Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1495

Search results for: Back Projection

1495 Resistivity Tomography Optimization Based on Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection Algorithm

Authors: Yiwei Huang, Chunyu Zhao, Jingjing Ding


Electrical Resistivity Tomography has been widely used in the medicine and the geology, such as the imaging of the lung impedance and the analysis of the soil impedance, etc. Linear Back Projection is the core algorithm of Electrical Resistivity Tomography, but the traditional Linear Back Projection can not make full use of the information of the electric field. In this paper, an imaging method of Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection for Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed, which generates the electric field distribution that is not linearly related to the traditional Linear Back Projection, captures the new information and improves the imaging accuracy without increasing the number of electrodes by changing the connection mode of the electrodes. The simulation results show that the accuracy of the image obtained by the inverse operation obtained by the Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection can be improved by about 20%.

Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography, finite element simulation, image optimization, parallel electrode linear back projection

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1494 Improvement of Cross Range Resolution in Through Wall Radar Imaging Using Bilateral Backprojection

Authors: Rashmi Yadawad, Disha Narayanan, Ravi Gautam


Through Wall Radar Imaging is gaining increasing importance now a days in the field of Defense and one of the most important criteria that forms the basis for the image quality obtained is the Cross-Range resolution of the image. In this research paper, the Bilateral Back projection algorithm has been implemented for Through Wall Radar Imaging. The sole purpose is to enhance the resolution in the cross range direction of the obtained Back projection image. Synthetic Data is generated for two targets which are placed at various locations in a room of dimensions 8 m by 6m. Two algorithms namely, simple back projection and Bilateral Back projection have been implemented, images are obtained and the obtained images are compared. Numerical simulations have been coded in MATLAB and experimental results of the two algorithms have been shown. Based on the comparison between the two images, it can be clearly seen that the ringing effect and chess board effect have been heavily reduced in the bilaterally back projected image and hence promising results are obtained giving a relatively sharper image with relatively well defined edges.

Keywords: through wall radar imaging, bilateral back projection, cross range resolution, synthetic data

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1493 Comparison of Back-Projection with Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform for Real-Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: Moung Young Lee, Chul Gyu Song


Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging and ultrasound. This provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, respectively. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer and digital acquisition (DAQ) board. There are two types of algorithm for reconstructing the photoacoustic signal. One is back-projection algorithm, the other is FFT algorithm. Especially, we used the non-uniform FFT algorithm. To evaluate the performance of our system and algorithms, we monitored two wires that stands at interval of 2.89 mm and 0.87 mm. Then, we compared the images reconstructed by algorithms. Finally, we monitored the two hairs crossed and compared between these algorithms.

Keywords: back-projection, image comparison, non-uniform FFT, photoacoustic tomography

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1492 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song


The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

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1491 Specified Human Motion Recognition and Unknown Hand-Held Object Tracking

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Pik-Hoe Chen


This paper aims to integrate human recognition, motion recognition, and object tracking technologies without requiring a pre-training database model for motion recognition or the unknown object itself. Furthermore, it can simultaneously track multiple users and multiple objects. Unlike other existing human motion recognition methods, our approach employs a rule-based condition method to determine if a user hand is approaching or departing an object. It uses a background subtraction method to separate the human and object from the background, and employs behavior features to effectively interpret human object-grabbing actions. With an object’s histogram characteristics, we are able to isolate and track it using back projection. Hence, a moving object trajectory can be recorded and the object itself can be located. This particular technique can be used in a camera surveillance system in a shopping area to perform real-time intelligent surveillance, thus preventing theft. Experimental results verify the validity of the developed surveillance algorithm with an accuracy of 83% for shoplifting detection.

Keywords: Automatic Tracking, Back Projection, Motion Recognition, Shoplifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1490 A Simulation Tool for Projection Mapping Based on Mapbox and Unity

Authors: Noriko Hanakawa, Masaki Obana


A simulation tool has been proposed for big-scale projection mapping events. The tool has four main functions based on Mapbox and Unity utilities. The first function is building a 3D model of real cities by MapBox. The second function is a movie projection to some buildings in real cities by Unity. The third function is a movie sending function from a PC to a virtual projector. The fourth function is mapping movies with fitting buildings. The simulation tool was adapted to a real projection mapping event that was held in 2019. The event has been finished. The event had a serious problem in the movie projection to the target building. The extra tents were set in front of the target building. The tents became the obstacles to the movie projection. The simulation tool can be reappeared the problems of the event. Therefore, if the simulation tool was developed before the 2019 projection mapping event, the problem of the tents’ obstacles could be avoided with the simulation tool. In addition, we confirmed that the simulation tool is useful to make a plan of future projection mapping events in order to avoid obstacles of various extra equipment such as utility poles, planting trees, monument towers.

Keywords: projection mapping, projector position, real 3D map, avoiding obstacles

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1489 Influence of Replacement used Reference Coordinate System for Georeferencing of the Old Map of Europe

Authors: Jakub Havlicek, Jiri Cajthaml


The article describes the effect of the replacement of the used reference coordinate system in the georeferencing of an old map of Europe. In particular, it was the map entitled “Europe, the Map of Rivers and Mountains on a 1 : 12 000 000 Scale”, elaborated by professor D. Cipera and Dr. J. Metelka for Otto’s Geographic Atlas of 1924. The work was most likely produced using the equal-area conic (Albers) projection. The map was georeferenced into three types of projection – the equal-area conic, cylindrical Plate Carrée and cylindrical Mercator map projection. The map was georeferenced by means of the affine and the second-order polynomial transformation. The resulting georeferenced raster datasets from the Plate Carrée and Mercator projection were projected into the equal-area conic projection by means of projection equations. The output is the comparison of drawn graphics, the magnitude of standard deviations for individual projections and types of transformation.

Keywords: georeferencing, reference coordinate system, transformation, standard deviation

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1488 Enhanced Thai Character Recognition with Histogram Projection Feature Extraction

Authors: Benjawan Rangsikamol, Chutimet Srinilta


This research paper deals with extraction of Thai character features using the proposed histogram projection so as to improve the recognition performance. The process starts with transformation of image files into binary files before thinning. After character thinning, the skeletons are entered into the proposed extraction using histogram projection (horizontal and vertical) to extract unique features which are inputs of the subsequent recognition step. The recognition rate with the proposed extraction technique is as high as 97 percent since the technique works very well with the idiosyncrasies of Thai characters.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, multilayer perceptron, Thai character features extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1487 Three-Level Converters Back-To-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Benamrane, B. Bezza, Aeh Benkhelifa, A. Borni


This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

Keywords: back-to-back connection, feedback control, neutral-point balance, three-level converter, torque ripple

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1486 The Complete Modal Derivatives

Authors: Sebastian Andersen, Peter N. Poulsen


The use of basis projection in the structural dynamic analysis is frequently applied. The purpose of the method is to improve the computational efficiency, while maintaining a high solution accuracy, by projection the governing equations onto a small set of carefully selected basis vectors. The present work considers basis projection in kinematic nonlinear systems with a focus on two widely used basis vectors; the system mode shapes and their modal derivatives. Particularly the latter basis vectors are given special attention since only approximate modal derivatives have been used until now. In the present work the complete modal derivatives, derived from perturbation methods, are presented and compared to the previously applied approximate modal derivatives. The correctness of the complete modal derivatives is illustrated by use of an example of a harmonically loaded kinematic nonlinear structure modeled by beam elements.

Keywords: basis projection, finite element method, kinematic nonlinearities, modal derivatives

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1485 Imaging of Underground Targets with an Improved Back-Projection Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Akbari, Gelareh Babaee Khou


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an important nondestructive remote sensing tool that has been used in both military and civilian fields. Recently, GPR imaging has attracted lots of attention in detection of subsurface shallow small targets such as landmines and unexploded ordnance and also imaging behind the wall for security applications. For the monostatic arrangement in the space-time GPR image, a single point target appears as a hyperbolic curve because of the different trip times of the EM wave when the radar moves along a synthetic aperture and collects reflectivity of the subsurface targets. With this hyperbolic curve, the resolution along the synthetic aperture direction shows undesired low resolution features owing to the tails of hyperbola. However, highly accurate information about the size, electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity, and depth of the buried objects is essential in most GPR applications. Therefore hyperbolic curve behavior in the space-time GPR image is often willing to be transformed to a focused pattern showing the object's true location and size together with its EM scattering. The common goal in a typical GPR image is to display the information of the spatial location and the reflectivity of an underground object. Therefore, the main challenge of GPR imaging technique is to devise an image reconstruction algorithm that provides high resolution and good suppression of strong artifacts and noise. In this paper, at first, the standard back-projection (BP) algorithm that was adapted to GPR imaging applications used for the image reconstruction. The standard BP algorithm was limited with against strong noise and a lot of artifacts, which have adverse effects on the following work like detection targets. Thus, an improved BP is based on cross-correlation between the receiving signals proposed for decreasing noises and suppression artifacts. To improve the quality of the results of proposed BP imaging algorithm, a weight factor was designed for each point in region imaging. Compared to a standard BP algorithm scheme, the improved algorithm produces images of higher quality and resolution. This proposed improved BP algorithm was applied on the simulation and the real GPR data and the results showed that the proposed improved BP imaging algorithm has a superior suppression artifacts and produces images with high quality and resolution. In order to quantitatively describe the imaging results on the effect of artifact suppression, focusing parameter was evaluated.

Keywords: algorithm, back-projection, GPR, remote sensing

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1484 Studying Projection Distance and Flow Properties by Shape Variations of Foam Monitor

Authors: Hyun-Kyu Cho, Jun-Su Kim, Choon-Geun Huh, Geon Lee Young-Chul Park


In this study, the relationship between flow properties and fluid projection distance look into connection for shape variations of foam monitor. A numerical analysis technique for fluid analysis of a foam monitor was developed for the prediction. Shape of foam monitor the flow path of fluid flow according to the shape, The fluid losses were calculated from flow analysis result.. The modified model used the length increase model of the flow path, and straight line of the model. Inlet pressure was 7 [bar] and external was atmosphere codition. am. The results showed that the length increase model of the flow path and straight line of the model was improved in the nozzle projection distance.

Keywords: injection performance, finite element method, foam monitor, Projection distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
1483 Improved Structure and Performance by Shape Change of Foam Monitor

Authors: Tae Gwan Kim, Hyun Kyu Cho, Young Hoon Lee, Young Chul Park


Foam monitors are devices that are installed on cargo tank decks to suppress cargo area fires in oil tankers or hazardous chemical ship cargo ships. In general, the main design parameter of the foam monitor is the distance of the projection through the foam monitor. In this study, the relationship between flow characteristics and projection distance, depending on the shape was examined. Numerical techniques for fluid analysis of foam monitors have been developed for prediction. The flow pattern of the fluid varies depending on the shape of the flow path of the foam monitor, as the flow losses affecting projection distance were calculated through numerical analysis. The basic shape of the foam monitor was an L shape designed by N Company. The modified model increased the length of the flow path and used the S shape model. The calculation result shows that the L shape, which is the basic shape, has a problem that the force is directed to one side and the vibration and noise are generated there. In order to solve the problem, S-shaped model, which is a change model, was used. As a result, the problem is solved, and the projection distance from the nozzle is improved.

Keywords: CFD, foam monitor, projection distance, moment

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1482 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du


Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers

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1481 Non-Invasive Imaging of Human Tissue Using NIR Light

Authors: Ashwani Kumar


Use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function.

Keywords: NIR light, tissue, blurring, Monte Carlo simulation

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1480 Settlement Analysis of Back-To-Back Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

Authors: Akhila Palat, B. Umashankar


Back-to-back Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are cost-effective soil-retaining structures that can tolerate large settlements compared to conventional gravity retaining walls. They are also an economical way to meet everyday earth retention needs for highway and bridge grade separations, railroads, commercial and residential developments. But, existing design guidelines (FHWA/BS/ IS codes) do not provide a mechanistic approach for the design of back-to-back reinforced retaining walls. The settlement analysis of such structures is limited in the literature. A better understanding of the deformations of this wall system requires an analytical tool that incorporates the properties of backfill material, foundation soil, and geosynthetic reinforcement, and account for the soil–structure interactions in a realistic manner. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reinforced back-to-back MSE walls on wall settlements and facing deformations. Back-to-back reinforced retaining walls were modeled and compared using commercially available finite difference package FLAC 2D. Parametric studies were carried out for various angles of shearing resistance of backfill material and foundation soil, and the axial stiffness of the reinforcement. A 6m-high wall was modeled, and the facing panels were taken as full-length panels with nominal thickness. Reinforcement was modeled as cable elements (two-dimensional structural elements). Interfaces were considered between soil and wall, and soil and reinforcement.

Keywords: back-to-back walls, numerical modeling, reinforced wall, settlement

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1479 Video Object Segmentation for Automatic Image Annotation of Ethernet Connectors with Environment Mapping and 3D Projection

Authors: Marrone Silverio Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner, Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok


The creation of a dataset is time-consuming and often discourages researchers from pursuing their goals. To overcome this problem, we present and discuss two solutions adopted for the automation of this process. Both optimize valuable user time and resources and support video object segmentation with object tracking and 3D projection. In our scenario, we acquire images from a moving robotic arm and, for each approach, generate distinct annotated datasets. We evaluated the precision of the annotations by comparing these with a manually annotated dataset, as well as the efficiency in the context of detection and classification problems. For detection support, we used YOLO and obtained for the projection dataset an F1-Score, accuracy, and mAP values of 0.846, 0.924, and 0.875, respectively. Concerning the tracking dataset, we achieved an F1-Score of 0.861, an accuracy of 0.932, whereas mAP reached 0.894. In order to evaluate the quality of the annotated images used for classification problems, we employed deep learning architectures. We adopted metrics accuracy and F1-Score, for VGG, DenseNet, MobileNet, Inception, and ResNet. The VGG architecture outperformed the others for both projection and tracking datasets. It reached an accuracy and F1-score of 0.997 and 0.993, respectively. Similarly, for the tracking dataset, it achieved an accuracy of 0.991 and an F1-Score of 0.981.

Keywords: RJ45, automatic annotation, object tracking, 3D projection

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1478 The Effect of the Acquisition and Reconstruction Parameters in Quality of Spect Tomographic Images with Attenuation and Scatter Correction

Authors: N. Boutaghane, F. Z. Tounsi


Many physical and technological factors degrade the SPECT images, both qualitatively and quantitatively. For this, it is not always put into leading technological advances to improve the performance of tomographic gamma camera in terms of detection, collimation, reconstruction and correction of tomographic images methods. We have to master firstly the choice of various acquisition and reconstruction parameters, accessible to clinical cases and using the attenuation and scatter correction methods to always optimize quality image and minimized to the maximum dose received by the patient. In this work, an evaluation of qualitative and quantitative tomographic images is performed based on the acquisition parameters (counts per projection) and reconstruction parameters (filter type, associated cutoff frequency). In addition, methods for correcting physical effects such as attenuation and scatter degrading the image quality and preventing precise quantitative of the reconstructed slices are also presented. Two approaches of attenuation and scatter correction are implemented: the attenuation correction by CHANG method with a filtered back projection reconstruction algorithm and scatter correction by the subtraction JASZCZAK method. Our results are considered as such recommandation, which permits to determine the origin of the different artifacts observed both in quality control tests and in clinical images.

Keywords: attenuation, scatter, reconstruction filter, image quality, acquisition and reconstruction parameters, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1477 Immediate Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerves Stimulation on Flexibility and Health Status in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (A Pilot Study)

Authors: Narupon Kunbootsri, Patpiya Sirasaporn


Low back pain is the most common of chief complaints in chronic pain. Low back pain directly affect to activities daily living and also has high socioeconomic costs. The prevalence of low back pain is high in both genders in all populations. The symptoms of low back pain including, pain at low back area, muscle spasm, tenderness points and stiff back. Trancutanous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is one of modalities mainly use for control pain. There was indicated that TENS is wildly use in low back pain, but no scientific data about the flexibility of muscle after TENS in low back pain. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate immediate effect of TENS on flexibility and health status in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eight chronic nonspecific low back pain patients 1 male and 7 female employed in this study. Participants were diagnosed by a doctor based on history and physical examination. Each participant received treatment at physiotherapy unit. Participants completed Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), numeric rating scale (NRS) and trunk flexibility before treatment. Each participant received low frequency TENS set at asymmetrical, 10 Hz, 20 minutes per point. Immediately after treatment, participants completed RNS, RMDQ and trunk flexibility again. All participants were treated by only one physiotherapist. There was a statistically significant increased in flexibility immediately after low frequency TENS [mean difference -6.37 with 95%CI were (-8.35)-(-4.39)]. There was a statistically significant decreased in numeric rating scale [mean difference 2.13 with 95%CI were 1.08-3.16]. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire showed improvement of health status average 44.8% immediately after treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that immediately effect after low frequency TENS can decrease pain and improve flexibility of back muscle in chronic nonspecific low back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, flexibility, TENS, chronic

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
1476 Non-Invasive Imaging of Tissue Using Near Infrared Radiations

Authors: Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal


NIR Light is non-ionizing and can pass easily through living tissues such as breast without any harmful effects. Therefore, use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function. This blurred reconstructed image has been enhanced using a digital filter which is optimal in mean square sense.

Keywords: least-squares optimization, filtering, tomography, laser interaction, light scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1475 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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1474 Diffusion Adaptation Strategies for Distributed Estimation Based on the Family of Affine Projection Algorithms

Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, Mohammad Ranjbar, Reza Ebrahimpour


This work presents the distributed processing solution problem in a diffusion network based on the adapt then combine (ATC) and combine then adapt (CTA)selective partial update normalized least mean squares (SPU-NLMS) algorithms. Also, we extend this approach to dynamic selection affine projection algorithm (DS-APA) and ATC-DS-APA and CTA-DS-APA are established. The purpose of ATC-SPU-NLMS and CTA-SPU-NLMS algorithm is to reduce the computational complexity by updating the selected blocks of weight coefficients at every iteration. In CTA-DS-APA and ATC-DS-APA, the number of the input vectors is selected dynamically. Diffusion cooperation strategies have been shown to provide good performance based on these algorithms. The good performance of introduced algorithm is illustrated with various experimental results.

Keywords: selective partial update, affine projection, dynamic selection, diffusion, adaptive distributed networks

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1473 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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1472 Iterative Reconstruction Techniques as a Dose Reduction Tool in Pediatric Computed Tomography Imaging: A Phantom Study

Authors: Ajit Brindhaban


Background and Purpose: Computed Tomography (CT) scans have become the largest source of radiation in radiological imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of pediatric Computed Tomography (CT) images reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP) with images reconstructed using different strengths of Iterative Reconstruction (IR) technique, and to perform a feasibility study to assess the use of IR techniques as a dose reduction tool. Materials and Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom representing a 5-year old child was scanned, in two stages, using a Siemens Somatom CT unit. In stage one, scans of the head, chest and abdomen were performed using standard protocols recommended by the scanner manufacturer. Images were reconstructed using FBP and 5 different strengths of IR. Contrast-to-Noise Ratios (CNR) were calculated from average CT number and its standard deviation measured in regions of interest created in the lungs, bone, and soft tissues regions of the phantom. Paired t-test and the one-way ANOVA were used to compare the CNR from FBP images with IR images, at p = 0.05 level. The lowest strength value of IR that produced the highest CNR was identified. In the second stage, scans of the head was performed with decreased mA(s) values relative to the increase in CNR compared to the standard FBP protocol. CNR values were compared in this stage using Paired t-test at p = 0.05 level. Results: Images reconstructed using IR technique had higher CNR values (p < 0.01.) in all regions compared to the FBP images, at all strengths of IR. The CNR increased with increasing IR strength of up to 3, in the head and chest images. Increases beyond this strength were insignificant. In abdomen images, CNR continued to increase up to strength 5. The results also indicated that, IR techniques improve CNR by a up to factor of 1.5. Based on the CNR values at strength 3 of IR images and CNR values of FBP images, a reduction in mA(s) of about 20% was identified. The images of the head acquired at 20% reduced mA(s) and reconstructed using IR at strength 3, had similar CNR as FBP images at standard mA(s). In the head scans of the phantom used in this study, it was demonstrated that similar CNR can be achieved even when the mA(s) is reduced by about 20% if IR technique with strength of 3 is used for reconstruction. Conclusions: The IR technique produced better image quality at all strengths of IR in comparison to FBP. IR technique can provide approximately 20% dose reduction in pediatric head CT while maintaining the same image quality as FBP technique.

Keywords: filtered back projection, image quality, iterative reconstruction, pediatric computed tomography imaging

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1471 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi


Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

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1470 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin


Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: disability, low back pain, pain, quality of life

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1469 Socio-Demographic and Work Related Variables as Predictor of Persistence of Back Pain and Disability among Civil Servants Receiving Physiotherapy in Tertiary Health Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullah Abdulsalam, Adamu Balami, Olajide Olubanji Olowe, Maryam Abdu Abdulkadir


The development and persistence of low back pain may be influenced by several factors which include lifestyle factors, previous pain symptoms, psychological factors, workplace factors as well as socio-demographic variables. The focus of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and work related variables as a predictor of persistence of back pain and disability among civil servants receiving physiotherapy in tertiary health institutions in Kano, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty nine newly referred low back pain patients for physiotherapy participated in the study. This study was a cross sectional study involving patients that were newly diagnosed of back pain, referred and received physiotherapy. The convenience sampling technique was used to select the patients based on the inclusion criteria. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and multiple regression for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings reveal that all the variables are not significant predictor of persistence of back pain and disability. The study recommended that determinants of low back pain recovery by clinician should include other clinical factors not only reduction in pain intensity.

Keywords: socio-demographic, work related variables, Kano state, back pain and disability

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1468 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique

Authors: Navajyoti Panda, R. S. Pawar


In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.

Keywords: bending, spring-back, v-bending, FEM, Taguchi, HSLA 420 and St12 materials, HyperForm, profile projector

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1467 Physical and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Occupational Lower Back/Neck Pain among Industrial Workers

Authors: Ghorbanali Mohammadi


Background: The objectives of this study were the association between physical and psychological risk factors for occupational lower back and neck pain among industrial workers. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 400 male workers of an industrial company over the previous 7days and 12 months. Data were collected using Nordic and third version of COPSOO questionnaires and QEC method for assessment of postures during the work. Results: The prevalence of LB and NP in the last 12 months is 58% and 52% respectively. The relationship between risk factors and low back/ neck pain in the last 12 months were cognitive demands (OR 995% CI 1.65) and (OR 995% CI 1.75); Influence at work (OR 995% CI 2.21) and (OR 995% CI 1.85); quality of leadership (OR 995% CI 2.42) and (OR 995% CI 2.09) was strongly correlated with complaints of low back and neck pains. Conclusion: Data of this study showed a higher prevalence of LBP and NP in the subjects. The results revealed that workers with work experience of more than 12 yrs. and who work more than 8 hrs. days with smoking habits had more probability to develop both LBP and NP.

Keywords: low back pain, neck pain, physical risk factors, psychological risk factors, QEC, COPSOQ III

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1466 Low Back Pain-Related Absenteeism among Healthcare Workers in Kibuli Muslim Hospital, Kampala Uganda

Authors: Aremu Abdulmujeeb Babatunde


Background: Low back pain was not only considered to be the most common reason for functional disability worldwide, but also estimated to have affected 90% of the universal population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, consequences and socio-demographic factors associated with low back pain. Methods; A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total number of 150 self-structured questionnaire was distributed among healthcare workers and this was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain and work related absenteeism. Data was entered using Epi info soft-ware and analyzed using SPSS. Results; An overall response rate of 84% (n = 140) was achieved. The study established that majority (37%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years, 57% female (n=59) and 64% of them were married. the pint prevalence was 84%, 31% of the respondents took leave from work as a result of low back pain. There was high prevalence of sick leave among nursing staff 45.2%, Chi-square test shows that there was a statistically significant association between the respondents occupations and daily time spent during their work (P value 0.011 and 0.042) respectively. Socio-demographic factors like age, marital status and gender were not statistically significant at P<0.05. Conclusions; The medical and socio-professional consequences of low back pain among healthcare workers was as a result of their occupation designations and the daily time spent in carry out this occupations.

Keywords: low back pain, healthcare workers, prevalence, sick leave

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