Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5186

Search results for: zero installation cost

5186 Predicting Blockchain Technology Installation Cost in Supply Chain System through Supervised Learning

Authors: Hossein Havaeji, Tony Wong, Thien-My Dao

Abstract:

1. Research Problems and Research Objectives: Blockchain Technology-enabled Supply Chain System (BT-enabled SCS) is the system using BT to drive SCS transparency, security, durability, and process integrity as SCS data is not always visible, available, or trusted. The costs of operating BT in the SCS are a common problem in several organizations. The costs must be estimated as they can impact existing cost control strategies. To account for system and deployment costs, it is necessary to overcome the following hurdle. The problem is that the costs of developing and running a BT in SCS are not yet clear in most cases. Many industries aiming to use BT have special attention to the importance of BT installation cost which has a direct impact on the total costs of SCS. Predicting BT installation cost in SCS may help managers decide whether BT is to be an economic advantage. The purpose of the research is to identify some main BT installation cost components in SCS needed for deeper cost analysis. We then identify and categorize the main groups of cost components in more detail to utilize them in the prediction process. The second objective is to determine the suitable Supervised Learning technique in order to predict the costs of developing and running BT in SCS in a particular case study. The last aim is to investigate how the running BT cost can be involved in the total cost of SCS. 2. Work Performed: Applied successfully in various fields, Supervised Learning is a method to set the data frame, treat the data, and train/practice the method sort. It is a learning model directed to make predictions of an outcome measurement based on a set of unforeseen input data. The following steps must be conducted to search for the objectives of our subject. The first step is to make a literature review to identify the different cost components of BT installation in SCS. Based on the literature review, we should choose some Supervised Learning methods which are suitable for BT installation cost prediction in SCS. According to the literature review, some Supervised Learning algorithms which provide us with a powerful tool to classify BT installation components and predict BT installation cost are the Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithm, Back Propagation (BP) neural network, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Choosing a case study to feed data into the models comes into the third step. Finally, we will propose the best predictive performance to find the minimum BT installation costs in SCS. 3. Expected Results and Conclusion: This study tends to propose a cost prediction of BT installation in SCS with the help of Supervised Learning algorithms. At first attempt, we will select a case study in the field of BT-enabled SCS, and then use some Supervised Learning algorithms to predict BT installation cost in SCS. We continue to find the best predictive performance for developing and running BT in SCS. Finally, the paper will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: blockchain technology, blockchain technology-enabled supply chain system, installation cost, supervised learning

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5185 Optimized Techniques for Reducing the Reactive Power Generation in Offshore Wind Farms in India

Authors: Pardhasaradhi Gudla, Imanual A.

Abstract:

The generated electrical power in offshore needs to be transmitted to grid which is located in onshore by using subsea cables. Long subsea cables produce reactive power, which should be compensated in order to limit transmission losses, to optimize the transmission capacity, and to keep the grid voltage within the safe operational limits. Installation cost of wind farm includes the structure design cost and electrical system cost. India has targeted to achieve 175GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 including offshore wind power generation. Due to sea depth is more in India, the installation cost will be further high when compared to European countries where offshore wind energy is already generating successfully. So innovations are required to reduce the offshore wind power project cost. This paper presents the optimized techniques to reduce the installation cost of offshore wind firm with respect to electrical transmission systems. This technical paper provides the techniques for increasing the current carrying capacity of subsea cable by decreasing the reactive power generation (capacitance effect) of the subsea cable. There are many methods for reactive power compensation in wind power plants so far in execution. The main reason for the need of reactive power compensation is capacitance effect of subsea cable. So if we diminish the cable capacitance of cable then the requirement of the reactive power compensation will be reduced or optimized by avoiding the intermediate substation at midpoint of the transmission network.

Keywords: offshore wind power, optimized techniques, power system, sub sea cable

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5184 Effectiveness of ATMS (Advanced Transport Management Systems) in Asuncion, Paraguay

Authors: Sung Ho Oh

Abstract:

The advanced traffic lights, the system of traffic information collection and provision, the CCTVs for traffic control, and the traffic information center were installed in Asuncion, capital of Paraguay. After pre-post comparison of the installation, significant changes were found. Even though the traffic volumes were increased, travel speed was higher, so that travel time from origin to destination was decreased. the saving values for travel time, gas cost, and environmental cost are about 47 million US dollars per year. Satisfaction survey results for the installation were presented with statistical significance analysis.

Keywords: advanced transport management systems, effectiveness, Paraguay, traffic lights

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
5183 Comparison of Fuel Cell Installation Methods at Large Commercial and Industrial Sites

Authors: Masood Sattari

Abstract:

Using fuel cell technology to generate electricity for large commercial and industrial sites is a growing segment in the fuel cell industry. The installation of these systems involves design, permitting, procurement of long-lead electrical equipment, and construction involving multiple utilities. The installation of each fuel cell system requires the same amount of coordination as the construction of a new structure requiring a foundation, gas, water, and electricity. Each of these components provide variables that can delay and possibly eliminate a new project. As the manufacturing process and efficiency of fuel cell systems improves, so must the installation methods to prevent a ‘bottle-neck’ in the installation phase of the deployment. Installation methodologies to install the systems vary among companies and this paper will examine the methodologies, describe the benefits and drawbacks for each, and provide guideline for the industry to improve overall installation efficiency.

Keywords: construction, installation, methodology, procurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
5182 Modelling the Impact of Installation of Heat Cost Allocators in District Heating Systems Using Machine Learning

Authors: Danica Maljkovic, Igor Balen, Bojana Dalbelo Basic

Abstract:

Following the regulation of EU Directive on Energy Efficiency, specifically Article 9, individual metering in district heating systems has to be introduced by the end of 2016. These directions have been implemented in member state’s legal framework, Croatia is one of these states. The directive allows installation of both heat metering devices and heat cost allocators. Mainly due to bad communication and PR, the general public false image was created that the heat cost allocators are devices that save energy. Although this notion is wrong, the aim of this work is to develop a model that would precisely express the influence of installation heat cost allocators on potential energy savings in each unit within multifamily buildings. At the same time, in recent years, a science of machine learning has gain larger application in various fields, as it is proven to give good results in cases where large amounts of data are to be processed with an aim to recognize a pattern and correlation of each of the relevant parameter as well as in the cases where the problem is too complex for a human intelligence to solve. A special method of machine learning, decision tree method, has proven an accuracy of over 92% in prediction general building consumption. In this paper, a machine learning algorithms will be used to isolate the sole impact of installation of heat cost allocators on a single building in multifamily houses connected to district heating systems. Special emphasises will be given regression analysis, logistic regression, support vector machines, decision trees and random forest method.

Keywords: district heating, heat cost allocator, energy efficiency, machine learning, decision tree model, regression analysis, logistic regression, support vector machines, decision trees and random forest method

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
5181 Optimal Type and Installation Time of Wind Farm in a Power System, Considering Service Providers

Authors: M. H. Abedi, A. Jalilvand

Abstract:

The economic development benefits of wind energy may be the most tangible basis for the local and state officials’ interests. In addition to the direct salaries associated with building and operating wind projects, the wind energy industry provides indirect jobs and benefits. The optimal planning of a wind farm is one most important topic in renewable energy technology. Many methods have been implemented to optimize the cost and output benefit of wind farms, but the contribution of this paper is mentioning different types of service providers and also time of installation of wind turbines during planning horizon years. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the problem. It is observed that an appropriate layout of wind farm can cause to minimize the different types of cost.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind farm, optimization, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
5180 Radio Based Location Detection

Authors: M. Pallikonda Rajasekaran, J. Joshapath, Abhishek Prasad Shaw

Abstract:

Various techniques has been employed to find location such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and Beidou (compass). This paper currently deals with finding location using the existing FM signals that operates between 88-108 MHz. The location can be determined based on the received signal strength of nearby existing FM stations by mapping the signal strength values using trilateration concept. Thus providing security to users data and maintains eco-friendly environment at zero installation cost as this technology already existing FM stations operating in commercial FM band 88-108 MHZ. Along with the signal strength based trilateration it also finds azimuthal angle of the transmitter by employing directional antenna like Yagi-Uda antenna at the receiver side.

Keywords: location, existing FM signals, received signal strength, trilateration, security, eco-friendly, direction, privacy, zero installation cost

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5179 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Kwang-Woo Nam

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: CCTV, safe city, crime prevention, spatial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
5178 Modern Technologies and Equipment for Modular-Aggregate Installation of Shipborne Equipment

Authors: A. O. Mikhailov, N. I. Gerasimov, K. N. Morozov, I. V. Grachev

Abstract:

The most advanced method of onboard equipment installation on the world shipbuilding practice is modular method, or modularization. The main idea of this is assembly of equipment, pipelines and hull structures in so called assembly units yet at the shopfloor. Those assembly units are thereafter loaded and installed inside the ship's hull. This allows to reduce labour intensiveness and significantly improve assembly quality, due to the fact that a good part of installation work is performed in the shops, instead of restricted onboard premises. Also, this method allows performing equipment installation at very early stages of hull erection. This practice is widely spread in naval submarines building. However, in merchant shipbuilding, equipment is installed mostly individually. To implement modular principles of equipment installation in designing and construction of civil ships and marine rigs, some new technologies are being developed in the following areas. The paper contains main principles and already achieved results in the above mentioned areas.

Keywords: assembly and installation technology, onboard equipment installation, large-scale assembly units, modular method

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5177 Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

Authors: Govindaraj Ramanathan

Abstract:

The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Keywords: construction management, delay, non-chronological approach, composite beam, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
5176 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

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5175 Effect of Type of Pile and Its Installation Method on Pile Bearing Capacity by Physical Modelling in Frustum Confining Vessel

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, M. Mortezaee

Abstract:

Various factors such as the method of installation, the pile type, the pile material and the pile shape, can affect the final bearing capacity of a pile executed in the soil; among them, the method of installation is of special importance. The physical modeling is among the best options in the laboratory study of the piles behavior. Therefore, the current paper first presents and reviews the frustum confining vesel (FCV) as a suitable tool for physical modeling of deep foundations. Then, by describing the loading tests of two open-ended and closed-end steel piles, each of which has been performed in two methods, “with displacement" and "without displacement", the effect of end conditions and installation method on the final bearing capacity of the pile is investigated. The soil used in the current paper is silty sand of Firoozkooh. The results of the experiments show that in general the without displacement installation method has a larger bearing capacity in both piles, and in a specific method of installation the closed ended pile shows a slightly higher bearing capacity.

Keywords: physical modeling, frustum confining vessel, pile, bearing capacity, installation method

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5174 Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines

Authors: Rafael Martins Manzano Silva, Jean-Francois Tremong

Abstract:

Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation (tons.km). For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.

Keywords: electrification, hybrid, railway, storage

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5173 A Sectional Control Method to Decrease the Accumulated Survey Error of Tunnel Installation Control Network

Authors: Yinggang Guo, Zongchun Li

Abstract:

In order to decrease the accumulated survey error of tunnel installation control network of particle accelerator, a sectional control method is proposed. Firstly, the accumulation rule of positional error with the length of the control network is obtained by simulation calculation according to the shape of the tunnel installation-control-network. Then, the RMS of horizontal positional precision of tunnel backbone control network is taken as the threshold. When the accumulated error is bigger than the threshold, the tunnel installation control network should be divided into subsections reasonably. On each segment, the middle survey station is taken as the datum for independent adjustment calculation. Finally, by taking the backbone control points as faint datums, the weighted partial parameters adjustment is performed with the adjustment results of each segment and the coordinates of backbone control points. The subsections are jointed and unified into the global coordinate system in the adjustment process. An installation control network of the linac with a length of 1.6 km is simulated. The RMS of positional deviation of the proposed method is 2.583 mm, and the RMS of the difference of positional deviation between adjacent points reaches 0.035 mm. Experimental results show that the proposed sectional control method can not only effectively decrease the accumulated survey error but also guarantee the relative positional precision of the installation control network. So it can be applied in the data processing of tunnel installation control networks, especially for large particle accelerators.

Keywords: alignment, tunnel installation control network, accumulated survey error, sectional control method, datum

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5172 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

Abstract:

The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

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5171 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

Abstract:

In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

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5170 Predictability of Pupil Mydriasis as a Biomarker for Diabetes

Authors: Naveen Kumar Challa, Pavan Verıkıcherla, Madhubalan, Ashısh Sharma

Abstract:

Aim: Aim of the study was to find whether any difference exists in pupil mydriasis measured with Orbscan in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients at various intervals after installation of Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. Methods: the Observational study conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital during September 2014 to March 2015. 240 eyes from 120 patients (40 non-diabetic, 80 diabetic) were dilated with Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. One drop of a drug was installed twice. The second drop is installed at 20 minutes after installation of the first drop. In two groups’ pupil diameter was measured before installation of drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of the first drop using both Orbscan. Result: Mean age of the non-diabetic group is 48.67 ± 7.93 years; Diabetic group is 59.97 ± 8.77 years. Mean duration of Diabetes was 7.01 ± 5.05 years. Mean pupil diameter measured with Orbscan before installation of the drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of first drop in non-diabetic group was 4.18 ± 0.64mm, 6.15 ± 0.41mm, 7.76 ±0.34, 9.59 ± 0.30, and 9.97 ± 0.10 mm respectively and for the diabetic group it was 4.00 ± 0.56 mm, 5.53 ± 0.52 mm, 7.018 ± 0.58mm, 8.25±0.51mm and 9.18 ± 0.46mm respectively. The mean difference between the mean pupil diameters of the non-diabetic and diabetic group shows a significant difference (P< 0.01) at all intervals except before dilatation. There is a significant negative correlation (r = 0.78 – 0.92) between the duration of diabetes and pupil dilatation at all intervals after installation of the drops. There is also significant difference (P< 0.005) in the mean values of pupil diameter between non retinopathy diabetic subjects and diabetic retinopathy subjects at all intervals after installation of drops. Conclusion: People attending eye clinic, whose pupil mydriasis values falls below the normal may be referred for diabetic evaluation. If normative data is established for the pupil size in Indian population using Orbscan then the values fall under normative data could be a predictor for diabetes. This would in turn help ophthalmologist to detect the diabetes at an early stage and prevent the complications resulting from the diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pupil diameter, orbscan, tropicamide

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5169 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
5168 A Review of the Factors Causing Cost Overrun in Construction Projects in Malaysia

Authors: Kaleem Ullah, Abd Halid Bin Abdullah

Abstract:

This study examines previous literature on cost overrun in construction projects with the specific aim of determining the frequently observed causes of cost overruns in Malaysian construction projects. Cost overrun is one of the major problems in construction projects. Cost overrun is frequently observed in almost every construction projects. This cost overrun in construction projects occurs due to various reasons and many researchers have carried out various studies to identify the cause factors of this issue. The causes of construction cost overrun could vary from country to country because of the difference in political, economic, social and environmental conditions. Likewise, other countries construction projects in Malaysia have also the issue of cost overrun. The concept of cost overrun in construction projects has attracted much attention in recent years and researches are trying to understand the causes of these overruns and their effects to the construction industry as whole. This paper review various research studies carried out in Malaysia which surveyed the cost performance and cause factors of cost overruns in construction projects in Malaysia.

Keywords: cause of cost overrun, cost overrun, construction industry in Malaysia, effects of cost overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
5167 Life-Cycle Cost and Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems (PV/T) in Swedish Single-Family Houses

Authors: Arefeh Hesaraki

Abstract:

The application of photovoltaic-thermal hybrids (PVT), which delivers both electricity and heat simultaneously from the same system, has become more popular during the past few years. This study addresses techno-economic and environmental impacts assessment of photovoltaic/thermal systems combined with a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) for three single-family houses located in Stockholm, Sweden. Three case studies were: (1) A renovated building built in 1936, (2) A renovated building built in 1973, and (3) A new building built-in 2013. Two simulation programs of SimaPro 9.1 and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.8 (IDA ICE) were applied to analyze environmental impacts and energy usage, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of the system was evaluated using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted payback time (DPBT) methods. In addition to cost payback time, the studied PVT system was evaluated using the energy payback time (EPBT) method. EPBT presents the time that is needed for the installed system to generate the same amount of energy which was utilized during the whole lifecycle (fabrication, installation, transportation, and end-of-life) of the system itself. Energy calculation by IDA ICE showed that a 5 m² PVT was sufficient to create a balance between the maximum heat production and the domestic hot water consumption during the summer months for all three case studies. The techno-economic analysis revealed that combining a 5 m² PVT with GSHP in the second case study possess the smallest DPBT and the highest NPV and IRR among the three case studies. It means that DPBTs (IRR) were 10.8 years (6%), 12.6 years (4%), and 13.8 years (3%) for the second, first, and the third case study, respectively. Moreover, environmental assessment of embodied energy during cradle- to- grave life cycle of the studied PVT, including fabrication, delivery of energy and raw materials, manufacture process, installation, transportation, operation phase, and end of life, revealed approximately two years of EPBT in all cases.

Keywords: life-cycle cost, life-cycle assessment, photovoltaic/thermal, IDA ICE, net present value

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5166 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5165 Construction Time - Cost Trade-Off Analysis Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, G. C. S. Reddy

Abstract:

Time and cost are the two critical objectives of construction project management and are not independent but intricately related. Trade-off between project duration and cost are extensively discussed during project scheduling because of practical relevance. Generally when the project duration is compressed, the project calls for an increase in labor and more productive equipments, which increases the cost. Thus, the construction time-cost optimization is defined as a process to identify suitable construction activities for speeding up to attain the best possible savings in both time and cost. As there is hidden tradeoff relationship between project time and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of compressing the schedule. Different combinations of duration and cost for the activities associated with the project determine the best set in the time-cost optimization. Therefore, the contractors need to select the best combination of time and cost to perform each activity, all of which will ultimately determine the project duration and cost. In this paper, the fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainties in the project environment for time-cost trade off analysis.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, qualitative factors, decision making

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5164 Highway Lighting of the 21st Century is Smart, but is it Cost Efficient?

Authors: Saurabh Gupta, Vanshdeep Parmar, Sri Harsha Reddy Yelly, Michele Baker, Elizabeth Bigler, Kunhee Choi

Abstract:

It is known that the adoption of solar powered LED highway lighting systems or sensory LED highway lighting systems can dramatically reduce energy consumption by 55 percent when compared to conventional on-grid High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps that are widely applied to most highways. However, an initial high installation cost for building the infrastructure of solar photovoltaic devices hampers a wider adoption of such technologies. This research aims to examine currently available state-of-the-art solar photovoltaic and sensory technologies, identify major obstacles, and analyze each technology to create a benchmarking metrics from the benefit-cost analysis perspective. The on-grid HPS lighting systems will serve as the baseline for this study to compare it with other lighting alternatives such as solar and sensory LED lighting systems. This research will test the validity of the research hypothesis that alternative LED lighting systems produce more favorable benefit-cost ratios and the added initial investment costs are recouped by the savings in the operation and maintenance cost. The payback period of the excess investment and projected savings over the life-cycle of the selected lighting systems will be analyzed by utilizing the concept of Net Present Value (NPV). Researchers believe that if this study validates the research hypothesis, it can promote a wider adoption of alternative lighting systems that will eventually save millions of taxpayer dollars in the long-run.

Keywords: lighting systems, sensory and solar PV, benefit cost analysis, net present value

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
5163 Performance Analysis of Air-Tunnel Heat Exchanger Integrated into Raft Foundation

Authors: Chien-Yeh Hsu, Yuan-Ching Chiang, Zi-Jie Chien, Sih-Li Chen

Abstract:

In this study, a field experiment and performance analysis of air-tunnel heat exchanger integrated with water-filled raft foundation of residential building were performed. In order to obtain better performance, conventional applications of air-tunnel inevitably have high initial cost or issues about insufficient installation space. To improve the feasibility of air tunnel heat exchanger in high-density housing, an integrated system consisting of air pipes immersed in the water-filled raft foundation was presented, taking advantage of immense amount of water and relatively stable temperature in raft foundation of building. The foundation-integrated air tunnel was applied to a residential building located in Yilan, Taiwan, and its thermal performance was measured in the field experiment. The results indicated that the cooling potential of integrated system was close to the potential of soil-based EAHE at 2 m depth or deeper. An analytical model based on thermal resistance method was validated by measurement results, and was used to carry out the dimensioning of foundation-integrated air tunnel. The discrepancies between calculated value and measured data were less than 2.7%. In addition, the return-on-investment with regard to thermal performance and economics of the application was evaluated. Because the installation for air tunnel is scheduled in the building foundation construction, the utilization of integrated system spends less construction cost compare to the conventional earth-air tunnel.

Keywords: air tunnel, ground heat exchanger, raft foundation, residential building

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5162 Early Installation Effect on the Machines’ Generated Vibration

Authors: Maitham Al-Safwani

Abstract:

Motor vibration issues were analyzed by several studies. It is generally accepted that vibration issues result from poor equipment installation. We had a water injection pump tested in the factory and exceeded the pump the vibration limit. Once the pump was brought to the site, its half-size shim plates were replaced with full-size shims plates that drastically reduced the vibration. In this study, vibration data was recorded for several similar motors run at the same and different speeds. The vibration values were recorded -for two and a half hours- and the vibration readings were analyzed to determine when the readings became consistent. This was as well supported by recording the audio noises produced by some machines seeking a relationship between changes in machine noises and machine abnormalities, such as vibration.

Keywords: vibration, noise, installation, machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
5161 A Prediction of Electrical Cost for High-Rise Building Construction

Authors: Picha Sriprachan

Abstract:

The increase in electricity prices affects the cost of high-rise building construction. The objectives of this research are to study the electrical cost, trend of electrical cost and to forecast electrical cost of high-rise building construction. The methods of this research are: 1) to study electrical payment formats, cost data collection methods, and the factors affecting electrical cost of high-rise building construction, 2) to study the quantity and trend of cumulative percentage of the electrical cost, and 3) to forecast the electrical cost for different types of high-rise buildings. The results of this research show that the average proportion between electrical cost and the value of the construction project is 0.87 percent. The proportion of electrical cost for residential, office and commercial, and hotel buildings are closely proportional. If construction project value increases, the proportion of electrical cost and the value of the construction project will decrease. However, there is a relationship between the amount of electrical cost and the value of the construction project. During the structural construction phase, the amount of electrical cost will increase and during structural and architectural construction phase, electrical cost will be maximum. The cumulative percentage of the electrical cost is related to the cumulative percentage of the high-rise building construction cost in the same direction. The amount of service space of the building, number of floors and the duration of the construction affect the electrical cost of construction. The electrical cost of construction forecasted by using linear regression equation is close to the electrical cost forecasted by using the proportion of electrical cost and value of the project.

Keywords: high-rise building construction, electrical cost, construction phase, architectural phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
5160 Cost Overrun Causes in Public Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni

Abstract:

This study is conducted to identify causes of cost deviations in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia from contractors’ perspective. 41 factors that might affect cost estimating accuracy were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The factors were tabulated in a questionnaire form and a field survey included 51 contractors from the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia was performed. The results show that the top five important causes are: wrong estimation method, long period between design and time of implementation, cost of labor, cost of machinary and absence of construction-cost data.

Keywords: cost deviation, public construction, cost estimating, Saudi Arabia, contractors

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
5159 Application Case and Result Consideration About Basic and Working Design of Floating PV Generation System Installed in the Upstream of Dam

Authors: Jang-Hwan Yin, Hae-Jeong Jeong, Hyo-Geun Jeong

Abstract:

K-water (Korea Water Resources Corporation) conducted basic and working design about floating PV generation system installed above water in the upstream of dam to develop clean energy using water with importance of green growth is magnified ecumenically. PV Generation System on the ground applied considerably until now raise environmental damage by using farmland and forest land, PV generation system on the building roof is already installed at almost the whole place of business and additional installation is almost impossible. Installation space of PV generation system is infinite and efficient national land use is possible because it is installed above water. Also, PV module's efficiency increase by natural water cooling method and no shade. So it is identified that annual power generation is more than PV generation system on the ground by operating performance data. Although it is difficult to design and construct by high cost, little application case, difficult installation of floater, mooring device, underwater cable, etc. However, it has been examined cost reduction plan such as structure weight lightening, floater optimal design, etc. This thesis described basic and working design result systematically about K-water's floating PV generation system development and suggested optimal design method of floating PV generation system. Main contents are photovoltaic array location select, substation location select related underwater cable, PV module and inverter design, transmission and substation equipment design, floater design related structure weight lightening, mooring system design related water level fluctuation, grid connecting technical review, remote control and monitor equipment design, etc. This thesis will contribute to optimal design and business extension of floating PV generation system, and it will be opportunity revitalize clean energy development using water.

Keywords: PV generation system, clean energy, green growth, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
5158 A Building Structure Health Monitoring DeviceBased on Cost Effective 1-Axis Accelerometers

Authors: Chih Hsing Lin, Wen-Ching Chen, Ssu-Ying Chen, Chih-Chyau Yang, Chien-Ming Wu, Chun-Ming Huang

Abstract:

Critical structures such as buildings, bridges and dams require periodic inspections to ensure safe operation. The reliable inspection of structures can be achieved by combing temperature sensor and accelerometers. In this work, we propose a building structure health monitoring device (BSHMD) with using three 1-axis accelerometers, gateway, analog to digital converter (ADC), and data logger to monitoring the building structure. The proposed BSHMD achieves the features of low cost by using three 1-axis accelerometers with the data synchronization problem being solved, and easily installation and removal. Furthermore, we develop a packet acquisition program to receive the sensed data and then classify it based on time and date. Compared with 3-axis accelerometer, our proposed 1-axis accelerometers based device achieves 64.3% cost saving. Compared with previous structural monitoring device, the BSHMD achieves 89% area saving. Therefore, with using the proposed device, the realtime diagnosis system for building damage monitoring can be conducted effectively.

Keywords: building structure health monitoring, cost effective, 1-axis accelerometers, real-time diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
5157 Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge

Authors: L. M. Chinh

Abstract:

Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.

Keywords: SHM system, design and installation, Vam Cong bridge, construction stage, acoustic emission method (AE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 161