in the resistive pulse sensing technique, the ion concentration in the nanochannel and nanoparticle properties are important for the translocation dynamic, and they have the interactions.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, nanochannel, multiphysics simulations, resistive pulse sensing

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10 Air Pollution: The Journey from Single Particle Characterization to in vitro Fate

Authors: A. Brown, S. Potgieter-Vermaak, N. Bain, K. Shaw

Abstract:

It is well-known from public news media that air pollution is a health hazard and is responsible for early deaths. The quantification of the relationship between air quality and health is a probing question not easily answered. It is known that airborne particulate matter (APM) <2.5µm deposits in the tracheal and alveoli zones and our research probes the possibility of quantifying pulmonary injury by linking reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these particles to DNA damage. Currently, APM mass concentration is linked to early deaths and limited studies probe the influence of other properties on human health. To predict the full extent and type of impact, particles need to be characterised for chemical composition and structure. APMs are routinely analysed for their bulk composition, but of late analysis on a micro level probing single particle character, using micro-analytical techniques, are considered. The latter, single particle analysis (SPA), permits one to obtain detailed information on chemical character from nano- to micron-sized particles. This paper aims to provide a snapshot of studies using data obtained from chemical characterisation and its link with in-vitro studies to inform on personal health risks. For this purpose, two studies will be compared, namely, the bioaccessibility of the inhalable fraction of urban road dust versus total suspended solids (TSP) collected in the same urban environment. The significant influence of metals such as Cu and Fe in TSP on DNA damage is illustrated. The speciation of Hg (determined by SPA) in different urban environments proved to dictate its bioaccessibility in artificial lung fluids rather than its concentration.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Human Health, Particulate Matter, in-vitro studies

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9 Variability of Covariance of Selected Skeletal Diameters of Female in a Longitudinal Physical Training Programme

Authors: Dhananjoy Shaw, Seema Sharma (Kaushik)

Abstract:

Anthropometry helps in associating the physical properties of an individual with their racial, cultural, and psychological attributes. Numerous research studies have included different skeletal diameters as a variable. However, most of the studies suggest their inclusion describing specific characteristics/traits of the body. However, there seems to be a scarcity of literature related to the effect of any kind of longitudinal physical training on human skeletal diameters. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study the variability of covariance of selected skeletal diameters of females in a longitudinal physical training programme. The sample for the study was 78 college going students of the University of Delhi, classified equally in three groups, i.e. viz. (a) Progressive load of training or conditioning group coded as PLT; (b) Constant load of training or non-conditioning group coded as CLT; and (c) No-load or control or sedentary group coded as NL. Collectively, mean age of the sample was 19.54±1.79 years. The randomly selected samples were given maximum consideration to maintain their homogeneity. The variables included biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, bitrochantaerion diameter, humeral bicondylar, femoral bicondylar, wrist diameter, ankle diameter, and foot breadth. Multi-group repeated measure design was adopted for the experimentation. Each group was measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration. The measurements were taken following the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of co-variance and its post-hoc analysis were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the selected skeletal diameters of females. It also reflected the increase due to growth also along with training.

Keywords: Physical Training, longitudinal, skeletal diameters, step progression load

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8 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Vibration Suppression of a Piezoelectric Actuator Using Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

Authors: Jin-Siang Shaw, Patricia Moya Caceres, Sheng-Xiang Xu

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This paper aims to integrate the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method with the adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller (AFSMC) to achieve vibration attenuation in a piezoelectric actuator subject to base excitation. The piezoelectric actuator is a complicated system made of ferroelectric materials and its performance can be affected by nonlinear hysteresis loop and unknown system parameters and external disturbances. In this study, an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed for the vibration control of the system, because the fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed to tackle the unknown parameters and external disturbance of the system, and the adaptive algorithm is aimed for fine-tuning this controller for error converging purpose. Particle swarm optimization method is used in order to find the optimal controller parameters for the piezoelectric actuator. PSO starts with a population of random possible solutions, called particles. The particles move through the search space with dynamically adjusted speed and direction that change according to their historical behavior, allowing the values of the particles to quickly converge towards the best solutions for the proposed problem. In this paper, an initial set of controller parameters is applied to the piezoelectric actuator which is subject to resonant base excitation with large amplitude vibration. The resulting vibration suppression is about 50%. Then PSO is applied to search for an optimal controller in the neighborhood of this initial controller. The performance of the optimal fuzzy sliding mode controller found by PSO indeed improves up to 97.8% vibration attenuation. Finally, adaptive version of fuzzy sliding mode controller is adopted for further improving vibration suppression. Simulation result verifies the performance of the adaptive controller with 99.98% vibration reduction. Namely the vibration of the piezoelectric actuator subject to resonant base excitation can be completely annihilated using this PSO based adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Piezoelectric Actuator, Vibration Suppression, adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller

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7 New Insights for Soft Skills Development in Vietnamese Business Schools: Defining Essential Soft Skills for Maximizing Graduates’ Career Success

Authors: Hang T. T. Truong, Ronald S. Laura, Kylie Shaw

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Within Vietnam's system of higher education, its schools of business play a vital role in supporting the country’s economic objectives. However, the crucial contribution of soft skills for maximal success within the business sector has to date not been adequately recognized by its business schools. This being so, the development of the business school curriculum in Vietnam has not been able to 'catch up', so to say, with the burgeoning need of students for a comprehensive soft skills program designed to meet the national and global business objectives of their potential employers. The burden of the present paper is first to reveal the results of our survey in Vietnam which make explicit the extent to which major Vietnamese industrial employers’ value the potential role that soft skill competencies can play in maximizing business success. Our final task will be to determine which soft skills employers discern as best serving to maximize the economic interests of Vietnam within the global marketplace. Semi-structured telephone interviews have been conducted with the 15 representative Head Employers of Vietnam's reputedly largest and most successful of the diverse business enterprises across Vietnam. The findings of the study indicate that all respondents highly value the increasing importance of soft skills in business success. Our critical analysis of respondent data reveals that 19 essential soft skills are deemed by employers as integral to business workplace efficacy and should thus be integrated into the formal business curriculum. We are confident that our study represents the first comprehensive and specific survey yet undertaken within the business sector in Vietnam which accesses and analyses the opinions of representative employers from major companies across the country in regard to the growing importance of 19 specific soft skills essential for maximizing overall business success. Our research findings also reveal that the integration into business school curriculums nationwide of the soft skills we have identified is of paramount importance to advance the national and global economic interests of Vietnam.

Keywords: soft skills, business curriculum, business graduates, employers’ perception

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6 Percentile Norms of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) of Indian Sportspersons Withdrawn from Competitive Games and Sports

Authors: Pawan Kumar, Dhananjoy Shaw

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Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats and is alterable with fitness, age and different medical conditions including withdrawal/retirement from games/sports. Objectives of the study were to develop (a) percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from time domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (b) percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from frequency domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The study was conducted on 430 males. Ages of the sample ranged from 30 to 35 years of same socio-economic status. Date was collected using ECG polygraphs. Data were processed and extracted using frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis. Collected data were computed with percentile from one to hundred. The finding showed that the percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from time domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity namely, NN50 count (ranged from 1 to 189 score as percentile range). pNN50 count (ranged from .24 to 60.80 score as percentile range). SDNN (ranged from 17.34 to 167.29 score as percentile range). SDSD (ranged from 11.14 to 120.46 score as percentile range). RMMSD (ranged from 11.19 to 120.24 score as percentile range) and SDANN (ranged from 4.02 to 88.75 score as percentile range). The percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from frequency domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity namely Low Frequency (Normalized Power) ranged from 20.68 to 90.49 score as percentile range. High Frequency (Normalized Power) ranged from 14.37 to 81.60 score as percentile range. LF/ HF ratio(ranged from 0.26 to 9.52 score as percentile range). LF (Absolute Power) ranged from 146.79 to 5669.33 score as percentile range. HF (Absolute Power) ranged from 102.85 to 10735.71 score as percentile range and Total Power (Absolute Power) ranged from 471.45 to 25879.23 score as percentile range. Conclusion: The analysis documented percentile norms for time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis for versatile use and evaluation.

Keywords: RMSSD, Percentile, SDANN

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5 A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Lung Impact on Ballistic Thoracic Trauma

Authors: Amy Pullen, Samantha Rodrigues, David Kieser, Brian Shaw

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The aim of the study was to determine if a projectile interacting with the lungs increases the severity of injury in comparison to a projectile interacting with the ribs or intercostal muscle. This comparative study employed a 10% gelatine based model with either porcine ribs or balloons embedded to represent a lung. Four sample groups containing five samples were evaluated; these were control (plain gel), intercostal impact, rib impact, and lung impact. Two ammunition natures were evaluated at a range of 10m; these were 5.56x45mm and 7.62x51mm. Aspects of projectile behavior were quantified including exiting projectile weight, location of yawing, projectile fragmentation and distribution, location and area of the temporary cavity, permanent cavity formation, and overall energy deposition. Major findings included the cavity showing a higher percentage of the projectile weight exit the block than the intercostal and ribs, but similar to the control for the 5.56mm ammunition. However, for the 7.62mm ammunition, the lung was shown to have a higher percentage of the projectile weight exit the block than the control, intercostal and ribs. The total weight of projectile fragments as a function of penetration depth revealed large fluctuations and significant intra-group variation for both ammunition natures. Despite the lack of a clear trend, both plots show that the lung leads to greater projectile fragments exiting the model. The lung was shown to have a later center of the temporary cavity than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. It was also shown to have a similar temporary cavity volume to the control, intercostal and ribs for the 5.56mm ammunition and a similar temporary cavity to the intercostal for the 7.62mm ammunition The lung was shown to leave a similar projectile tract than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. It was also shown to have larger shear planes than the control and the intercostal, but similar to the ribs for the 5.56mm ammunition, whereas it was shown to have smaller shear planes than the control but similar shear planes to the intercostal and ribs for the 7.62mm ammunition. The lung was shown to have less energy deposited than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. This comparative study provides insights into the influence of the lungs on thoracic gunshot trauma. It indicates that the lungs limits projectile deformation and causes a later onset of yawing and subsequently limits the energy deposited along the wound tract creating a deeper and smaller cavity. This suggests that lung impact creates an altered pattern of local energy deposition within the target which will affect the severity of trauma.

Keywords: Trauma, Lung, Ballistics, wounding

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4 Using Fractal Architectures for Enhancing the Thermal-Fluid Transport

Authors: Debjyoti Banerjee, Surupa Shaw

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Enhancing heat transfer in compact volumes is a challenge when constrained by cost issues, especially those associated with requirements for minimizing pumping power consumption. This is particularly acute for electronic chip cooling applications. Technological advancements in microelectronics have led to development of chip architectures that involve increased power consumption. As a consequence packaging, technologies are saddled with needs for higher rates of power dissipation in smaller form factors. The increasing circuit density, higher heat flux values for dissipation and the significant decrease in the size of the electronic devices are posing thermal management challenges that need to be addressed with a better design of the cooling system. Maximizing surface area for heat exchanging surfaces (e.g., extended surfaces or “fins”) can enable dissipation of higher levels of heat flux. Fractal structures have been shown to maximize surface area in compact volumes. Self-replicating structures at multiple length scales are called “Fractals” (i.e., objects with fractional dimensions; unlike regular geometric objects, such as spheres or cubes whose volumes and surface area values scale as integer values of the length scale dimensions). Fractal structures are expected to provide an appropriate technology solution to meet these challenges for enhanced heat transfer in the microelectronic devices by maximizing surface area available for heat exchanging fluids within compact volumes. In this study, the effect of different fractal micro-channel architectures and flow structures on the enhancement of transport phenomena in heat exchangers is explored by parametric variation of fractal dimension. This study proposes a model that would enable cost-effective solutions for thermal-fluid transport for energy applications. The objective of this study is to ascertain the sensitivity of various parameters (such as heat flux and pressure gradient as well as pumping power) to variation in fractal dimension. The role of the fractal parameters will be instrumental in establishing the most effective design for the optimum cooling of microelectronic devices. This can help establish the requirement of minimal pumping power for enhancement of heat transfer during cooling. Results obtained in this study show that the proposed models for fractal architectures of microchannels significantly enhanced heat transfer due to augmentation of surface area in the branching networks of varying length-scales.

Keywords: Fractals, Microelectronics, Heat Transfer Enhancement, constructal theory, pumping power enhancement

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3 Exploring the Neural Correlates of Different Interaction Types: A Hyperscanning Investigation Using the Pattern Game

Authors: Beata Spilakova, Daniel J. Shaw, Radek Marecek, Milan Brazdil

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Hyperscanning affords a unique insight into the brain dynamics underlying human interaction by simultaneously scanning two or more individuals’ brain responses while they engage in dyadic exchange. This provides an opportunity to observe dynamic brain activations in all individuals participating in interaction, and possible interbrain effects among them. The present research aims to provide an experimental paradigm for hyperscanning research capable of delineating among different forms of interaction. Specifically, the goal was to distinguish between two dimensions: (1) interaction structure (concurrent vs. turn-based) and (2) goal structure (competition vs cooperation). Dual-fMRI was used to scan 22 pairs of participants - each pair matched on gender, age, education and handedness - as they played the Pattern Game. In this simple interactive task, one player attempts to recreate a pattern of tokens while the second player must either help (cooperation) or prevent the first achieving the pattern (competition). Each pair played the game iteratively, alternating their roles every round. The game was played in two consecutive sessions: first the players took sequential turns (turn-based), but in the second session they placed their tokens concurrently (concurrent). Conventional general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed activations throughout a diffuse collection of brain regions: The cooperative condition engaged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC); in the competitive condition, significant activations were observed in frontal and prefrontal areas, insula cortices and the thalamus. Comparisons between the turn-based and concurrent conditions revealed greater precuneus engagement in the former. Interestingly, mPFC, PCC and insulae are linked repeatedly to social cognitive processes. Similarly, the thalamus is often associated with a cognitive empathy, thus its activation may reflect the need to predict the opponent’s upcoming moves. Frontal and prefrontal activation most likely represent the higher attentional and executive demands of the concurrent condition, whereby subjects must simultaneously observe their co-player and place his own tokens accordingly. The activation of precuneus in the turn-based condition may be linked to self-other distinction processes. Finally, by performing intra-pair correlations of brain responses we demonstrate condition-specific patterns of brain-to-brain coupling in mPFC and PCC. Moreover, the degree of synchronicity in these neural signals related to performance on the game. The present results, then, show that different types of interaction recruit different brain systems implicated in social cognition, and the degree of inter-player synchrony within these brain systems is related to nature of the social interaction.

Keywords: Social Interaction, brain-to-brain coupling, hyperscanning, pattern game

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