Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: piano

23 Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music

Authors: Mahdi Kazemi

Abstract:

Today's performances on Piano Forte or Fortepiano are cheerful, musical, expressive, and at the same time informative. AlterMuskie is an exciting and richly drawn magazine that is unmatched in its field. First published in 1973, it is a magazine for anyone interested in early music and its contemporary interpretation. Alexander Scriabin's (1871_1915) work has traditionally focused on his music in the mid and late 1902s. The discussion of his personal philosophy and his influence on music also focuses on these two periods. Over the last few decades, the repertoire of British classical solo pianos has received increasing interest from researchers. From the piano rolls of the early 20th century, much can be inferred about the practice of romantic piano playing. Summary Haydn's most important piano works are the sonatas, which generally represent Haydn's development as a composer from the early to the last three sonata dates, 1794.

Keywords: piano, classic piano, performance, music

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22 A High Performance Piano Note Recognition Scheme via Precise Onset Detection and Segmented Short-Time Fourier Transform

Authors: Sonali Banrjee, Swarup Kumar Mitra, Aritra Acharyya

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A piano note recognition method has been proposed by the authors in this paper. The authors have used a comprehensive method for onset detection of each note present in a piano piece followed by segmented short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for the identification of piano notes. The performance evaluation of the proposed method has been carried out in different harsh noisy environments by adding different levels of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) having different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the original signal and evaluating the note detection error rate (NDER) of different piano pieces consisting of different number of notes at different SNR levels. The NDER is found to be remained within 15% for all piano pieces under consideration when the SNR is kept above 8 dB.

Keywords: AWGN, onset detection, piano note, STFT

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21 Performance Evaluation of a Piano Key Weir

Authors: M. Shaheer Ali, Talib Mansoor

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The Piano Key Weir (PKW) is a particular shape of labyrinth weir, using up- and/or downstream overhangs. The horizontal rectangular labyrinth shape allows to multiply the crest length for a given weir width. With the increasing demand of power, it is becoming greatly essential to increase the storage capacity of existing dams without neglecting their safety. The present aims at comparing the performance of piano key weirs in respect to the normal sharp-crested weirs. The discharge v/s head data for the piano key weir and normal sharp-crested weir obtained from the experimental study were compared and analysed using regression analysis. Piano key weir was found to perform doubly w.r.t a normal weir. The flow profiles show the parabolic nature of flow and the nappe interference in the inlet keys.

Keywords: crest length, flow profile, labyrinth weir, normal weir, nappe interference, overhangs, piano key weir

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20 Three Memorizing Strategies Reflective of Individual Students' Learning Modalities Applied to Piano Education

Authors: Olga Guseynova

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Being an individual activity, the memorizing process is affected to a greater degree by the individual variables; therefore, one of the decisive factors influencing the memorization is students’ individual characteristics. Based on an extensive literature study in the domains of piano education, psychology, and neuroscience, this comprehensive research was designed in order to develop three memorizing strategies that are reflective of individual students’ learning modalities (visual, kinesthetic and auditory) applied to the piano education. The design of the study required an interdisciplinary approach which incorporated the outcome of neuropsychological and pedagogic experiments. The objectives were to determine the interaction between the process of perception and the process of memorizing music; to systematize the methods of memorizing piano sheet music in accordance with the specifics of perception types; to develop Piano Memorization Inventory (PMI) and the Three Memorizing Strategies (TMS). The following research methods were applied: a method of interdisciplinary analysis and synthesis, a method of non-participant observation. As a result of literature analysis, the following conclusions were made: the majority of piano teachers and piano students participated in the surveys, had not used and usually had not known any memorizing strategy regarding learning styles. As a result, they had used drilling as the main strategy of memorizing. The Piano Memorization Inventory and Three Memorizing Strategies developed by the author of the research were based on the observation and findings of the previous researches and considered the experience of pedagogical and neuropsychological studies.

Keywords: interdisciplinary approach, memorizing strategies, perceptual learning styles, piano memorization inventory

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19 The Influence of Japanese Poetry in Spanish Piano Music: Benet Casablancas and Mercedes Zavala’s Haikus

Authors: Isabel Pérez Dobarro

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In the mid-twentieth century, Spanish composers started looking beyond the national folkloric tradition (adopted by Albéniz, Granados, and Falla) and Rodrigo’s neoclassicism, and searched for other sources of inspiration. Japanese Haikus fascinated Spanish musicians, who found in their brevity and imagination a new avenue to develop their creativity. The goal of this research is to study how two renowned Spanish authors, Benet Casablancas and Mercedes Zavala, incorporated Haikus into their piano works. Based on Bruhn’s methodology on text and instrumental music relations, and developing a score and text analysis complemented by interviews with both composers, this study has revealed three possible interactions between the Haikus and these composers’ piano writing: inspiration, transmedialization, and mimesis. Findings also include specific technical gestures to support each of these approaches. Commonalities between their pieces and those by other non-Spanish composers such as Jonathan Harvey, John Cage, and Michael Berkeley have also been explored. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first study on the Japanese influence in Spanish piano music. Thus, it opens a new path for understanding musical exchanges between both countries as well as contemporary piano tools that support the interaction between text and music.

Keywords: Haiku, Spanish piano music, Benet Casablancas, Mercedes Zavala

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18 Effects of Major and Minor Modes to Emotional Perceptions of 'Happy' and 'Sad' in Piano Music among Students Aged 9-17

Authors: Nurezlin Mohd Azib, Pan Kok Chang

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This quantitative study investigates the effects of major and minor modes, and contributing musical parameter of tempo, to the emotional perceptions of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ in piano music among subjects aged 9-17 years old. The study was conducted in two phases; survey-questionnaire, and listening activity. Subjects (N=31) were sampled from piano music students’ population in Bangi, Selangor. In the survey-questionnaire, subjects answered 20 questions on demographic characteristics, music listening and preference, and understanding of emotional perception in music. In the listening activity, subjects listened to 20 untitled piano music excerpts and rated the emotion perceived for each excerpt, whether ‘happy’ or ‘sad’. Results from survey-questionnaire show that most percentage of subjects are 11 years old, in Grade 1, of 3 years of learning piano, prefer classical music, always listen to music, prefer both major and minor modes’ music, and find it easy to understand emotion in music, as well as major and minor modes. Results from listening activity show that 60 % of major mode music are perceived as ‘major-happy’, while 60 % too, of minor mode music are perceived as ‘minor-sad’. However, Chi-square test of independence statistical analysis indicates that there are no association and significant relationship between modes (major and minor) and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 0.80, p = 0.371), at the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Contrastingly, there are association and significant relationship between tempo (fast and slow), and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 9.899, p = 0.005). Therefore, it is concluded that tempo plays an important role in effects of major and minor mode to ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ emotional perceptions in piano music among subjects aged 9 to 17 in this study.

Keywords: effects, emotional perceptions, major and minor modes, piano music

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17 The Genre Narrative in Beethoven's E-Flat Piano Sonata, Op.31/3

Authors: Yan Zou

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Approach to the theory of Musical Narrative, as well as the three criteria of the 'explicit narrative', 'potential narrative' and 'image narrative' which are used to analyze the music, the author put Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in E-flat major, Op.31/3, into the context of the music genre and Western music history, and interpreted the programmatic contents that were embodied and hid in the special music genres.

Keywords: analysis, genre, narrative, rhetoric

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16 Beneath the Leisurely Surface: An Analysis of the Piano Lesson Frenzy among Chinese Middle-Class Parents

Authors: Yijie Wang, Tianyue Wang

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In the past two decades, there has been a great ‘piano lesson frenzy’ among Chinese middle-class families, with a large number of parents adding piano training to children’s extra-curriculum lists. Superficially, the frenzy reflects a rather ‘leisurely’ attitude: parents typically claim that pianos lessons are ‘just for fun’ and will hopefully render children’s life more exciting. However, a closer scrutiny reveals that there is great social-status anxiety hidden beneath this ‘leisurely’ surface. Based on pre-interviews of six Chinese middle-class parents who have enthusiastically signed their children up for piano lessons, several tentative analysis are made: 1. Owing to a series of historical and social factors, the Chinese middle-class have yet to establish their cultural norms in the past few decades, resulting in great confusion concerning how to cultivate cultural tastes in their offspring. And partly due to the fact that the middle-class status of the past Chinese generation is mostly self-acquired rather than inherited, parents are much less confident about their cultural resources—which require long-time accumulation—than material ones. Both factors combine to lead to a sort of blind, overcompensating enthusiasm in culture-related education, and the piano frenzy is but a demonstration. 2. The piano has been chosen to be the object of the frenzy partly because of its inherent characteristics as well as socially-constructed ones. Costly, large in size, imported from another culture and so forth, the piano has acquired the meaning of being exclusive, high-end and exotic, which renders it a token of top-tier status among Chinese people, and piano lessons for offspring have therefore become parents’ paths towards a kind of ‘symbolic elevation’. A child playing piano is an exhibition as well as psychological assurance of the families’ middle-class status. 3. A closer look at children’s piano training process reveals that there is much more anxiety than leisurely elements involved. Despite parents’ claim that ‘piano is mainly for kids to have fun,’ the whole process is evidently of a rather ‘ascetic’ nature, with the demands of diligence and senses of time urgency throughout, and techniques rather than flair or styles are emphasized. This either means that the apparent ‘piano-for-fun’ stance is unauthentic and is only other motives in disguise, or that the Chinese middle-class parents are not yet capable of shaking off the sense of anxiety even if they sincerely intend to. 4. When viewed in relation to Chinese formal school system as well as the job market at large, it can be said that by signing children up for piano lessons, parents are consciously or unconsciously seeking to prepare for, or reduce the risks of, their children’s future social mobility. In face of possible failures in the highly-crucial, highly-competitive formal school system, piano-playing as an extra-curriculum activity may be conveniently transferred into an alternative career path. Besides, in contemporary China, as the occupational structure goes through change, and the school-related certificates decline in value, aspects such as a person’s overall deportment, which can be gained or proved by piano-learning, have been gaining in significance.

Keywords: extra-curriculum activities, middle class, piano lesson frenzy, status anxiety

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15 Debussy's Piano Music: Style Characteristics in Three Categories

Authors: Rika Uchida

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Claude Debussy's piano works can be divided into three categories in terms of style characteristics. The first category includes works which are strongly impressionistic, evoking a mood or an atmosphere, rather than making a direct, clear statement. These works often depict nature, and they are descriptive and sensitive in their character. Harmonic vocabulary is often complex, and the sense of tonality is often ambiguous in those works. Examples which belong to this category are ‘Clair de lune’ from Suite Bergamasque, Deux Arabesques, and ‘Reflets dans l'eau’ from Images Book 2. The second category shows little or no trace of impressionism. Works are not descriptive; rather, they are classical or absolute. Examples which belong to this category are Pour le Piano, ‘Hommage à Rameau’ and ‘Movement’ from Images Book 1 and Etudes. The third category can be called exotic. Debussy had a great interest in foreign lands such as the Far and Near East, and Spain. He employs pentatonic and quartal harmonies to describe the Orient, occasionally using the effect of the Javanese gamelan, which impressed him at the Paris Exhibition. His compositions in the Spanish style evoke the atmosphere of Spain. Though he borrowed some techniques from Spanish composers whom he knew, the tonal experimentation which occurs in these works sets them apart. Examples which belong to this category are ‘Pagodes’ and ‘la Soiree dans Grenade’ from Estampes, ‘la Puerta del Vino’ from Preludes Book 2.

Keywords: music, piano, Debussy, style

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14 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan's Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng-Wei Hsu

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Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Taiwanese traditional music, piano performance research, Kuo Chih-Yuan, fugue, variations

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13 Emotional Skills and Musical Performance in the Elementary Music Education in Conservatoires: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Emilia A. Campayo-Munoz, Alberto Cabedo-Mas

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Music students have to face the challenges of musical practice -such as discipline in study, competitiveness, or performance anxiety- that require good emotional management to enable successful performance. However, few rigorous implementations focused on studying the influence of emotional skills in student's musical performance. Responding to this gap in the literature, this study aims to explore the relationship between emotional skills and musical performance in the context of elementary music education in conservatoires. Given the individual nature of the instrumental studies and the difficult availability of teachers to be trained in emotional education, it was decided to conduct a multiple case study in a Spanish music conservatoire. Author 1 carried out the implementation of the research with three 10-year-old students who were selected from her piano class. All of them attended the third year of their piano studies. The research processes consisted of the implementation of a set of specific and cross-sectional activities designed 'ad hoc' to be articulated in the subjects of individual instrument -piano- and ensemble in parallel to the contents of musical nature. The CE-360º questionnaire was used to measure different aspects of the students' emotional skills from a multi-angle perspective, each of the questionnaires being responded by oneself, three teachers and three peers, before and after the implementation. The data from the questionnaire were compared with the grades that the students obtained during the first and last quarter of the school year in the attended subjects. Acknowledging the complexity of emotional development, the results indicate possible relations between emotional skills and musical performance in music education in conservatoires. The results show that for the cases explored; there exists a relationship between emotional skills and musical performance. Although generalizations cannot be made, this study reinforces the need to further explore emotional development in instrumental teaching and suggest the importance of inviting teachers to reflect on the pedagogical practices extended in the conservatoires and to develop and implement those that promote the work of the students' emotions.

Keywords: conservatoires, emotional skills, music education, musical performance

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12 Effect of Acoustical Performance Detection and Evaluation in Music Practice Rooms on Teaching

Authors: Hsu-Hui Cheng, Peng-Chian Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Jie-Ying Zhang

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Activities in the music practice rooms range from playing, listening, rehearsing to music performing. The good room acoustics in a music practice room enables a music teacher to teach more effectively subtle concepts such as intonation, articulation, balance, dynamics and tone production. A poor acoustical environment would deeply affect the development of basic musical skills of music students. Practicing in the music practice room is an essential daily activity for music students; consequently, music practice rooms are very important facilities in a music school or department. The purpose of this survey is to measure and analyze the acoustic condition of piano practice rooms at the department of music in Zhaoqing University and accordingly apply a more effective teaching method to music students. The volume of the music practice room is approximately 25 m³, and it has existing curtains and some wood hole sound-absorbing panels. When all small music practice rooms are in constant use for teaching, it was found that the values of the background noise at 45, 46, 42, 46, 45 dB(A) in the small music practice room ( the doors and windows were close), respectively. The noise levels in the small music practice room to higher than standard levels (35dB(A)).

Keywords: acoustical performance, music practice room, noise level, piano room

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11 Development of a Novel Ankle-Foot Orthotic Using a User Centered Approach for Improved Satisfaction

Authors: Ahlad Neti, Elisa Arch, Martha Hall

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Studies have shown that individuals who use Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (AFOs) have a high level of dissatisfaction regarding their current AFOs. Studies point to the focus on technical design with little attention given to the user perspective as a source of AFO designs that leave users dissatisfied. To design a new AFO that satisfies users and thereby improves their quality of life, the reasons for their dissatisfaction and their wants and needs for an improved AFO design must be identified. There has been little research into the user perspective on AFO use and desired improvements, so the relationship between AFO design and satisfaction in daily use must be assessed to develop appropriate metrics and constraints prior to designing a novel AFO. To assess the user perspective on AFO design, structured interviews were conducted with 7 individuals (average age of 64.29±8.81 years) who use AFOs. All interviews were transcribed and coded to identify common themes using Grounded Theory Method in NVivo 12. Qualitative analysis of these results identified sources of user dissatisfaction such as heaviness, bulk, and uncomfortable material and overall needs and wants for an AFO. Beyond the user perspective, certain objective factors must be considered in the construction of metrics and constraints to ensure that the AFO fulfills its medical purpose. These more objective metrics are rooted in a common medical device market and technical standards. Given the large body of research concerning these standards, these objective metrics and constraints were derived through a literature review. Through these two methods, a comprehensive list of metrics and constraints accounting for both the user perspective on AFO design and the AFO’s medical purpose was compiled. These metrics and constraints will establish the framework for designing a new AFO that carries out its medical purpose while also improving the user experience. The metrics can be categorized into several overarching areas for AFO improvement. Categories of user perspective related metrics include comfort, discreteness, aesthetics, ease of use, and compatibility with clothing. Categories of medical purpose related metrics include biomechanical functionality, durability, and affordability. These metrics were used to guide an iterative prototyping process. Six concepts were ideated and compared using system-level analysis. From these six concepts, two concepts – the piano wire model and the segmented model – were selected to move forward into prototyping. Evaluation of non-functional prototypes of the piano wire and segmented models determined that the piano wire model better fulfilled the metrics by offering increased stability, longer durability, fewer points for failure, and a strong enough core component to allow a sock to cover over the AFO while maintaining the overall structure. As such, the piano wire AFO has moved forward into the functional prototyping phase, and healthy subject testing is being designed and recruited to conduct design validation and verification.

Keywords: ankle-foot orthotic, assistive technology, human centered design, medical devices

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10 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Properties of Half-Sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium(II), Rhodium(II) and Iridium(III)

Authors: A. Gilewska, J. Masternak, K. Kazimierczuk, L. Turlej, J. Wietrzyk, B. Barszcz

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Platinum-based drugs are now widely used as chemotherapeutic agents. However the platinum complexes show the toxic side-effects: i) the development of platinum resistance; ii) the occurrence of severe side effects, such as nephro-, neuro- and ototoxicity; iii) the high toxicity towards human fibroblast. Therefore the development of new anticancer drugs containing different transition-metal ions, for example, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium is a valid strategy in cancer treatment. In this paper, we reported the synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and biological properties of complexes of ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium containing N,N-chelating ligand (2,2’-bisimidazole). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes exhibit a typical pseudotetrahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which the aromatic arene ring forms the seat of the piano-stool, while the bidentate 2,2’-bisimidazole (ligand) and the one chlorido ligand form the three legs of the stool. The spectroscopy data (IR, UV-Vis) and elemental analysis correlate very well with molecular structures. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was carried out on human cancer cell lines: LoVo (colorectal adenoma), MV-4-11 (myelomonocytic leukaemia), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and normal healthy mouse fibroblast BALB/3T3 cell lines. To predict a binding mode, a potential interaction of metal complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and protein (BSA) has been explored using UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD). It is interesting to note that the investigated complexes show no cytotoxic effect towards the normal BALB/3T3 cell line, compared to cisplatin, which IC₅₀ values was determined as 2.20 µM. Importantly, Ru(II) displayed the highest activity against HL-60 (IC₅₀ 4.35 µM). The biological studies (UV-Vis and circular dichroism) suggest that arene-complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA probably via an outside binding mode and interact with protein (BSA).

Keywords: ruthenium(II) complex, rhodium(III) complex, iridium(III) complex, biological activity

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9 Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: from Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings

Authors: Christina Volioti, Sotiris Manitsaris, Eleni Katsouli, Vasiliki Tsekouropoulou, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis

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The piano sonatas of Beethoven represent part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The aims of this research were to further explore this intangibility by placing emphasis on defining emotional normative ratings for the “Waldstein” (Op. 53) and “Tempest” (Op. 31) Sonatas of Beethoven. To this end, a musicological analysis was conducted on these particular sonatas and referential patterns in these works of Beethoven were defined. Appropriate interactive questionnaires were designed in order to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts. Based on these ratings, it is possible for emotional annotations for these same referential patterns to be created and integrated into the music score.

Keywords: emotional annotations, intangible cultural heritage, musicological analysis, normative ratings

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8 Gold–M Heterobimetallic Complexes: Synthesis and Initial Reactivity Studies

Authors: Caroline Alice Rouget-Virbel, F. Dean Toste

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Heterobimetallic systems have been precedented in a wide array of bioinorganic and heterogeneous catalytic settings, in which cooperative bond-breaking and bond-forming events mediated by neighboring metal sites have been proposed but are challenging to study and characterize. Heterodinuclear transition-metal catalysis has recently emerged as a promising strategy to tackle challenging chemical transformations, including C−C and C−X couplings as well as small molecule activation. It has been shown that these reactions can traverse nontraditional mechanisms, reactivities, and selectivities when homo- and heterobimetallic systems are employed. Moreover, stoichiometric studies of transmetallation from gold complexes have demonstrated that R transfer from PPh3–Au(I)R to Cp- and Cp*-ligated group 8/9 complexes is a viable elementary step. With these considerations in mind, we hypothesized that heterobimetallic Au–M complexes could serve as a viable and tunable catalyst platform to explore mechanisms and reactivity. In this work, heterobimetallic complexes containing Au(I) centers tethered to Ir(III) and Rh(III) piano stool moieties were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary application of these complexes to a catalytic allylic arylation reaction demonstrates bimetallic cooperativity relative to their monomeric metal components.

Keywords: heterobimetallic, catalysis, gold, rhodium

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7 Teaching and Learning Jazz Improvisation Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains

Authors: Graham Wood

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The 20th Century saw the introduction of many new approaches to music making, including the structured and academic study of jazz improvisation. The rise of many school and tertiary jazz programs was rapid and quickly spread around the globe in a matter of decades. It could be said that the curriculum taught in these new programs was often developed in an ad-hoc manner due to the lack of written literature in this new and rapidly expanding area and the vastly different pedagogical principles when compared to classical music education that was prevalent in school and tertiary programs. There is widespread information regarding the theory and techniques used by jazz improvisers, but methods to practice these concepts in order to achieve the best outcomes for students and teachers is much harder to find. This research project explores the authors’ experiences as a studio jazz piano teacher, ensemble teacher and classroom improvisation lecturer over fifteen years and suggests an alignment with Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains. This alignment categorizes the different tasks that need to be taught and practiced in order for the teacher and the student to devise a well balanced and effective practice routine and for the teacher to develop an effective teaching program. These techniques have been very useful to the teacher and the student to ensure that a good balance of cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills are taught to the students in a range of learning contexts.

Keywords: bloom, education, jazz, learning, music, teaching

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6 Gaze Patterns of Skilled and Unskilled Sight Readers Focusing on the Cognitive Processes Involved in Reading Key and Time Signatures

Authors: J. F. Viljoen, Catherine Foxcroft

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Expert sight readers rely on their ability to recognize patterns in scores, their inner hearing and prediction skills in order to perform complex sight reading exercises. They also have the ability to observe deviations from expected patterns in musical scores. This increases the “Eye-hand span” (reading ahead of the point of playing) in order to process the elements in the score. The study aims to investigate the gaze patterns of expert and non-expert sight readers focusing on key and time signatures. 20 musicians were tasked with playing 12 sight reading examples composed for one hand and five examples composed for two hands to be performed on a piano keyboard. These examples were composed in different keys and time signatures and included accidentals and changes of time signature to test this theory. Results showed that the experts fixate more and for longer on key and time signatures as well as deviations in examples for two hands than the non-expert group. The inverse was true for the examples for one hand, where expert sight readers showed fewer and shorter fixations on key and time signatures as well as deviations. This seems to suggest that experts focus more on the key and time signatures as well as deviations in complex scores to facilitate sight reading. The examples written for one appeared to be too easy for the expert sight readers, compromising gaze patterns.

Keywords: cognition, eye tracking, musical notation, sight reading

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5 Optimal Design of Linear Generator to Recharge the Smartphone Battery

Authors: Jin Ho Kim, Yujeong Shin, Seong-Jin Cho, Dong-Jin Kim, U-Syn Ha

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Due to the development of the information industry and technologies, cellular phones have must not only function to communicate, but also have functions such as the Internet, e-banking, entertainment, etc. These phones are called smartphones. The performance of smartphones has improved, because of the various functions of smartphones, and the capacity of the battery has been increased gradually. Recently, linear generators have been embedded in smartphones in order to recharge the smartphone's battery. In this study, optimization is performed and an array change of permanent magnets is examined in order to increase efficiency. We propose an optimal design using design of experiments (DOE) to maximize the generated induced voltage. The thickness of the poleshoe and permanent magnet (PM), the height of the poleshoe and PM, and the thickness of the coil are determined to be design variables. We made 25 sampling points using an orthogonal array according to four design variables. We performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the generated induced voltage using the commercial electromagnetic analysis software ANSYS Maxwell. Then, we made an approximate model using the Kriging algorithm, and derived optimal values of the design variables using an evolutionary algorithm. The commercial optimization software PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation, and Optimization) was used with these algorithms. The result of the optimization shows that the generated induced voltage is improved.

Keywords: smartphone, linear generator, design of experiment, approximate model, optimal design

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4 Flow: A Fourth Musical Element

Authors: James R. Wilson

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Music is typically defined as having the attributes of melody, harmony, and rhythm. In this paper, a fourth element is proposed -"flow". "Flow" is a new dimension in music that has always been present but only recently identified and measured. The Adagio "Flow Machine" enables us to envision this component and even suggests a new approach to music theory and analysis. The Adagio was created specifically to measure the underlying “flow” in music. The Adagio is an entirely new way to experience and visualize the music, to assist in performing music (both as a conductor and/or performer), and to provide a whole new methodology for music analysis and theory. The Adagio utilizes musical “hit points”, such as a transition from one musical section to another (for example, in a musical composition utilizing the sonata form, a transition from the exposition to the development section) to help define the compositions flow rate. Once the flow rate is established, the Adagio can be used to determine if the composer/performer/conductor has correctly maintained the proper rate of flow throughout the performance. An example is provided using Mozart’s Piano Concerto Number 21. Working with the Adagio yielded an unexpected windfall; it was determined via an empirical study conducted at Nova University’s Biofeedback Lab that watching the Adagio helped volunteers participating in a controlled experiment recover from stressors significantly faster than the control group. The Adagio can be thought of as a new arrow in the Musicologist's quiver. It provides a new, unique way of viewing the psychological impact and esthetic effectiveness of music composition. Additionally, with the current worldwide access to multi-media via the internet, flow analysis can be performed and shared with others with little time and/or expense.

Keywords: musicology, music analysis, music flow, music therapy

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3 The Challenges of Intercultural Transfer: The Italian Reception of Aotearoa/New Zealand Films

Authors: Martina Depentor

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While the cinematic medium contributes to bringing images of a culture to foreign audiences, Audiovisual Translation contributes to deciphering those cultural representations to those same audiences. Through Audiovisual Translation, in fact, elements permeate the reception system and contribute to forging a cultural image of the original/source system in the target/reception system. By analyzing a number of Italian critical reviews, blogs and forum posts, this paper examines the impact and reception in Italy of five of the most successful and influential New Zealand films of the last two decades - An Angel at my Table (1990), The Piano (1993), Heavenly Creatures (1994), Once Were Warriors (1994), Whale Rider (2002) - with the aim of exploring how the adaptation of New Zealand films might condition the representation of New Zealand in the Italian imaginary. The analysis seeks to identify whether a certain degree of cultural loss results from the 'translation' of these films. The films selected share common ground in that they all reveal cultural, social and historical characteristics of New Zealand, from aspects that are unique to this country and that on the surface may render it difficult to penetrate (unfamiliar landscapes, aspects of indigenous culture) to more universal themes (intimate family stories, dysfunctional relationship). They contributed to situating New Zealand on an international stage and to bringing images of the country to many audiences, the Italian one included, with little previous cultural knowledge of the social and political history of New Zealand. Differences in film types pose clearly different levels of interpretative challenges to non-New Zealander audiences, and examples from the films will show how these challenges are or are not overcome if the adaptations display misinterpretations or rendition gaps, and how the process of intercultural transfer further 'domesticates' or 'exoticises' the source culture.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, cultural representation, intercultural transfer, New Zealand Films

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2 A Cross Cultural Study of Jewish and Arab Listeners: Perception of Harmonic Sequences

Authors: Roni Granot

Abstract:

Musical intervals are the building blocks of melody and harmony. Intervals differ in terms of their size, direction, or quality as consonants or dissonants. In Western music, perceptual dissonance is mostly associated with the sensation of beats or periodicity, whereas cognitive dissonance is associated with rules of harmony and voice leading. These two perceptions can be studied separately in musical cultures which include melodic with little or no harmonic structures. In the Arab musical system, there is a number of different quarter- tone intervals creating various combinations of consonant and dissonant intervals. While traditional Arab music includes only melody, today’s Arab pop music includes harmonization of songs, often using typical Western harmonic sequences. Therefore, the Arab population in Israel presents an interesting case which enables us to examine the distinction between perceptual and cognitive dissonance. In the current study, we compared the responses of 34 Jewish Western listeners and 56 Arab listeners to two types of stimuli and their relationships: Harmonic sequences and isolated harmonic intervals (dyads). Harmonic sequences were presented in synthesized piano tones and represented five levels of Harmonic prototypicality (Tonic ending; Tonic ending with half flattened third; Deceptive cadence; Half cadence; and Dissonant unrelated ending) and were rated on 5-point scales of closure and surprise. Here we report only findings related to the harmonic sequences. One-way repeated measures ANOVA with one within subjects factor with five levels (Type of sequence) and one between- subjects factor (Musical background) indicates a main effect of Type of sequence for surprise ratings F (4, 85) = 51 p<.001, and for closure ratings F (4, 78) 9.54 p < .001, no main effect of Background on either surprise or closure ratings, and a marginally significant Type X Background interaction for surprise F (4, 352) = 6.05 p = .069 and closure ratings F (4, 324) 3.89 p < .01). Planned comparisons show that the interaction of Type of sequence X Background center around surprise and closure ratings of the regular versus the half- flattened third tonic and the deceptive versus the half cadence. The half- flattened third tonic is rated as less surprising and as demanding less continuation than the regular tonic by the Arab listeners as compared to the Western listeners. In addition, the half cadence is rated as more surprising but demanding less continuation than the deceptive cadence in the Arab listeners as compared to the Western listeners. Together, our results suggest that despite the vast exposure of Arab listeners to Western harmony, sensitivity to harmonic rules seems to be partial with preference to oriental sonorities such as half flattened third. In addition, the percept of directionality which demands sensitivity to the level on which closure is obtained and which is strongly entrenched in Western harmony, may not be fully integrated into the Arab listeners’ mental harmonic scheme. Results will be discussed in terms of broad differences between Western and Eastern aesthetic ideals.

Keywords: harmony, cross cultural, Arab music, closure

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1 'iTheory': Mobile Way to Music Fundamentals

Authors: Marina Karaseva

Abstract:

The beginning of our century became a new digital epoch in the educational situation. Last decade the newest stage of this process had been initialized by the touch-screen mobile devices with program applications for them. The touch possibilities for learning fundamentals of music are of especially importance for music majors. The phenomenon of touching, firstly, makes it realistic to play on the screen as on music instrument, secondly, helps students to learn music theory while listening in its sound elements by music ear. Nowadays we can detect several levels of such mobile applications: from the basic ones devoting to the elementary music training such as intervals and chords recognition, to the more advanced applications which deal with music perception of non-major and minor modes, ethnic timbres, and complicated rhythms. The main purpose of the proposed paper is to disclose the main tendencies in this process and to demonstrate the most innovative features of music theory applications on the base of iOS and Android systems as the most common used. Methodological recommendations how to use these digital material musicologically will be done for the professional music education of different levels. These recommendations are based on more than ten year ‘iTheory’ teaching experience of the author. In this paper, we try to logically classify all types of ‘iTheory’mobile applications into several groups, according to their methodological goals. General concepts given below will be demonstrated in concrete examples. The most numerous group of programs is formed with simulators for studying notes with audio-visual links. There are link-pair types as follows: sound — musical notation which may be used as flashcards for studying words and letters, sound — key, sound — string (basically, guitar’s). The second large group of programs is programs-tests containing a game component. As a rule, their basis is made with exercises on ear identification and reconstruction by voice: sounds and intervals on their sounding — harmonical and melodical, music modes, rhythmic patterns, chords, selected instrumental timbres. Some programs are aimed at an establishment of acoustical communications between concepts of the musical theory and their musical embodiments. There are also programs focused on progress of operative musical memory (with repeating of sounding phrases and their transposing in a new pitch), as well as on perfect pitch training In addition a number of programs improvisation skills have been developed. An absolute pitch-system of solmisation is a common base for mobile programs. However, it is possible to find also the programs focused on the relative pitch system of solfegе. In App Store and Google Play Market online store there are also many free programs-simulators of musical instruments — piano, guitars, celesta, violin, organ. These programs may be effective for individual and group exercises in ear training or composition classes. Great variety and good sound quality of these programs give now a unique opportunity to musicians to master their music abilities in a shorter time. That is why such teaching material may be a way to effective study of music theory.

Keywords: ear training, innovation in music education, music theory, mobile devices

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