Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2180

Search results for: Indian classical music

2180 Impact of Western Music Instruments on Indian Classical Music

Authors: Hukam Chand

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the performance of Indian classical music has been improved a lot due to the technical inclusion of western instruments. Infect, the Indian classical music is all about raags which portray a mood and sentiments expressed through a microtonal scale based on natural harmonic series. And, most of the western instruments are not based on natural harmonic series and the tonal system is the only system which has considerable influence on the Indian classical music. However, the use of western instruments has been growing day by day in one way or the other by the Indian artists due to their quality of harmony. As a result of which, there are some common instruments such as harmonium, violin, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer which are being used commonly by Indian and western artists. On the other hand, a lot of fusion has taken place in the music of both sides due to the similar characteristics in their instruments. For example, harmonium which was originally the western instrument has now acquired an important position in Indian classical music to perform raags. Besides, a lot of suggestions for improving in the Indian music have been given by the artists for technical modification in the western instruments to cater the needs of Indian music through melody approach. Pt. Vishav Mohan Bhatt an Indian musician has developed Mohan Veena (called guitar) to perform raags. N. Rajam the Indian lady Violinist has made a remarkable work on Indian classical music by accompanied with vocal music. The purpose of the present research paper is to highlight the changes in Indian Classical Music through performance by using modified western music instruments.

Keywords: Indian classical music, Western instruments, harmonium, guitar, Violin and impact

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2179 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

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Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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2178 Effects of Listening to Pleasant Thai Classical Music on Increasing Working Memory in Elderly: An Electroencephalogram Study

Authors: Anchana Julsiri, Seree Chadcham

Abstract:

The present study determined the effects of listening to pleasant Thai classical music on increasing working memory in elderly. Thai classical music without lyrics that made participants feel fun and aroused was used in the experiment for 3.19-5.40 minutes. The accuracy scores of Counting Span Task (CST), upper alpha ERD%, and theta ERS% were used to assess working memory of participants both before and after listening to pleasant Thai classical music. The results showed that the accuracy scores of CST and upper alpha ERD% in the frontal area of participants after listening to Thai classical music were significantly higher than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05). Theta ERS% in the fronto-parietal network of participants after listening to Thai classical music was significantly lower than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05).

Keywords: brain wave, elderly, pleasant Thai classical music, working memory

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2177 Towards a Scientific Intepretation of the Theory of Rasa in Indian Classical Music

Authors: Ajmal Hussain

Abstract:

In Indian music parlance, Rasa denotes a distinct aesthetic experience that builds up in the mind of the listeners while listening to a piece of Indian classical music. The distinction of the experience is rooted in the concept that it gives rise to an enhanced awareness about the Self or God and creates a mental state detached from mundane issues of everyday life. The theory of Rasa was initially proposed in the context of theatre but became a part of Indian musicological discourse roughly two thousand years ago, however, to this day, it remains shrouded in mystery due to its religious associations and connotations. This paper attempts to demystify the theory of Rasa in the light of available scientific knowledge fund particularly in Brain and Mind sciences. The paper initially describes the religious context of the theory of Rasa and then discusses its classical formulations by Bharata and Abhinavagupta including the steps and stages laid down by the latter to explain the creation of musical experience. The classical formulations are then interpreted with reference to the scientific knowledge fund about the human mind and mechanics of perception. The study uses the model of human mind as proposed by Portuguese-American neuroscientist Antonio Damasio in his theory ‘A Nesting Principle’. On the basis of the findings by Damasio, the paper interprets the experience of Rasa from a scientific perspective and clarifies the sequence of steps and stages involved in the making of musical experience. The study concludes that although the classical formulations of Rasa identify key aspects of musical experience, the association of Rasa with religion is misleading. The association with religion does not depend upon musical stimulus but the intellectual orientation of the listener. It further establishes that the function of Rasa is more profound as, from an evolutionary perspective, it can be seen as a catalyst for higher consciousness.

Keywords: aesthetic, consciousness, music, Rasa

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2176 Enhanced Physiological Response of Blood Pressure and Improved Performance in Successive Divided Attention Test Seen with Classical Instrumental Background Music Compared to Controls

Authors: Shantala Herlekar

Abstract:

Introduction: Entrainment effect of music on cardiovascular parameters is well established. Music is being used in the background by medical students while studying. However, does it really help them relax faster and concentrate better? Objectives: This study was done to compare the effects of classical instrumental background music versus no music on blood pressure response over time and on successively performed divided attention test in Indian and Malaysian 1st-year medical students. Method: 60 Indian and 60 Malaysian first year medical students, with an equal number of girls and boys were randomized into two groups i.e music group and control group thus creating four subgroups. Three different forms of Symbol Digit Modality Test (to test concentration ability) were used as a pre-test, during music/control session and post-test. It was assessed using total, correct and error score. Simultaneously, multiple Blood Pressure recordings were taken as pre-test, during 1, 5, 15, 25 minutes during music/control (+SDMT) and post-test. The music group performed the test with classical instrumental background music while the control group performed it in silence. Results were analyzed using students paired t test. p value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A drop in BP recording was indicative of relaxed state and a rise in BP with task performance was indicative of increased arousal. Results: In Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT) test, Music group showed significant better results for correct (p = 0.02) and total (p = 0.029) scores during post-test while errors reduced (p = 0.002). Indian music group showed decline in post-test error scores (p = 0.002). Malaysian music group performed significantly better in all categories. Blood pressure response was similar in music and control group with following variations, a drop in BP at 5minutes, being significant in music group (p < 0.001), a steep rise in values till 15minutes (corresponding to SDMT test) also being significant only in music group (p < 0.001) and the Systolic BP readings in controls during post-test were at lower levels compared to music group. On comparing the subgroups, not much difference was noticed in recordings of Indian student’s subgroups while all the paired-t test values in the Malaysian music group were significant. Conclusion: These recordings indicate an increased relaxed state with classical instrumental music and an increased arousal while performing a concentration task. Music used in our study was beneficial to students irrespective of their nationality and preference of music type. It can act as an “active coping” strategy and alleviate stress within a very short period of time, in our study within a span of 5minutes. When used in the background, during task performance, can increase arousal which helps the students perform better. Implications: Music can be used between lectures for a short time to relax the students and help them concentrate better for the subsequent classes, especially for late afternoon sessions.

Keywords: blood pressure, classical instrumental background music, ethnicity, symbol digit modality test

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2175 Vocal Training and Practice Methods: A Glimpse on the South Indian Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

Abstract:

Music is one of the supreme arts of expressions, next to the speech itself. Its evolution over centuries has paved the way with a variety of training protocols and performing methods. Indian classical music is one of the most elaborate and refined systems with immense emphasis on the voice culture related to range, breath control, quality of the tone, flexibility and diction. Several exercises namely saraliswaram, jantaswaram, dhatuswaram, upper stayi swaram, alamkaras and varnams lay the required foundation to gain the voice culture and deeper understanding on the voice development and further on to the intricacies of the raga system. This article narrates a few of the Carnatic music training methods with an emphasis on the advanced practice methods for articulating the vocal skills, continuity in the voice, ability to produce gamakams, command in the multiple speeds of rendering with reasonable volume. The creativity on these exercises and their impact on the voice production are discussed. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods and vocal exercises bestow the optimum use of the natural human vocal system to not only enhance the signing quality but also to gain health benefits.

Keywords: Carnatic music, Saraliswaram, Varnam, vocal training

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2174 The Nimbārka School of Vedānta and the Indian Classical Dance: The Philosophical Relevance through Rasa Theory

Authors: Shubham Arora

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This paper illustrates a relationship between the Dvaitādvaita (dualistic non-dualistic) doctrine of Nimbārka school of Vedānta and philosophy of Indian classical dance, through the Rasa theory. There would be a separate focus on the philosophies of both the disciplines and then analyzing Rasa theory as a connexion between them. The paper presents ideas regarding the similarity between the Brahman and the dancer, manifestation of enacting character and the Jīva (soul), the existence of the phenomenal world and the imaginary world classification of rasa on the basis of three modes of nature, and the feelings and expressions depicting the Dvaita and Advaita. The reason behind choosing such a topic is an intention to explore the relativity of the Vedantic philosophy of this school in real manner. It is really important to study the practical implications and relevance of the doctrine with other disciplines for perceiving it cogently. In our daily lives, we use various forms of facial expressions and bodily gestures in order to communicate, along with the oral and written means of communication. What if, when gestures and expressions mingle with the music beats, in order to present an idea? Indian Classical dance is highly rich in expressing the emotions using extraordinary expressions, unconventional bodily gestures and mesmerizing music beats. Ancient scriptures like Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata Muni and Abhinava Bhārati by Abhinavaguptā recount aesthetics in a well-defined and structured way of acting and dancing and also reveal the grammar of rasa theory. Indian Classical dance is not only for entertainment but it is deeply in contact with divinity. During the period of Bhakti movement in India, this art form was used as a means to narrate the vignettes from epics like Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata and Purānas. Even in present era, this art has a deep rooted philosophy within.

Keywords: Advaita, Brahman, Dvaita, Jiva, Nimbarka, Rasa, Vedanta

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2173 Role of Music Education as a Pillar in Sustainable Development of India

Authors: Rohit Rutka

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to reveal the importance of music as an indispensable aspect in education of art, with regard to every single culture which serves as indisputable support to sustainable development in India. Indian system of education is one of the oldest systems of the world. Both secular and sacred education was handed over systematically by formalizing the system of education. We have found significant growth in the system of education in our country since ancient times. It is a veritable avenue which enables societies to transmit music and musical skills from one generation to the upcoming ones. The research is based on a comprehensive literature review on the impact of music to sustainable development. This paper contextualized that music education is imperative to Sustainable Development, to the adult. It is a vital force of self-expression, communication and empowerment economically, in growing children, involvement in music education will promote their creative ability, thereby contribute to the full development of intellectual capacities, apt emotional development that gives the right values and feelings to various events and happenings, music helps to develop skills, innate and instinctive talent in human being and recommend that the informal music teaching should be incorporated into school system so as to transmit and preserve the cultural music and that the study of music should be made compulsory at all levels of the Indian educational system.

Keywords: sustainable development, music education, culture, music as a pillar to sustainable development

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2172 Interpreting Chopin’s Music Today: Mythologization of Art: Kitsch

Authors: Ilona Bala

Abstract:

The subject of this abstract is related to the notion of 'popular music', a notion that should be treated with extreme care, particularly when applied to Frederic Chopin, one of the greatest composers of Romanticism. By ‘popular music’, we mean a category of everyday music, set against the more intellectual kind, referred to as ‘classical’. We only need to look back to the culture of the nineteenth century to realize that this ‘popular music’ refers to the ‘music of the low’. It can be studied from a sociological viewpoint, or as sociological aesthetics. However, we cannot ignore the fact that, very quickly, this music spread to the wealthiest strata of the European society of the nineteenth century, while likewise the lowest classes often listen to the intellectual classical music, so pleasant to listen to. Further, we can observe that a sort of ‘sacralisation of kitsch’ occurs at the intersection between the classical and popular music. This process is the topic of this contribution. We will start by investigating the notion of kitsch through the study of Chopin’s popular compositions. However, before considering the popularisation of this music in today’s culture, we will have to focus on the use of the word kitsch in Chopin’s times, through his own musical aesthetics. Finally, the objective here will be to negate the theory that art is simply the intellectual definition of aesthetics. A kitsch can, obviously, only work on the emotivity of the masses, as it represents one of the features of culture-language (the words which the masses identify with). All art is transformed, becoming something outdated or even outmoded. Here, we are truly within a process of mythologization of art, through the study of the aesthetic reception of the musical work.

Keywords: F. Chopin, kitsch, musical work, mythologization of art, popular music, romantic music

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2171 The Conservatoire Crisis: An Exploration into the Lived Experiences of Conservatoire Graduates

Authors: Scott Caizley

Abstract:

Widening participation amongst state schooled and British and Minority Ethnic (BME) students in UK conservatoires throughout the past years has persisted to remain at an all time low despite major efforts to increase access for those from underrepresented backgrounds. In the academic year of 2017/18, two of the UK’s leading music conservatoires recruited less state school students than Oxbridge. Whilst conservatories face further public stigmatisation and heavy financial penalties for failing to meet government benchmarks; there appears to be a more costly outcome to this crisis. This of course, is the lack of sociocultural diversity, which is perpetuated both within the conservatoire sector and the classical music industry. This research investigates the lived experiences of former state-schooled students who attended a UK music conservatoire. Given the participant’s underrepresented status, the research seeks to answer whether or not the students are fitting in or standing out within the conservatoire environment. The research will explore the findings through a Bourdieusian contextual framework with hope of generating a wealth of new practises to the field of Higher Music Education. It is through illuminating the underrepresented voices within these elite spaces, which could aid future research and policy to help tackle the diversity dilemma and give classical music the social and cultural renewal it so desperately needs.

Keywords: classical music, lived experiences, higher music education, Bourdieusian

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2170 Effects of Turkish Classical Music on Cognitive Function, Depression and Quality of Life in Elderly

Authors: Rukiye Pinar Boluktas

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According to 2015 statistics, in Turkey, 46% of older people live alone in their homes, 55% have poor health perceptions, 18% face poverty, and 43% are unhappy. Prevalence of depression is between 14% and 20%. In 2013, rate of suicide was 6.5. However, the most of older people prefer to live in their community although they are lonely, they face poverty, and face limitations as a result of chronic diseases and disabilities. Community based care for older people is also encouraged by Ministry of Health as it is more cost-effective. Music therapy is a simple, effective, safe, and nonpharmacologic intervention that may be used to decrease depression and to improve cognition, and health related quality of life (HRQOL). In Turkish culture, music is typically described as ‘food for soul’. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Turkish classical music songs in 32 community dwelling older people. Participants were received interventions two or three times per week, 50-60 min per session, for 8 weeks at a day health center. Each intervention session started listening music for 15-20 min to get remember songs, then followed singing songs as a group. Participants were assessed at baseline (week 0), and two follow-up at month 1 and month 2. Compared to baseline, at two follow-up, we observed that cognition improved, depression decreased, and SF-36 scores, including 8 domains and two summary scores increased. We conclude that an intervention comprising listening and singing Turkish classical music improve cognition, depression and HRQOL in older people.

Keywords: cognitive function, depression, elderly, quality of life, Turkish classical music

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2169 The Functions of the Student Voice and Student-Centred Teaching Practices in Classroom-Based Music Education

Authors: Sofia Douklia

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The present context paper aims to present the important role of ‘Student voice’ in the music classroom which contributes to a more student-centered music education. My aim is to focus on the functions of the student voice through the music spectrum, which have been born in the music classroom. The music curriculum, the principles of a student-centered music education, the role of students and music teachers as music ambassadors have been considered as the major music parameters of student voice. And what is better than referring into the authentic words of a great music educator as John Paynter? How important is to elicit the student voice in the music classroom? What is the role of the music teachers in UK Music Education?

Keywords: student's voice, student-centred education, music ambassators, music teachers

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2168 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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2167 Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music

Authors: Mahdi Kazemi

Abstract:

Today's performances on Piano Forte or Fortepiano are cheerful, musical, expressive, and at the same time informative. AlterMuskie is an exciting and richly drawn magazine that is unmatched in its field. First published in 1973, it is a magazine for anyone interested in early music and its contemporary interpretation. Alexander Scriabin's (1871_1915) work has traditionally focused on his music in the mid and late 1902s. The discussion of his personal philosophy and his influence on music also focuses on these two periods. Over the last few decades, the repertoire of British classical solo pianos has received increasing interest from researchers. From the piano rolls of the early 20th century, much can be inferred about the practice of romantic piano playing. Summary Haydn's most important piano works are the sonatas, which generally represent Haydn's development as a composer from the early to the last three sonata dates, 1794.

Keywords: piano, classic piano, performance, music

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2166 Mood Recognition Using Indian Music

Authors: Vishwa Joshi

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The study of mood recognition in the field of music has gained a lot of momentum in the recent years with machine learning and data mining techniques and many audio features contributing considerably to analyze and identify the relation of mood plus music. In this paper we consider the same idea forward and come up with making an effort to build a system for automatic recognition of mood underlying the audio song’s clips by mining their audio features and have evaluated several data classification algorithms in order to learn, train and test the model describing the moods of these audio songs and developed an open source framework. Before classification, Preprocessing and Feature Extraction phase is necessary for removing noise and gathering features respectively.

Keywords: music, mood, features, classification

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2165 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republic Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici

Abstract:

Just after Ottoman period, new more homogenic republic was struggling to form a national identity and dealing with the cultural and historical background of the nation. This new republic had an aim of modernization and westernization which started in the late ottoman period. In this process, the culture was an important basis to form a new nation and it clearly put forward that the new citizens of the new national republic are to have a modern and national culture. The result of this aimed change was to find the Turkish culture suppressed among the common people of the Anatolia and to take the western modernization and breed this with national culture. So in this context, we can say that this approach separated the people from ottoman culture and its roots to empower the national identity. Repeatedly, it may be said that Turkish folkloric music was an important basis for the new revolution, on the other hand classical Turkish music was alienated with the idea that it didn’t belong to Turkish culture. So the aim of this study is to determine how these efforts to nationalize a new identity and culture was successful and conscious intervention to folkloric Turkish music became efficient.

Keywords: opera, nationalism in music, Turkish music

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2164 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music

Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen

Abstract:

Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.

Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected music

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2163 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano

Abstract:

The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

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2162 Impact of Minimalism in Dance Education on the Development of Aesthetic Sensibilities

Authors: Meghamala Nugehally

Abstract:

This paper hypothesises and draws inferences on the impact of minimalism in dance education on the development of artistic and aesthetic sensibilities in individuals in the age group of 5-18 yrs of age. This research and conclusions are within the context of Indian Classical Dance, which is based on Indian theories of aesthetics drawn from the Natyashastra, an ancient treatise on Indian dance and drama. The research employs training methods handed down through a strict one-on-one teacher-student tradition known as the Guru-Shishya Parampara. Aesthetic principles used are defined, and basic theories from the Natyashastra are explained to provide background for the research design. The paper also discusses dance curriculum design and training methodology design within the context of these aesthetic theories. The scope of the research is limited to two genres of Indian classical forms: Bharatanatyam and Odissi. A brief description of these dance forms is given as background and dance aesthetics specific to these forms are described. The research design includes individual case studies of subjects studied, independent predetermined attributes for observations and a qualitative scoring methodology devised for the purpose of the study. The study describes the training techniques used and contrasts minimal solo training techniques with the more elaborate group training techniques. Study groups were divided and the basis for the division are discussed. Study observations are recorded and presented as evidences. The results inform the conclusion and set the stage for further research in this area.

Keywords: dance aesthetics, dance education, Indian classical dance, minimalism

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2161 Effects of Major and Minor Modes to Emotional Perceptions of 'Happy' and 'Sad' in Piano Music among Students Aged 9-17

Authors: Nurezlin Mohd Azib, Pan Kok Chang

Abstract:

This quantitative study investigates the effects of major and minor modes, and contributing musical parameter of tempo, to the emotional perceptions of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ in piano music among subjects aged 9-17 years old. The study was conducted in two phases; survey-questionnaire, and listening activity. Subjects (N=31) were sampled from piano music students’ population in Bangi, Selangor. In the survey-questionnaire, subjects answered 20 questions on demographic characteristics, music listening and preference, and understanding of emotional perception in music. In the listening activity, subjects listened to 20 untitled piano music excerpts and rated the emotion perceived for each excerpt, whether ‘happy’ or ‘sad’. Results from survey-questionnaire show that most percentage of subjects are 11 years old, in Grade 1, of 3 years of learning piano, prefer classical music, always listen to music, prefer both major and minor modes’ music, and find it easy to understand emotion in music, as well as major and minor modes. Results from listening activity show that 60 % of major mode music are perceived as ‘major-happy’, while 60 % too, of minor mode music are perceived as ‘minor-sad’. However, Chi-square test of independence statistical analysis indicates that there are no association and significant relationship between modes (major and minor) and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 0.80, p = 0.371), at the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Contrastingly, there are association and significant relationship between tempo (fast and slow), and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 9.899, p = 0.005). Therefore, it is concluded that tempo plays an important role in effects of major and minor mode to ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ emotional perceptions in piano music among subjects aged 9 to 17 in this study.

Keywords: effects, emotional perceptions, major and minor modes, piano music

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2160 FlameCens: Visualization of Expressive Deviations in Music Performance

Authors: Y. Trantafyllou, C. Alexandraki

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Music interpretation accounts to the way musicians shape their performance by deliberately deviating from composers’ intentions, which are commonly communicated via some form of music transcription, such as a music score. For transcribed and non-improvised music, music expression is manifested by introducing subtle deviations in tempo, dynamics and articulation during the evolution of performance. This paper presents an application, named FlameCens, which, given two recordings of the same piece of music, presumably performed by different musicians, allow visualising deviations in tempo and dynamics during playback. The application may also compare a certain performance to the music score of that piece (i.e. MIDI file), which may be thought of as an expression-neutral representation of that piece, hence depicting the expressive queues employed by certain performers. FlameCens uses the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm to compare two audio sequences, based on CENS (Chroma Energy distribution Normalized Statistics) audio features. Expressive deviations are illustrated in a moving flame, which is generated by an animation of particles. The length of the flame is mapped to deviations in dynamics, while the slope of the flame is mapped to tempo deviations so that faster tempo changes the slope to the right and slower tempo changes the slope to the left. Constant slope signifies no tempo deviation. The detected deviations in tempo and dynamics can be additionally recorded in a text file, which allows for offline investigation. Moreover, in the case of monophonic music, the color of particles is used to convey the pitch of the notes during performance. FlameCens has been implemented in Python and it is openly available via GitHub. The application has been experimentally validated for different music genres including classical, contemporary, jazz and popular music. These experiments revealed that FlameCens can be a valuable tool for music specialists (i.e. musicians or musicologists) to investigate the expressive performance strategies employed by different musicians, as well as for music audience to enhance their listening experience.

Keywords: audio synchronization, computational music analysis, expressive music performance, information visualization

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2159 Theology and Music in the XXI. Century: An Exploratory Study of Current Interrelation

Authors: Andrzej Kesiak

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Contemporary theology is often accused of answering questions that nobody is asking, and of employing hermetic language that has lost its communication capacity. There is also a question that theology is asking itself: how theological discourse can still be influential on other disciplines and, how to overcome the separation of theology and belief. Undoubtedly, in the wider spectrum, the theological discourse has been and will be needed. The difficulty is how to find the right model of it, the model that would help theology to enter in dialogue with culture, art, science, and politics. Presumably, there is no only one such model, theology constantly needs to seek such models, and this is probably a never-ending journey; in other words, theology should adopt a profile of ‘a restless being’ if it wants to remain influential. Music, on the other hand, has always been very close to theology; in fact, a huge part of classical music is either sacred or religious. Many composers sought inspiration in religion, liturgy, religious painting and sacred texts. This paper will argue that despite all that it seems that a proper and factual dialogue is still in a starting phase. Such a thing as a reciprocal relationship between theology and music definitely exists, but it has not yet been theoretically developed enough. Correlation between musical and theological disciplines constitutes a very broad and complex discourse. Therefore this study would rather narrow the subject and put it in a specific context: Theology and Music in the XXI. Century. This paper is a text-based study; therefore it will be based on textual-analysis with elements of the text hermeneutics.

Keywords: music, theology, reciprocal relationship between theology and music, XXI Century

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2158 Analyzing the Perceptions of Emotions in Aesthetic Music

Authors: Abigail Wiafe, Charles Nutrokpor, Adelaide Oduro-Asante

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The advancement of technology is rapidly making people more receptive to music as computer-generated music requires minimal human interventions. Though algorithms are applied to generate music, the human experience of emotions is still explored. Thus, this study investigates the emotions humans experience listening to computer-generated music that possesses aesthetic qualities. Forty-two subjects participated in the survey. The selection process was purely arbitrary since it was based on convenience. Subjects listened and evaluated the emotions experienced from the computer-generated music through an online questionnaire. The Likert scale was used to rate the emotional levels after the music listening experience. The findings suggest that computer-generated music possesses aesthetic qualities that do not affect subjects' emotions as long as they are pleased with the music. Furthermore, computer-generated music has unique creativity, and expressioneven though the music produced is meaningless, the computational models developed are unable to present emotional contents in music as humans do.

Keywords: aesthetic, algorithms, emotions, computer-generated music

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2157 From Colonial Outpost to Cultural India: Folk Epics of India

Authors: Jyoti Brahma

Abstract:

Folk epics of India are found in various Indian languages. The study of folk epics and its importance in folkloristic study in India came into prominence only during the nineteenth century. The British administrators and missionaries collected and documented folk epics from various parts of the country. The paper is an attempt to investigate how colonial outpost appears to penetrate the interiors of Indian land and society and triggered off the Indian Renaissance. It takes into account the compositions of the epics of India and the attention it received during the nineteenth century, which in turn gave, rise to the national consciousness shaping the culture of India. Composed as oral traditions these folk epics are now seen as repositories of historical consciousness whereas in earlier times societies without literacy were said to be without history. So, there is an urgent need to re-examine the British impact on Indian literary traditions. The Bhakti poets through their nuanced responses in their efforts to change the behavior of Indian society gives us the perfect example of deferment in the clear cut distinction between the folk and the classical in the context of India. It evades a pure categorization and classification of the classical and constitutes part of the folk traditions of the cultural heritage of India. Therefore, the ethical question of what is ontologically known as ordinary discourse in the case of the “folk” forms metaphors and folk language gains importance once more. The paper also thus seeks simultaneously to outline the significant factors responsible for shaping the destiny of folklore in South India particularly the four political states of the Indian Union: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, what could be termed as South Indian “cultural zones”.

Keywords: colonial, folk, folklore, tradition

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2156 Non-Fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar

Abstract:

An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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2155 Effect of Acoustical Performance Detection and Evaluation in Music Practice Rooms on Teaching

Authors: Hsu-Hui Cheng, Peng-Chian Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Jie-Ying Zhang

Abstract:

Activities in the music practice rooms range from playing, listening, rehearsing to music performing. The good room acoustics in a music practice room enables a music teacher to teach more effectively subtle concepts such as intonation, articulation, balance, dynamics and tone production. A poor acoustical environment would deeply affect the development of basic musical skills of music students. Practicing in the music practice room is an essential daily activity for music students; consequently, music practice rooms are very important facilities in a music school or department. The purpose of this survey is to measure and analyze the acoustic condition of piano practice rooms at the department of music in Zhaoqing University and accordingly apply a more effective teaching method to music students. The volume of the music practice room is approximately 25 m³, and it has existing curtains and some wood hole sound-absorbing panels. When all small music practice rooms are in constant use for teaching, it was found that the values of the background noise at 45, 46, 42, 46, 45 dB(A) in the small music practice room ( the doors and windows were close), respectively. The noise levels in the small music practice room to higher than standard levels (35dB(A)).

Keywords: acoustical performance, music practice room, noise level, piano room

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2154 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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2153 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

Abstract:

Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

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2152 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

Abstract:

Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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2151 Lines for a Different Approach in Music Education: A Review of the Concept of Musicality

Authors: Emmanuel Carlos De Mata Castrejón

Abstract:

Music education has shown to be connected to many areas of sciences and arts, it has also been associated with several facets of human life. The many aspects around the study of music and education, make very difficult for the music educator to find a way through, even though there are lots of methods of teaching music to young children, they are different between one another and so are the students. For the music to help improve children’s development, it is necessary for the children to explore their musicality as they explore their creativity; it must be a challenging, playful, and enjoyable activity. The purpose of this investigation is to focus the music education not in the music, nor the teaching, but the children to be guided through their own musicality. The first approach to this kind of music education comes from the Active learning methods during the nineteenth century, most of which are still used around the world, sometimes with modifications to fit a certain place or type of students. This approach on children’s musicality requires some knowledge of music, pedagogy, and developmental psychology at least, but more important than the theory or the method used for music education, the focus should be on developing the student’s musicality, considering the complexity of this concept. To get this, it is needed, indeed, far more research in the topic, so this is a call for collaborative research and for interdisciplinary teams to emerge. This is a review of authors and methods in music education trying to trace a line pointing to transdisciplinary work and pursuing the development of children’s musicality.

Keywords: children, methods, music education, musicality

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