Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1506

Search results for: popular music

1506 Incorporating Popular Nigerian Music into the School Curriculum: A Potential for National Development

Authors: David O. A. Ogunrinade

Abstract:

The significance of education to the growth and development of man is imperative. The Nigerian education philosophy and national objectives are geared towards self-realization, social, cultural, and economic, just to mention a few. The acquisition of skills and abilities, both mental and physical, for individual to live and contribute to the development of society should be of major importance to a functional education curriculum. This study specifically set out to examine the momentous potentials of popular music as a veritable tool to be properly incorporated into the curriculum of music education in Nigeria. This will equip the learners to be self-reliant and contribute to the national economy. Interviews with exponents of Nigerian popular music and the stakeholders in the music industry, as well as audio-visual materials were employed to elicit information. Findings reveal that there are lots of potentials and dexterities in popular music that can enable Nigerian music graduates to contribute their own quota to the national development of the nation, as well as being useful to themselves. If the Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a breed of unemployable youths who could not raise the economic productivity of the country, it is deemed pertinent that the music curriculum as one of the vocational education needs to be reviewed to incorporate popular music, as well as to reflect more of the Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: popular music, music curriculum, music in schools, popular music prospect

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1505 Interpreting Chopin’s Music Today: Mythologization of Art: Kitsch

Authors: Ilona Bala

Abstract:

The subject of this abstract is related to the notion of 'popular music', a notion that should be treated with extreme care, particularly when applied to Frederic Chopin, one of the greatest composers of Romanticism. By ‘popular music’, we mean a category of everyday music, set against the more intellectual kind, referred to as ‘classical’. We only need to look back to the culture of the nineteenth century to realize that this ‘popular music’ refers to the ‘music of the low’. It can be studied from a sociological viewpoint, or as sociological aesthetics. However, we cannot ignore the fact that, very quickly, this music spread to the wealthiest strata of the European society of the nineteenth century, while likewise the lowest classes often listen to the intellectual classical music, so pleasant to listen to. Further, we can observe that a sort of ‘sacralisation of kitsch’ occurs at the intersection between the classical and popular music. This process is the topic of this contribution. We will start by investigating the notion of kitsch through the study of Chopin’s popular compositions. However, before considering the popularisation of this music in today’s culture, we will have to focus on the use of the word kitsch in Chopin’s times, through his own musical aesthetics. Finally, the objective here will be to negate the theory that art is simply the intellectual definition of aesthetics. A kitsch can, obviously, only work on the emotivity of the masses, as it represents one of the features of culture-language (the words which the masses identify with). All art is transformed, becoming something outdated or even outmoded. Here, we are truly within a process of mythologization of art, through the study of the aesthetic reception of the musical work.

Keywords: F. Chopin, kitsch, musical work, mythologization of art, popular music, romantic music

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1504 Database Playlists: Croatia's Popular Music in the Mirror of Collective Memory

Authors: Diana Grguric, Robert Svetlacic, Vladimir Simovic

Abstract:

Scientific research analytically explores database playlists by studying the memory culture through Croatian popular radio music. The research is based on the scientific analysis of databases developed on the basis of the playlist of ten Croatian radio stations. The most recent Croatian song on Statehood Day 2008-2013 is analyzed in order to gain insight into their (memory) potential in terms of storing, interpreting and presenting a national identity. The research starts with the general assumption that popular music is an efficient identifier, transmitter, and promoter of national identity. The aim of the scientific research of the database was to analytically reveal specific titles of Croatian popular songs that participate in marking memories and analyzing their symbolic capital to gain insight into the popular music experience of the past and to develop a new method of scientifically based analysis of specific databases.

Keywords: specific databases, popular radio music, collective memory, national identity

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1503 The Use of Themes and Variations in Early and Contemporary Juju Music

Authors: Olupemi E. Oludare

Abstract:

This paper discusses the thematic structure of Yoruba popular music of Southwest Nigeria. It examines the use of themes and variations in early and contemporary Juju music. The work is an outcome of a research developed by the author in his doctoral studies at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, with the aim of analyzing the thematic and motivic developments in Yoruba popular genres. Observations, interviews, live recordings and CDs were used as methods for eliciting information. Field recordings and CDs of selected musical samples were also transcribed and notated. The research established the prevalent use of string of themes by Juju musicians as a compositional technique in moving from one musical section to another, as they communicate the verbal messages in their song. These themes consisting of the popular ‘call and response’ form found in most African music, analogous to the western ‘subject and answer’ style of the fugue or sonata form, although without the tonic–dominant relations. Due to the short and repetitive form of African melodies and rhythms, a theme is restated as a variation, where its rhythmic and melodic motifs are stylistically developed and repeated, but still retaining its recognizable core musical structure. The findings of this study showed that Juju musicians generally often employ a thematic plan where new themes are used to arrange the songs into sections, and each theme is developed into variations in order to further expand the music, eliminate monotony, and create musical aesthetics, serving as hallmark of its musical identity. The study established the musical and extra-musical attributes of the genre, while recommending further research towards analyzing the various compositional techniques employed in African popular genres.

Keywords: compositional techniques, popular music, theme and variation, thematic development

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1502 Semiotics of the New Commercial Music Paradigm

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

Abstract:

This presentation will address how the statistical analysis of digitized popular music influences the music creation and emotionally manipulates consumers.Furthermore, it will deal with semiological aspect of uniformization of musical taste in order to predict the potential revenues generated by popular music sales. In the USA, we live in an age where most of the popular music (i.e. music that generates substantial revenue) has been digitized. It is safe to say that almost everything that was produced in last 10 years is already digitized (either available on iTunes, Spotify, YouTube, or some other platform). Depending on marketing viability and its potential to generate additional revenue most of the “older” music is still being digitized. Once the music gets turned into a digital audio file,it can be computer-analyzed in all kinds of respects, and the similar goes for the lyrics because they also exist as a digital text file, to which any kin of N Capture-kind of analysis may be applied. So, by employing statistical examination of different popular music metrics such as tempo, form, pronouns, introduction length, song length, archetypes, subject matter,and repetition of title, the commercial result may be predicted. Polyphonic HMI (Human Media Interface) introduced the concept of the hit song science computer program in 2003.The company asserted that machine learning could create a music profile to predict hit songs from its audio features Thus,it has been established that a successful pop song must include: 100 bpm or more;an 8 second intro;use the pronoun 'you' within 20 seconds of the start of the song; hit the bridge middle 8 between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 30 seconds; average 7 repetitions of the title; create some expectations and fill that expectation in the title. For the country song: 100 bpm or less for a male artist; 14-second intro; uses the pronoun 'you' within the first 20 seconds of the intro; has a bridge middle 8 between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 30 seconds; has 7 repetitions of title; creates an expectation,fulfills it in 60 seconds.This approach to commercial popular music minimizes the human influence when it comes to which “artist” a record label is going to sign and market. Twenty years ago,music experts in the A&R (Artists and Repertoire) departments of the record labels were making personal aesthetic judgments based on their extensive experience in the music industry. Now, the computer music analyzing programs, are replacing them in an attempt to minimize investment risk of the panicking record labels, in an environment where nobody can predict the future of the recording industry.The impact on the consumers taste through the narrow bottleneck of the above mentioned music selection by the record labels,created some very peculiar effects not only on the taste of popular music consumers, but also the creative chops of the music artists as well. What is the meaning of this semiological shift is the main focus of this research and paper presentation.

Keywords: music, semiology, commercial, taste

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1501 Prediction of Music Track Popularity: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Syed Atif Hassan, Luv Mehta, Syed Asif Hassan

Abstract:

Hit song science is a field of investigation wherein machine learning techniques are applied to music tracks in order to extract such features from audio signals which can capture information that could explain the popularity of respective tracks. Record companies invest huge amounts of money into recruiting fresh talents and churning out new music each year. Gaining insight into the basis of why a song becomes popular will result in tremendous benefits for the music industry. This paper aims to extract basic musical and more advanced, acoustic features from songs while also taking into account external factors that play a role in making a particular song popular. We use a dataset derived from popular Spotify playlists divided by genre. We use ten genres (blues, classical, country, disco, hip-hop, jazz, metal, pop, reggae, rock), chosen on the basis of clear to ambiguous delineation in the typical sound of their genres. We feed these features into three different classifiers, namely, SVM with RBF kernel, a deep neural network, and a recurring neural network, to build separate predictive models and choosing the best performing model at the end. Predicting song popularity is particularly important for the music industry as it would allow record companies to produce better content for the masses resulting in a more competitive market.

Keywords: classifier, machine learning, music tracks, popularity, prediction

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1500 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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1499 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music

Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen

Abstract:

Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.

Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected music

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1498 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano

Abstract:

The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

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1497 FlameCens: Visualization of Expressive Deviations in Music Performance

Authors: Y. Trantafyllou, C. Alexandraki

Abstract:

Music interpretation accounts to the way musicians shape their performance by deliberately deviating from composers’ intentions, which are commonly communicated via some form of music transcription, such as a music score. For transcribed and non-improvised music, music expression is manifested by introducing subtle deviations in tempo, dynamics and articulation during the evolution of performance. This paper presents an application, named FlameCens, which, given two recordings of the same piece of music, presumably performed by different musicians, allow visualising deviations in tempo and dynamics during playback. The application may also compare a certain performance to the music score of that piece (i.e. MIDI file), which may be thought of as an expression-neutral representation of that piece, hence depicting the expressive queues employed by certain performers. FlameCens uses the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm to compare two audio sequences, based on CENS (Chroma Energy distribution Normalized Statistics) audio features. Expressive deviations are illustrated in a moving flame, which is generated by an animation of particles. The length of the flame is mapped to deviations in dynamics, while the slope of the flame is mapped to tempo deviations so that faster tempo changes the slope to the right and slower tempo changes the slope to the left. Constant slope signifies no tempo deviation. The detected deviations in tempo and dynamics can be additionally recorded in a text file, which allows for offline investigation. Moreover, in the case of monophonic music, the color of particles is used to convey the pitch of the notes during performance. FlameCens has been implemented in Python and it is openly available via GitHub. The application has been experimentally validated for different music genres including classical, contemporary, jazz and popular music. These experiments revealed that FlameCens can be a valuable tool for music specialists (i.e. musicians or musicologists) to investigate the expressive performance strategies employed by different musicians, as well as for music audience to enhance their listening experience.

Keywords: audio synchronization, computational music analysis, expressive music performance, information visualization

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1496 Non-Fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar

Abstract:

An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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1495 Effect of Acoustical Performance Detection and Evaluation in Music Practice Rooms on Teaching

Authors: Hsu-Hui Cheng, Peng-Chian Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Jie-Ying Zhang

Abstract:

Activities in the music practice rooms range from playing, listening, rehearsing to music performing. The good room acoustics in a music practice room enables a music teacher to teach more effectively subtle concepts such as intonation, articulation, balance, dynamics and tone production. A poor acoustical environment would deeply affect the development of basic musical skills of music students. Practicing in the music practice room is an essential daily activity for music students; consequently, music practice rooms are very important facilities in a music school or department. The purpose of this survey is to measure and analyze the acoustic condition of piano practice rooms at the department of music in Zhaoqing University and accordingly apply a more effective teaching method to music students. The volume of the music practice room is approximately 25 m³, and it has existing curtains and some wood hole sound-absorbing panels. When all small music practice rooms are in constant use for teaching, it was found that the values of the background noise at 45, 46, 42, 46, 45 dB(A) in the small music practice room ( the doors and windows were close), respectively. The noise levels in the small music practice room to higher than standard levels (35dB(A)).

Keywords: acoustical performance, music practice room, noise level, piano room

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1494 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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1493 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

Abstract:

Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

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1492 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

Abstract:

Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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1491 Lines for a Different Approach in Music Education: A Review of the Concept of Musicality

Authors: Emmanuel Carlos De Mata Castrejón

Abstract:

Music education has shown to be connected to many areas of sciences and arts, it has also been associated with several facets of human life. The many aspects around the study of music and education, make very difficult for the music educator to find a way through, even though there are lots of methods of teaching music to young children, they are different between one another and so are the students. For the music to help improve children’s development, it is necessary for the children to explore their musicality as they explore their creativity; it must be a challenging, playful, and enjoyable activity. The purpose of this investigation is to focus the music education not in the music, nor the teaching, but the children to be guided through their own musicality. The first approach to this kind of music education comes from the Active learning methods during the nineteenth century, most of which are still used around the world, sometimes with modifications to fit a certain place or type of students. This approach on children’s musicality requires some knowledge of music, pedagogy, and developmental psychology at least, but more important than the theory or the method used for music education, the focus should be on developing the student’s musicality, considering the complexity of this concept. To get this, it is needed, indeed, far more research in the topic, so this is a call for collaborative research and for interdisciplinary teams to emerge. This is a review of authors and methods in music education trying to trace a line pointing to transdisciplinary work and pursuing the development of children’s musicality.

Keywords: children, methods, music education, musicality

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1490 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

Abstract:

Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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1489 Machines Hacking Humans: Performances Practices in Electronic Music during the 21st Century

Authors: Zimasa Siyasanga Gysman

Abstract:

This paper assesses the history of electronic music and its performance to illustrate that machines and technology have largely influenced how humans perform electronic music. The history of electronic music mainly focuses on the composition and production of electronic music with little to no attention paid to its performance by the majority of scholars in this field. Therefore, establishing a history of performance involves investigating what compositions of electronic music called for in the production of electronic music performance. This investigation into seminal works in the history of electronic music, therefore, illustrates the aesthetics of electronic music performance and the aesthetics established in the very beginnings of electronic music performance demonstrate the aesthetics of electronic music which are still prevalent today. The key aesthetics are the repurposing of technology and the hybridisation of technology. Performers take familiar technology (technology that society has become accustomed to using in daily life), not necessarily related to music or performance and use it as an instrument in their performances, such as a rotary dial telephone. Likewise, since the beginnings of electronic music, producers have always experimented with the latest technologies available to them in their compositions and performances. The spirit of performers of electronic music, therefore, revolves around repurposing familiar technologies and using them in new ways, whilst similarly experimenting with new technologies in their performances. This process of hybridisation plays a key role in the production and performance of electronic music in the twentieth century. Through various interviews with performers of electronic music, it is shown that these aesthetics are driving performance practices in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: body, hybridisation, performance, sound

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1488 A Correlation Analysis of an Effective Music Education with Students’ Mathematical Performance

Authors: Yoon Suh Song

Abstract:

Though music education can broaden one’s capacity for mathematical performance, many countries lag behind in music education. Little empirical evidence is found to identify the connection between math and music. Therefore, this research was set out to explore what music-related variables are associated with mathematical performance. The result of our analysis is as follows: A Pearson's Correlation analysis revealed that PISA math score is strongly correlated with students' Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This lays the foundation for further research as to what factors in students’ IQ lead to a better performance in math.

Keywords: music education, mathematical performance, education, IQ

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1487 Comparative Study of Music-Therapy Types on Anxiety in Early Stage Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Farnaz Dehkhoda

Abstract:

This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of active and receptive music-therapy on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 184 young adult patients, who were diagnosed with early stage cancer and were undergoing treatment, were divided into three groups. Two groups received music therapy as a parallel treatment and the third group was control group. In active music-therapy, a music specialist helped the patients to play guitar and sing. In the receptive music-therapy, patients preferred pre-recorded music played by MP3 player. The level of anxiety was measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory as pre-test and post-test. ANCOVA revealed that both types of music-therapy reduced anxiety level of patients and the active music-therapy intervention found to be more effective. The results suggest that music-therapy can be applied as an intervention method contemporary with cancer medical treatment, for improving quality of life in cancer patients by reducing their anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Music-therapy

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1486 Using Music in the Classroom to Help Syrian Refugees Deal with Post-War Trauma

Authors: Vartan Agopian

Abstract:

Millions of Syrian families have been displaced since the beginning of the Syrian war, and the negative effects of post-war trauma have shown detrimental effects on the mental health of refugee children. While educational strategies have focused on vocational training and academic achievement, little has been done to include music in the school curriculum to help these children improve their mental health. The literature of music education and psychology, on the other hand, shows the positive effects of music on traumatized children, especially when it comes to dealing with stress. This paper presents a brief literature review of trauma, music therapy, and music in the classroom, after having introduced the Syrian war and refugee situation. Furthermore, the paper highlights the benefits of using music with traumatized children from the literature and offers strategies for teachers (such as singing, playing an instrument, songwriting, and others) to include music in their classrooms to help Syrian refugee children deal with post-war trauma.

Keywords: children, music, refugees, Syria, war

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1485 Orchestra Course Outcomes in Terms of Values Education

Authors: Z. Kurtaslan, H. Hakan Okay, E. Can Dönmez, I. Kuçukdoğan

Abstract:

Music education aims to bring up individuals most appropriately and to advanced levels as a balanced whole physically, cognitively, affectively, and kinesthetically while making a major contribution to the physical and spiritual development of the individual. The most crucial aim of music education, an influential education medium per se, is to make music be loved; yet, among its educational aims are concepts such as affinity, friendship, goodness, philanthropy, responsibility, and respect all extremely crucial bringing up individuals as a balanced whole. One of the most essential assets of the music education is the training of making music together, solidifying musical knowledge and enabling the acquisition of cooperation. This habit requires internalization of values like responsibility, patience, cooperativeness, respect, self-control, friendship, and fairness. If musicians lack these values, the ensemble will become after some certain time a cacophony. In this qualitative research, the attitudes of music teacher candidates in orchestra/chamber music classes will be examined in terms of values.

Keywords: education, music, orchestra/chamber music, values

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1484 Impact of Western Music Instruments on Indian Classical Music

Authors: Hukam Chand

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the performance of Indian classical music has been improved a lot due to the technical inclusion of western instruments. Infect, the Indian classical music is all about raags which portray a mood and sentiments expressed through a microtonal scale based on natural harmonic series. And, most of the western instruments are not based on natural harmonic series and the tonal system is the only system which has considerable influence on the Indian classical music. However, the use of western instruments has been growing day by day in one way or the other by the Indian artists due to their quality of harmony. As a result of which, there are some common instruments such as harmonium, violin, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer which are being used commonly by Indian and western artists. On the other hand, a lot of fusion has taken place in the music of both sides due to the similar characteristics in their instruments. For example, harmonium which was originally the western instrument has now acquired an important position in Indian classical music to perform raags. Besides, a lot of suggestions for improving in the Indian music have been given by the artists for technical modification in the western instruments to cater the needs of Indian music through melody approach. Pt. Vishav Mohan Bhatt an Indian musician has developed Mohan Veena (called guitar) to perform raags. N. Rajam the Indian lady Violinist has made a remarkable work on Indian classical music by accompanied with vocal music. The purpose of the present research paper is to highlight the changes in Indian Classical Music through performance by using modified western music instruments.

Keywords: Indian classical music, Western instruments, harmonium, guitar, Violin and impact

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1483 Processing Mild versus Strong Violations in Music: A Pilot Study Using Event-Related Potentials

Authors: Marie-Eve Joret, Marijn Van Vliet, Flavio Camarrone, Marc M. Van Hulle

Abstract:

Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide evidence that the human brain can process and understand music at a pre-attentive level. Music-specific ERPs include the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) and a late Negativity (N5). This study aims to further investigate this issue using two types of syntactic manipulations in music: mild violations, containing no out-of-key tones and strong violations, containing out-of-key tones. We will examine whether both manipulations will elicit the same ERPs.

Keywords: ERAN ERPs, Music, N5, P3, ERPs, Music, N5 component, P3 component

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1482 Role of Music Education as a Pillar in Sustainable Development of India

Authors: Rohit Rutka

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to reveal the importance of music as an indispensable aspect in education of art, with regard to every single culture which serves as indisputable support to sustainable development in India. Indian system of education is one of the oldest systems of the world. Both secular and sacred education was handed over systematically by formalizing the system of education. We have found significant growth in the system of education in our country since ancient times. It is a veritable avenue which enables societies to transmit music and musical skills from one generation to the upcoming ones. The research is based on a comprehensive literature review on the impact of music to sustainable development. This paper contextualized that music education is imperative to Sustainable Development, to the adult. It is a vital force of self-expression, communication and empowerment economically, in growing children, involvement in music education will promote their creative ability, thereby contribute to the full development of intellectual capacities, apt emotional development that gives the right values and feelings to various events and happenings, music helps to develop skills, innate and instinctive talent in human being and recommend that the informal music teaching should be incorporated into school system so as to transmit and preserve the cultural music and that the study of music should be made compulsory at all levels of the Indian educational system.

Keywords: sustainable development, music education, culture, music as a pillar to sustainable development

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1481 The Genre Narrative in Beethoven's E-Flat Piano Sonata, Op.31/3

Authors: Yan Zou

Abstract:

Approach to the theory of Musical Narrative, as well as the three criteria of the 'explicit narrative', 'potential narrative' and 'image narrative' which are used to analyze the music, the author put Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in E-flat major, Op.31/3, into the context of the music genre and Western music history, and interpreted the programmatic contents that were embodied and hid in the special music genres.

Keywords: analysis, genre, narrative, rhetoric

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1480 Music for Peace, a Model for Socialization

Authors: Mina Fenercioglu

Abstract:

This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema. In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema’s global program. Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.

Keywords: El Sistema, music education, music for peace, socialization

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1479 Effects of Listening to Pleasant Thai Classical Music on Increasing Working Memory in Elderly: An Electroencephalogram Study

Authors: Anchana Julsiri, Seree Chadcham

Abstract:

The present study determined the effects of listening to pleasant Thai classical music on increasing working memory in elderly. Thai classical music without lyrics that made participants feel fun and aroused was used in the experiment for 3.19-5.40 minutes. The accuracy scores of Counting Span Task (CST), upper alpha ERD%, and theta ERS% were used to assess working memory of participants both before and after listening to pleasant Thai classical music. The results showed that the accuracy scores of CST and upper alpha ERD% in the frontal area of participants after listening to Thai classical music were significantly higher than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05). Theta ERS% in the fronto-parietal network of participants after listening to Thai classical music was significantly lower than before listening to Thai classical music (p < .05).

Keywords: brain wave, elderly, pleasant Thai classical music, working memory

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1478 Piracy Killed the Radio Star: A System Archetype Analysis of Digital Music Theft

Authors: Marton Gergely

Abstract:

Digital experience goods, such as music and video, are readily available and easily accessible through a sundry of illegal mediums. Furthermore, the rate of music theft has been increasing at a seemingly unstoppable rate. Instead of studying the effect of copyright infringement on affected shareholders, this paper aims to examine the overall impact that digital music piracy has on society as a whole. Through a systems dynamics approach, an archetype is built to model the behavior of both legal and illegal music users. Additionally, the effects over time are considered. The conceptual model suggests that if piracy continues to grow at the current pace, industry shareholders will eventually lose the motivation to supply new music. In turn, this tragedy would affect not only the illegal players, but legal consumers as well, by means of a decrease in overall quality of life.

Keywords: music piracy, illegal downloading, tragedy of the commons, system archetypes

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1477 Gestalt in Music and Brain: A Non-Linear Chaos Based Study with Detrended/Adaptive Fractal Analysis

Authors: Shankha Sanyal, Archi Banerjee, Sayan Biswas, Sourya Sengupta, Sayan Nag, Ranjan Sengupta, Dipak Ghosh

Abstract:

The term ‘gestalt’ has been widely used in the field of psychology which defined the perception of human mind to group any object not in part but as a 'unified' whole. Music, in general, is polyphonic - i.e. a combination of a number of pure tones (frequencies) mixed together in a manner that sounds harmonious. The study of human brain response due to different frequency groups of the acoustic signal can give us an excellent insight regarding the neural and functional architecture of brain functions. Hence, the study of music cognition using neuro-biosensors is becoming a rapidly emerging field of research. In this work, we have tried to analyze the effect of different frequency bands of music on the various frequency rhythms of human brain obtained from EEG data. Four widely popular Rabindrasangeet clips were subjected to Wavelet Transform method for extracting five resonant frequency bands from the original music signal. These frequency bands were initially analyzed with Detrended/Adaptive Fractal analysis (DFA/AFA) methods. A listening test was conducted on a pool of 100 respondents to assess the frequency band in which the music becomes non-recognizable. Next, these resonant frequency bands were presented to 20 subjects as auditory stimulus and EEG signals recorded simultaneously in 19 different locations of the brain. The recorded EEG signals were noise cleaned and subjected again to DFA/AFA technique on the alpha, theta and gamma frequency range. Thus, we obtained the scaling exponents from the two methods in alpha, theta and gamma EEG rhythms corresponding to different frequency bands of music. From the analysis of music signal, it is seen that loss of recognition is proportional to the loss of long range correlation in the signal. From the EEG signal analysis, we obtain frequency specific arousal based response in different lobes of brain as well as in specific EEG bands corresponding to musical stimuli. In this way, we look to identify a specific frequency band beyond which the music becomes non-recognizable and below which in spite of the absence of other bands the music is perceivable to the audience. This revelation can be of immense importance when it comes to the field of cognitive music therapy and researchers of creativity.

Keywords: AFA, DFA, EEG, gestalt in music, Hurst exponent

Procedia PDF Downloads 227