Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: abduction

39 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin

Abstract:

Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: bridging exercise, electromyography, low back pain, lower limb exercise

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38 An Abductive Approach to Policy Analysis: Policy Analysis as Informed Guessing

Authors: Adrian W. Chew

Abstract:

This paper argues that education policy analysis tends to be steered towards empiricist oriented approaches, which place emphasis on objective and measurable data. However, this paper argues that empiricist oriented approaches are generally based on inductive and/or deductive reasoning, which are unable to generate new ideas/knowledge. This paper will outline the logical structure of induction, deduction, and abduction, and argues that only abduction provides possibilities for the creation of new ideas/knowledge. This paper proposes the neologism of ‘informed guessing’ as a reformulation of abduction, and also as an approach to education policy analysis. On one side, the signifier ‘informed’ encapsulates the idea that abductive policy analysis needs to be informed by descriptive conceptualization theory to be able to make relations and connections between, and within, observed phenomenon and unobservable general structures. On the other side, the signifier ‘guessing’ captures the cyclical and unsystematic process of abduction. This paper will end with a brief example of utilising ‘informed guessing’ for a policy analysis of school choice lotteries in the United States.

Keywords: abductive reasoning, empiricism, informed guessing, policy analysis

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37 Effect of Passive Pectoralis Minor Stretching on Scapular Kinematics in Scapular Dyskinesia

Authors: Seema Saini, Nidhi Chandra, Tushar Palekar

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the effect of Passive pectoralis minor muscle stretching on scapular kinematics in individuals with scapular dyskinesia. Design: A randomized controlled study was conducted in Pune. The sample size was 30 subjects, which were randomly allocated to either Group A, the experimental group in which passive pectoralis minor stretch was given, or Group B, the control group, in which conventional exercises were given for 3 days a week over 4 weeks. Pre and Post treatment readings of the outcome measures, pectoralis minor length, scapular upward rotation, and lateral scapular slide test were recorded. Results: The results obtained prove a significant difference between pre and post mean values of pectoralis minor length in group A (pre 21.91, post 22.87) and in group B (pre 23.55 post 23.99); scapular upward rotation in group A (pre 49.95, post 50.61) and group B (pre 52.64, post 53.51); lateral scapular slide test at 0° abduction in group A (pre 6.613, post 6.14) and group B (pre 6.84, post 6.22); lateral scapular slide test at 45° abduction in group A (pre 7.14 and post 7.12) and group B (pre 8.18, post 7.53). With an inter-group analysis, it was found that mean of pectoralis minor length, scapular upward rotation, and LSST at 0° abduction in group A was significant than group B (p<0.05). Conclusion: Passive pectoralis minor stretching along with conventional strengthening exercises was shown to be more effective in improving scapular kinematics among patients with scapular dyskinesia.

Keywords: scapulohumeral rhythm, scapular upward rotation, rounded shoulders, scapular strengthening

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36 Effectiveness of Gamified Virtual Physiotherapy Patients with Shoulder Problems

Authors: A. Barratt, M. H. Granat, S. Buttress, B. Roy

Abstract:

Introduction: Physiotherapy is an essential part of the treatment of patients with shoulder problems. The focus of treatment is usually centred on addressing specific physiotherapy goals, ultimately resulting in the improvement in pain and function. This study investigates if computerised physiotherapy using gamification principles are as effective as standard physiotherapy. Methods: Physiotherapy exergames were created using a combination of commercially available hardware, the Microsoft Kinect, and bespoke software. The exergames used were validated by mapping physiotherapy goals of physiotherapy which included; strength, range of movement, control, speed, and activation of the kinetic chain. A multicenter, randomised prospective controlled trial investigated the use of exergames on patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome who had undergone Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression surgery. The intervention group was provided with the automated sensor-based technology, allowing them to perform exergames and track their rehabilitation progress. The control group was treated with standard physiotherapy protocols. Outcomes from different domains were used to compare the groups. An important metric was the assessment of shoulder range of movement pre- and post-operatively. The range of movement data included abduction, forward flexion and external rotation which were measured by the software, pre-operatively, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-operatively. Results: Both groups show significant improvement from pre-operative to 12 weeks in elevation in forward flexion and abduction planes. Results for abduction showed an improvement for the interventional group (p < 0.015) as well as the test group (p < 0.003). Forward flexion improvement was interventional group (p < 0.0201) with the control group (p < 0.004). There was however no significant difference between the groups at 12 weeks for abduction (p < 0.118067) , forward flexion (p < 0.189755) or external rotation (p < 0.346967). Conclusion: Exergames may be used as an alternative to standard physiotherapy regimes; however, further analysis is required focusing on patient engagement.

Keywords: shoulder, physiotherapy, exergames, gamification

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35 Habitual Residence and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction

Authors: Molshree A. Sharma

Abstract:

As a result of globalization, it is increasingly common for people to live in different parts of the world. However there is a corresponding rise of international family law issues and competing jurisdictions. The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction is a multilateral treaty that provides an expeditious method to return a child to their country of habitual residence when ‘internationally abducted’ by a parent from one member country to another. Specifically, the Convention provides a protocol for expeditious return of the child to their habitual residence unless there is a valid exception, the most common being that return would result in an intolerable situation or cause grave risk of harm to the child. This paper analyzes case law from various signatory countries including the United States, highlighting the differences in interpretation of key terms under the Convention, as well as case law in non-Hague signatory countries, with a focus on India and the Middle East.

Keywords: best interest of the child, grave risk of harm, habitual residence, well-settled

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34 Effectiveness of Imagery Compared with Exercise Training on Hip Abductor Strength and EMG Production in Healthy Adults

Authors: Majid Manawer Alenezi, Gavin Lawrence, Hans-Peter Kubis

Abstract:

Imagery training could be an important treatment for muscle function improvements in patients who are facing limitations in exercise training by pain or other adverse symptoms. However, recent studies are mostly limited to small muscle groups and are often contradictory. Moreover, a possible bilateral transfer effect of imagery training has not been examined. We, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of unilateral imagery training in comparison with exercise training on hip abductor muscle strength and EMG. Additionally, both limbs were assessed to investigate bilateral transfer effects. Healthy individuals took part in an imagery or exercise training intervention for two weeks and were assesses pre and post training. Participants (n=30), after randomization into an imagery and an exercise group, trained 5 times a week under supervision with additional self-performed training on the weekends. The training consisted of performing, or to imagine, 5 maximal isometric hip abductor contractions (= one set), repeating the set 7 times. All measurements and trainings were performed laying on the side on a dynamometer table. The imagery script combined kinesthetic and visual imagery with internal perspective for producing imagined maximal hip abduction contractions. The exercise group performed the same number of tasks but performing the maximal hip abductor contractions. Maximal hip abduction strength and EMG amplitudes were measured of right and left limbs pre- and post-training period. Additionally, handgrip strength and right shoulder abduction (Strength and EMG) were measured. Using mixed model ANOVA (strength measures) and Wilcoxen-tests (EMGs), data revealed a significant increase in hip abductor strength production in the imagery group on the trained right limb (~6%). However, this was not reported for the exercise group. Additionally, the left hip abduction strength (not used for training) did not show a main effect in strength, however, there was a significant interaction of group and time revealing that the strength increased in the imagery group while it remained constant in the exercise group. EMG recordings supported the strength findings showing significant elevation of EMG amplitudes after imagery training on right and left side, while the exercise training group did not show any changes. Moreover, measures of handgrip strength and shoulder abduction showed no effects over time and no interactions in both groups. Experiments showed that imagery training is a suitable method for effectively increasing functional parameters of larger limb muscles (strength and EMG) which were enhanced on both sides (trained and untrained) confirming a bilateral transfer effect. Indeed, exercise training did not reveal any increases in the parameters above omitting functional improvements. The healthy individuals tested might not easily achieve benefits from exercise training within the time tested. However, it is evident that imagery training is effective in increasing the central motor command towards the muscles and that the effect seems to be segmental (no increase in handgrip strength and shoulder abduction parameters) and affects both sides (trained and untrained). In conclusion, imagery training was effective in functional improvements in limb muscles and produced a bilateral transfer on strength and EMG measures.

Keywords: imagery, exercise, physiotherapy, motor imagery

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33 Biomechanics of Ceramic on Ceramic vs. Ceramic on Xlpe Total Hip Arthroplasties During Gait

Authors: Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Vassilios Nikolaou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, George C. Babis

Abstract:

In vitro measurements are widely used in order to predict THAs wear rate implementing gait kinematic and kinetic parameters. Clinical tests of materials and designs are crucial to prove the accuracy and validate such measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the affection of THA gait kinematics and kinetics on wear during gait, the essential functional activity of humans, by comparing in vivo gait data to in vitro results. Our study hypothesis is that both implants will present the same hip joint kinematics and kinetics during gait. 127 unilateral primary cementless total hip arthroplasties were included in the research. Independent t-tests were used to identify a statistically significant difference in kinetic and kinematic data extracted from 3D gait analysis. No statistically significant differences observed at mean peak abduction, flexion and extension moments between the two groups (P.abduction= 0,125, P.flexion= 0,218, P.extension= 0,082). The kinematic measurements show no statistically significant differences too (Prom flexion-extension= 0,687, Prom abduction-adduction= 0,679). THA kinematics and kinetics during gait are important biomechanical parameters directly associated with implants wear. In vitro studies report less wear in CoC than CoXLPE when tested with the same gait cycle kinematic protocol. Our findings confirm that both implants behave identically in terms of kinematics in the clinical environment, thus strengthening in vitro results of CoC advantage. Correlated to all other significant factors that affect THA wear could address in a complete prism the wear on CoC and CoXLPE.

Keywords: total hip arthroplasty biomechanics, THA gait analysis, ceramic on ceramic kinematics, ceramic on XLPE kinetics, total hip replacement wear

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32 Quantification of Soft Tissue Artefacts Using Motion Capture Data and Ultrasound Depth Measurements

Authors: Azadeh Rouhandeh, Chris Joslin, Zhen Qu, Yuu Ono

Abstract:

The centre of rotation of the hip joint is needed for an accurate simulation of the joint performance in many applications such as pre-operative planning simulation, human gait analysis, and hip joint disorders. In human movement analysis, the hip joint center can be estimated using a functional method based on the relative motion of the femur to pelvis measured using reflective markers attached to the skin surface. The principal source of errors in estimation of hip joint centre location using functional methods is soft tissue artefacts due to the relative motion between the markers and bone. One of the main objectives in human movement analysis is the assessment of soft tissue artefact as the accuracy of functional methods depends upon it. Various studies have described the movement of soft tissue artefact invasively, such as intra-cortical pins, external fixators, percutaneous skeletal trackers, and Roentgen photogrammetry. The goal of this study is to present a non-invasive method to assess the displacements of the markers relative to the underlying bone using optical motion capture data and tissue thickness from ultrasound measurements during flexion, extension, and abduction (all with knee extended) of the hip joint. Results show that the artefact skin marker displacements are non-linear and larger in areas closer to the hip joint. Also marker displacements are dependent on the movement type and relatively larger in abduction movement. The quantification of soft tissue artefacts can be used as a basis for a correction procedure for hip joint kinematics.

Keywords: hip joint center, motion capture, soft tissue artefact, ultrasound depth measurement

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31 Combined Effect of Therapeutic Exercises and Shock Wave versus Therapeutic Exercises and Phonophoresis in Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohamed M. Mashaly, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Background: Shoulder impingement syndrome is an encroachment of subacromial tissues, rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and the long head of the biceps tendon, as a result of narrowing of the subacromial space. Activities requiring repetitive or sustained use of the arms over head often predispose the rotator cuff tendon to injury. Purpose: To compare between Combined effect therapeutic exercises and Shockwave therapy versus therapeutic exercises and phonophoresis in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed as shoulder impingement syndrome stage II Neer classification due to mechanical causes. Patients were randomly distributed into two equal groups. The first group consisted of 15 patients with a mean age of (45.46+8.64) received therapeutic exercises (stretching exercise of posterior shoulder capsule and strengthening exercises of shoulder muscles) and shockwave therapy (6000 shocks, 2000/session, 3 sessions, 2 weeks apart, 0.22mJ/mm^2) years. The second group consisted of 15 patients with a mean age of 46.26 (+ 8.05) received same therapeutic exercises and phonophoresis (3 times per week, each other day, for 4 consecutive weeks). Patients were evaluated pretreatment and post treatment for shoulder pain severity, shoulder functional disability, shoulder flexion, abduction and internal rotation motions. Results: Patients of both groups showed significant improvement in all the measured variables. In between groups difference the shock wave group showed a significant improvement in all measured variables than phonophoresis group. Interpretation/Conclusion: Combined effect of therapeutic exercises and shock wave were more effective than therapeutic exercises and phonophoresis on decreasing shoulder pain severity, shoulder functional disability, increasing in shoulder flexion, abduction, internal rotation in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

Keywords: shoulder impingement syndrome, therapeutic exercises, shockwave, phonophoresis

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30 Examining the Current Divisive State of American Political Discourse through the Lens of Peirce's Triadic Logical Structure and Pragmatist Metaphysics

Authors: Nathan Garcia

Abstract:

The polarizing dialogue of contemporary political America results from core philosophical differences. But these differences are beyond ideological and reach metaphysical distinction. Good intellectual historians have theorized that fundamental concepts such as freedom, God, and nature have been sterilized of their intellectual vigor. They are partially correct. 19th-century pragmatist Charles Sanders Peirce offers a penetrating philosophy which can yield greater insight into the contemporary political divide. Peirce argues that metaphysical and ethical issues are derivative of operational logic. His triadic logical structure and ensuing metaphysical principles constructed therefrom is contemporaneously applicable for three reasons. First, Peirce’s logic aptly scrutinizes the logical processes of liberal and conservative mindsets. Each group arrives at a cosmological root metaphor (abduction), resulting in a contemporary assessment (deduction), ultimately prompting attempts to verify the original abduction (induction). Peirce’s system demonstrates that liberal citizens develop a cosmological root metaphor in the concept of fairness (abduction), resulting in a contemporary assessment of, for example, underrepresented communities being unfairly preyed upon (deduction), thereby inciting anger toward traditional socio-political structures suspected of purposefully destabilizing minority communities (induction). Similarly, conservative citizens develop a cosmological root metaphor in the concept of freedom (abduction), resulting in a contemporary assessment of, for example, liberal citizens advocating an expansion of governmental powers (deduction), thereby inciting anger towards liberal communities suspected of attacking freedoms of ordinary Americans in a bid to empower their interests through the government (induction). The value of this triadic assessment is the categorization of distinct types of inferential logic by their purpose and boundaries. Only deductive claims can be concretely proven, while abductive claims are merely preliminary hypotheses, and inductive claims are accountable to interdisciplinary oversight. Liberals and conservative logical processes preclude constructive dialogue because of (a) an unshared abductive framework, and (b) misunderstanding the rules and responsibilities of their types of claims. Second, Peircean metaphysical principles offer a greater summary of the contemporaneously divisive political climate. His insights can weed through the partisan theorizing to unravel the underlying philosophical problems. Corrosive nominalistic and essentialistic presuppositions weaken the ability to share experiences and communicate effectively, both requisite for any promising constructive dialogue. Peirce’s pragmatist system can expose and evade fallacious thinking in pursuit of a refreshing alternative framework. Finally, Peirce’s metaphysical foundation enables a logically coherent, scientifically informed orthopraxis well-suited for American dialogue. His logical structure necessitates radically different anthropology conducive to shared experiences and dialogue within a dynamic, cultural continuum. Pierce’s fallibilism and sensitivity to religious sentiment successfully navigate between liberal and conservative values. In sum, he provides a normative paradigm for intranational dialogue that privileges individual experience and values morally defensible notions of freedom, God, and nature. Utilizing Peirce’s thought will yield fruitful analysis and offers a promising philosophical alternative for framing and engaging in contemporary American political discourse.

Keywords: Charles s. Peirce, american politics, logic, pragmatism

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29 The Analysis of Movement Pattern during Reach and Grasp in Stroke Patients: A Kinematic Approach

Authors: Hyo Seon Choi, Ju Sun Kim, DY Kim

Abstract:

Introduction: This study was aimed to evaluate temporo-spatial patterns during the reach and grasp task in hemiplegic stroke patients and to identify movement pattern according to severity of motor impairment. Method: 29 subacute post-stroke patients were enrolled in this study. The temporo-spatial and kinematic data were obtained during reach and grasp task through 3D motion analysis (VICON). The reach and grasp task was composed of four sub-tasks: reach (T1), transport to mouth (T2), transport back to table (T3) and return (T4). The movement time, joint angle and sum of deviation angles from normative data were compared between affected side and unaffected side. They were also compared between two groups (mild to moderate group: 28~66, severe group: 0~27) divided by upper-Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scale. Result: In affected side, total time and durations of all four tasks were significantly longer than those in unaffected side (p < 0.001). The affected side demonstrated significant larger shoulder abduction, shoulder internal rotation, wrist flexion, wrist pronation, thoracic external rotation and smaller shoulder flexion during reach and grasp task (p < 0.05). The significant differences between mild to moderate group and severe group were observed in total duration, durations of T1, T2, and T3 in reach and grasp task (p < 0.01). The severe group showed significant larger shoulder internal rotation during T2 (p < 0.05) and wrist flexion during T2, T3 (p < 0.05) than mild to moderate group. In range of motion during each task, shoulder abduction-adduction during T2 and T3, shoulder internal-external rotation during T2, elbow flexion-extension during T1 showed significant difference between two groups (p < 0.05). The severe group had significant larger total deviation angles in shoulder internal-external rotation and wrist extension-flexion during reach and grasp task (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that post-stroke hemiplegic patients have an unique temporo-spatial and kinematic patterns during reach and grasp task, and the movement pattern may be related to affected upper limb severity. These results may be useful to interpret the motion of upper extremity in stroke patients.

Keywords: Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), motion analysis, reach and grasp, stroke

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28 A Q-Methodology Approach for the Evaluation of Land Administration Mergers

Authors: Tsitsi Nyukurayi Muparari, Walter Timo De Vries, Jaap Zevenbergen

Abstract:

The nature of Land administration accommodates diversity in terms of both spatial data handling activities and the expertise involved, which supposedly aims to satisfy the unpredictable demands of land data and the diverse demands of the customers arising from the land. However, it is known that strategic decisions of restructuring are in most cases repelled in favour of complex structures that strive to accommodate professional diversity and diverse roles in the field of Land administration. Yet despite of this widely accepted knowledge, there is scanty theoretical knowledge concerning the psychological methodologies that can extract the deeper perceptions from the diverse spatial expertise in order to explain the invisible control arm of the polarised reception of the ideas of change. This paper evaluates Q methodology in the context of a cadastre and land registry merger (under one agency) using the Swedish cadastral system as a case study. Precisely, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of Q methodology towards modelling the diverse psychological perceptions of spatial professionals who are in a widely contested decision of merging the cadastre and land registry components of Land administration using the Swedish cadastral system as a case study. An empirical approach that is prescribed by Q methodology starts with the concourse development, followed by the design of statements and q sort instrument, selection of the participants, the q-sorting exercise, factor extraction by PQMethod and finally narrative development by logic of abduction. The paper uses 36 statements developed from a dominant competing value theory that stands out on its reliability and validity, purposively selects 19 participants to do the Qsorting exercise, proceeds with factor extraction from the diversity using varimax rotation and judgemental rotation provided by PQMethod and effect the narrative construction using the logic abduction. The findings from the diverse perceptions from cadastral professionals in the merger decision of land registry and cadastre components in Sweden’s mapping agency (Lantmäteriet) shows that focus is rather inclined on the perfection of the relationship between the legal expertise and technical spatial expertise. There is much emphasis on tradition, loyalty and communication attributes which concern the organisation’s internal environment rather than innovation and market attributes that reveals customer behavior and needs arising from the changing humankind-land needs. It can be concluded that Q methodology offers effective tools that pursues a psychological approach for the evaluation and gradations of the decisions of strategic change through extracting the local perceptions of spatial expertise.

Keywords: cadastre, factor extraction, land administration merger, land registry, q-methodology, rotation

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27 Simulation of Communication and Sensing Device in Automobiles Using VHDL

Authors: Anirudh Bhaikhel

Abstract:

The exclusive objective of this paper is to develop a device which can pass on the interpreted result of the sensed information to the interfaced communicable devices to avoid or minimise accidents. This device may also be used in case of emergencies like kidnapping, robberies, medical emergencies etc. The present era has seen a rapid metamorphosis in the automobile industry with increasing use of technology and speed. The increase in purchasing power of customers and price war of automobile companies has made an easy access to the automobile users. The use of automobiles has increased tremendously in last 4-5 years thus causing traffic congestions and thus making vehicles more prone to accidents. This device can be an effective measure to counteract cases of abduction. Risks of accidents can be decreased tremendously through the notifications received by these alerts. It will help to detect the upcoming emergencies. This paper includes the simulation of the communication and sensing device required in automobiles using VHDL.

Keywords: automobiles, communication, component, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), modulo-2 arithmetic, parity bits, receiver, sensors, transmitter, turns, VHDL (VHSIC hardware descriptive language)

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26 Tele-Rehabilitation for Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Study

Authors: Sharon Harel, Rachel Kizony, Yoram Feldman, Gabi Zeilig, Mordechai Shani

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that may cause restriction in participation in daily activities of young adults. Main symptoms include fatigue, weakness and cognitive decline. The appearance of symptoms, their severity and deterioration rate, change between patients. The challenge of health services is to provide long-term rehabilitation services to people with MS. The objective of this presentation is to describe a course of tele-rehabilitation service of a woman with MS. Methods; R is a 48 years-old woman, diagnosed with MS when she was 22. She started to suffer from weakness of her non-dominant left upper extremity about ten years after the diagnosis. She was referred to the tele-rehabilitation service by her rehabilitation team, 16 years after diagnosis. Her goals were to improve ability to use her affected upper extremity in daily activities. On admission her score in the Mini-Mental State Exam was 30/30. Her Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) score of the left upper extremity was 48/60, indicating mild weakness and she had a limitation of her shoulder abduction (90 degrees). In addition, she reported little use of her arm in daily activities as shown in her responses to the Motor Activity Log (MAL) that were equal to 1.25/5 in amount and 1.37 in quality of use. R. received two 30 minutes on-line sessions per week in the tele-rehabilitation service, with the CogniMotion system. These were complemented by self-practice with the system. The CogniMotion system provides a hybrid (synchronous-asynchronous), the home-based tele-rehabilitation program to improve the motor, cognitive and functional status of people with neurological deficits. The system consists of a computer, large monitor, and the Microsoft’s Kinect 3D sensor. This equipment is located in the client’s home and connected to a clinician’s computer setup in a remote clinic via WiFi. The client sits in front of the monitor and uses his body movements to interact with games and tasks presented on the monitor. The system provides feedback in the form of ‘knowledge of results’ (e.g., the success of a game) and ‘knowledge of performance’ (e.g., alerts for compensatory movements) to enhance motor learning. The games and tasks were adapted for R. motor abilities and level of difficulty was gradually increased according to her abilities. The results of her second assessment (after 35 on-line sessions) showed improvement in her FMA score to 52 and shoulder abduction to 140 degrees. Moreover, her responses to the MAL indicated an increased amount (2.4) and quality (2.2) of use of her left upper extremity in daily activities. She reported high level of enjoyment from the treatments (5/5), specifically the combination of cognitive challenges while moving her body. In addition, she found the system easy to use as reflected by her responses to the System Usability Scale (85/100). To-date, R. continues to receive treatments in the tele-rehabilitation service. To conclude, this case report shows the potential of using tele-rehabilitation for people with MS to provide strategies to enhance the use of the upper extremity in daily activities as well as for maintaining motor function.

Keywords: motor function, multiple-sclerosis, tele-rehabilitation, daily activities

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25 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

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Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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24 Child Soldier in Africa: A Big Challenge to Human Right

Authors: Adegboyega Adeolapo Ola, Gerelene Jagganath

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One of the greatest challenges of human right in the world, especially African states is the use of child soldiers in armed conflict, constituting a major source of destruction of lives and properties. Mostly, they are in developing countries with the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, the abduction and employment of children as soldiers is a form of exploitative labour that is tantamount to slavery. Since the end of cold war, Child soldier has increased in Africa countries like Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Uganda. This study examines the main cause of the recruitment and use of child soldiers and its challenges to human right. It further assesses the role of international regional bodies and various governments in curbing child soldiers with a view to proffer suggestions on how to address some of the resultant threat of human right. The study posits that the control of small arms and light weapons is essential in curtailing the spread of child soldier and abuse of human right. This hopefully should result in the sustainability of human/child right in African continent. It is a recommendation of this study that, in order to sustain human right in the region, all Africa leaders, government and regional bodies; such as African Union, Economic Community of West African States, South African Development Community among others, should cooperate and work together to address the issue of illicit small arms, which could eventually lead to child soldier.

Keywords: arms control, child soldier, human right, small arms

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23 Working Together: The Nature of Collaborative Legal and Social Services and Their Influence on Practice

Authors: Jennifer Donovan

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Practice collaborations between legal assistance and social support services have emerged as a growing framework worldwide for delivering services to clients with high degrees of disadvantage, vulnerability and complexity. In Australia, the past five years has seen a significant growth in these socio-legal collaborations, with programs being delivered through legal, social service and health organizations and addressing a range of issues including mental health, immigration, parental child abduction and domestic violence. This presentation is based on research currently mapping the nature of these collaborations in Australia and exploring the influence that collaborating professions are having on each other’s practice. In a similar way to problem-solving courts being seen as a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in the court setting, socio-legal collaborations have the potential to be a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in an advice setting. This presentation will explore the varied ways in which socio-legal collaboration is being implemented in these programs. It will also explore the development of interdisciplinary therapeutic jurisprudence within them, with preliminary findings suggesting that both legal and social service practice is being influenced by the collaborative setting, with legal practice showing a more therapeutic orientation and social service professions, such as social work, moving toward a legal and rights orientation.

Keywords: collaboration, socio-legal, Australia, therapeutic jurisprudence

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22 Terrorism and National Development: A Critique of Its Aftermath on Educational Attainment

Authors: David Chapola Nggada

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Although the concept of terrorism is not a new phenomenon to Nigeria, the protracted terrorist activities experiencing in the north-eastern part of the country since 2009, had left an indelible mark on virtually every aspects of lives whether directly or indirectly, particularly the educational sector. Indeed, since the abduction of over 200 schoolgirls at Chibok in 2014 by the insurgence, education had witnessed a setback as most school remains closed for sometimes. The aftermath of this development on education and its future multiplier effect on national development is a source of concern. Consequently, this paper is designed to examine the consequences of terrorism on educational attainment and national development among the Chibok community of Borno State. The technique employed involves a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative research work on a sample size of 79 secondary school students currently displaced from Chibok, Damboa and Askira-Uba, now residing as internally displaced persons(IDPs) in Biu, Gombe, Maiduguri. A random sample technique is used. Structured and semi-unstructured questionnaire were administered. The result shows that, a significant number of students over these years, lacked access to education and this posed a great danger to national development. Recommendations towards reinvigorating education as a panacea to social, economic cum political vices were articulated. Concerted effort should be made to create confidence in the community.

Keywords: education, effect, terrorism, national, development

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21 Physiotherapy Program for Frozen Shoulder on Length of Follow up and Range of Motions

Authors: Orawan Vichiansan, J. Kraipoj, K.Phandech, P. Sirasaporn

Abstract:

Generally, frozen shoulder will improve over time, although it may take a long time up to year. The symptoms of frozen shoulder present by pain around shoulder and consequently limit range of motions. The effect of frozen shoulder leads to limit activities daily living life and high medical care cost. Physiotherapy is well known treatment for frozen shoulder but there was no data about the treatment of physiotherapy in frozen shoulder and length of follow up. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate physiotherapy program for frozen shoulder on range of motion and length of follow up. A retrospective study design was conducted. 469 medical records of patients with frozen shoulder were reviewed. These frozen shoulders were treated at physiotherapy unit, department of Rehabilitation last 3 years (January, 2014- December, 2016). The data consist of range of motions and length of follow up was recorded. The medical record of 183 males and 286 females with average aged 57.82±12.32 years were reviewed in this study. There was a statistically significant increase in shoulder flexion [mean difference 30.24 with 95%CI were [24.37-36.12], shoulder abduction [mean difference 34.93 with 95%CI were 27.8-42.0], shoulder internal rotation [mean difference 17.25 with 95%CI were 12.55-21.95] and shoulder external rotation [mean difference 17.71 with 95%CI were [13.07-22.36] respectively. In addition, the length of follow up averaged 84 days. In summary, the retrospective study show physiotherapy program likely to be benefit for patients with frozen shoulder in term of range of motion and short length of follow up.

Keywords: frozen shoulder, physiotherapy, range of motions, length of follow up

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20 Utility of Range of Motion Measurements on Classification of Athletes

Authors: Dhiraj Dolai, Rupayan Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In this study, a comparison of Range Of Motion (ROM) of middle and long-distance runners and swimmers has been made. The mobility of the various joints is essential for the quick movement of any sportsman. Knowledge of a ROM helps in preventing injuries, in repeating the movement, and in generating speed and power. ROM varies among individuals, and it is influenced by factors such as gender, age, and whether the motion is performed actively or passively. ROM for running and swimming, both performed with due consideration on speed, plays an important role. The time of generation of speed and mobility of the particular joints are very important for both kinds of athletes. The difficulties that happen during running and swimming in the direction of motion is changed. In this study, data were collected for a total of 102 subjects divided into three groups: control group (22), middle and long-distance runners (40), and swimmers (40), and their ages are between 12 to 18 years. The swimmers have higher ROM in shoulder joint flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movement. Middle and long-distance runners have significantly greater ROM from Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with a 5.82 mean difference. Swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with 24.84 mean difference and swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Middle and Long distance runners in left shoulder flexion with 19.02 mean difference. The picture will be clear after a more detailed investigation.

Keywords: range of motion, runners, swimmers, significance

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19 Survey of Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Badminton Injury Using Medical Check-Up and Questionnaire of School Age Badminton Players

Authors: Xiao Zhou, Kazuhiro Imai, Xiaoxuan Liu

Abstract:

Badminton is one type of racket sports that requires repetitive overhead motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes. These characteristics could be stressful for body regions that may cause badminton injuries. Regarding racket players including badminton players, there have not been any studies that have utilized medical check-up to evaluate epidemiology and mechanism of injuries. In addition, epidemiology of badminton injury in school age badminton players is unknown. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the badminton injuries, physical fitness parameters, and intensity of shoulder pain using medical check-up so that the mechanisms of shoulder injuries might be revealed. The second purpose of this study was to survey the distribution of badminton injuries in elementary school age players so that injury prevention can be implemented as early as possible. The results of this study revealed that shoulder pain occurred in all players, and present shoulder pain players had smaller weight, greater shoulder external rotation (ER) gain, significantly thinner circumference of upper limbs and greater trunk extension. Identifying players with specific of these factors may enhance the prevention of badminton injury. This study also shows that there are high incidences of knee, ankle, plantar, and shoulder injury or pain in elementary school age badminton players. Injury prevention program might be implemented for elementary school age players.

Keywords: badminton injury, epidemiology, medical check-up, school age players

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18 Informing the Implementation of Career Conversations in Secondary Schools for the Building of Student Career Competencies: The Case of Portugal

Authors: Cristina Isabrl de Oliveira SAntos

Abstract:

The study aims to investigate how transferrable and effective career conversations could be, in the context of general track Portuguese secondary schools, with the view of improving students’ career competencies. It does so by analysing: 1) the extent to which students’ perceptions of career conversations relate with their existing career competencies, 2) the extent to which each of the parameters; perceptions of career conversations and student career competencies, relate with student situational and personal characteristics, 3) how patterns in perceptions of headteachers and of teachers at a school, regarding the implementation of career conversations, correlate to the views of students regarding career conversations and to school contextual characteristics. Data were collected from 27 secondary schools out of 32 in the same district of Aveiro, in Portugal. Interviews were performed individually, with 27 headteachers, and in groups, with a total of 10 teacher groups and 11 student groups. Survey responses were also collected from742 studentsand 310 teachers. Interview responses were coded and analysed using grounded theory principles. Data from questionnaires is currently beingscrutinised through descriptive statistics with SPSS, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Triangulation during different stages of data analysis uses the principles of retroduction and abduction of the realist evaluation framework. Conclusions from the pilot-study indicate that student perceptions scores on content and relationship in career conversations change according to their career competencies and the type of school. Statistically significant differences in perceptions of career conversations were found for subgroups based on gender and parent educational level.

Keywords: career conversations, career competencies, secondary education, teachers

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17 Physiotherapy Program for Frozen Shoulder Related to Onset of Symptom, Range of Motions and Obtaining Modalities

Authors: Narupon Kunbootsri, P. Sirasaporn

Abstract:

Frozen shoulder is a common problem present by pain and limit range of motion. The prevalence of frozen shoulder showed 18-31% of population. The effect of frozen shoulder lead to limit activities daily living life, high medical care cost and so on. Physiotherapy is one of the treatments for frozen shoulder but there was no data about the treatment of physiotherapy. Moreover, it is question about onset of symptom relate to physiotherapy program and obtaining physical modalities and delayed start physiotherapy program lead to delayed improvement. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate physiotherapy program for frozen shoulder relate to onset of symptom, range of motion and obtaining physical modalities. A retrospective study design was conducted. 182 medical records of patients with frozen shoulder were reviewed. These frozen shoulders were treated at physiotherapy unit, department of Rehabilitation last 3 years (January, 2014- December, 2016). The data consist of onset of symptom, range of motion and obtaining physical modalities were recorded. There was a statistically significant increase in shoulder flexion [mean difference 38.88 with 95%CI were [16.00-61.77], shoulder abduction [mean difference 48.47 with 95%CI were 16.07-90.59], shoulder internal rotation [mean difference 22.36 with 95%CI were 2.81-37.18] and shoulder external rotation [mean difference 32.12 with 95%CI were [(-2.47)-(46.91)]. In addition, the onset of symptom was 76.42±46.90 days. And the physical modalities used frequently were hot pack 14.8% and ultrasound diathermy 13.7%. In conclusion, the physiotherapy program including, hot pack and ultrasound diathermy seem to be useful for frozen shoulder. But onset of symptom is too long to start physiotherapy programs.

Keywords: frozen shoulder, range of motions, onset of symptom, physiotherapy, physical modality

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16 An Electromyographic Study of Muscle Coordination during Dynamic Glenohumeral Joint Elevation

Authors: Omid Khaiyat, David Hawkes

Abstract:

Introduction: There remains a lack of information on sophisticated coordination patterns across shoulder girdle muscles. Considering the stability of the shoulder being heavily dependent on coordinated muscle activity during its wide-ranging movements, it is important that key intermuscular relationships are well-defined for a better understanding of underlying pathology. This study investigated shoulder intermuscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Materials and Methods: EMG was recorded from 14 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants during shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction, and extension. Cross-correlation by means of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Results: Coordination between rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups was significantly higher (p =0.020-0.035) during the initial (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) phases of elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34). Furthermore, a high level of coordination (PCC = 0.89) was noted between the deltoid group and the adductor group (latissimus dorsi and teres major) during the initial stage of shoulder elevation. Conclusion: The destabilising force of the deltoid during the initial stage of shoulder elevation is balanced by coordinated activity of rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major. This is also the case for the end-range of movement, where increased demand for stability again leads to higher coordination between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. Appreciation of the sophistication of normal shoulder function evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

Keywords: shoulder, coordination, EMG, muscle activity, upper limb

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15 Women in Violent Conflicts and the Challenges of Food Security in Northeast Nigeria: The Case of Boko Haram Insurgency

Authors: Grace Modupe Adebo, Ayodeji Oluwamuyiwa Adedapo

Abstract:

Women are key actors in ensuring food security in terms of food availability, food access, and food utilization in the developing economy, however, they suffer mostly during violent conflicts due to their feminist nature of rearing and caring for their children and relatives. The study was embarked upon to access the effects of violent conflicts posed by Boko Haram insurgency on women and food security in the Northeast of Nigeria. The study made use of secondary data. A time series data collected over a 22 years period were used. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and t-test analysis. The findings of the study established a significant difference in food production (availability) before and after the Boko Haram insurgency at the 1% level of significance. The high level of Internally Displaced Person (IDP) with a high proportion of women depicts a very low level of food accessibility as the men and women has fled and uninhabited their place of abode for over a period of four to five years, thus diminishing their economic power, and the means of acquiring food which invariably endanger food stability and utilization. The study confirmed the abduction and changing roles of women as cooks, porters, spies, partners, and sex slaves to Boko Haram troop members, thus affecting their livelihoods and food security. The study recommends hands-on interventions by the governmental, non-governmental and international agencies to terminate the activities of Boko Haram in the area and restore the food production for enhanced food security.

Keywords: Boko Haram insurgency, food accessibility, food production, food utilization, women’s livelihoods

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14 Eight Weeks of Suspension Systems Training on Fat Mass, Jump and Physical Fitness Index in Female

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Greater core stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. Core stability exercises on instability device (such as the TRX suspension systems) were found to be able to induce higher core muscle activity than performing on a stable surface. However, high intensity interval TRX suspension exercises training on sport performances remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity TRX suspension training could improve sport performance. Twenty-four healthy university female students (age 19.0 years, height 157.9 cm, body mass 51.3 kg, fat mass 25.2 %) were voluntarily participated in this study. After a familiarization session, each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30 seconds, followed by 30 seconds break, two times per week for eight weeks while each exercise session was increased by 10 seconds every week. The results showed that the fat mass (about 12.92%) decreased significantly, sit and reach test (9%), 1 minute sit-up test (17.5%), standing broad jump (4.8%), physical fitness index (10.3%) increased significantly after 8-week high intensity TRX suspension training. Hence, eight weeks of high intensity interval TRX suspension exercises training can improve hamstring flexibility, trunk endurance, jump ability, aerobic fitness and fat mass percentage decreased substantially.

Keywords: core endurance, jump, flexibility, cardiovascular fitness

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13 MAGNI Dynamics: A Vision-Based Kinematic and Dynamic Upper-Limb Model for Intelligent Robotic Rehabilitation

Authors: Alexandros Lioulemes, Michail Theofanidis, Varun Kanal, Konstantinos Tsiakas, Maher Abujelala, Chris Collander, William B. Townsend, Angie Boisselle, Fillia Makedon

Abstract:

This paper presents a home-based robot-rehabilitation instrument, called ”MAGNI Dynamics”, that utilized a vision-based kinematic/dynamic module and an adaptive haptic feedback controller. The system is expected to provide personalized rehabilitation by adjusting its resistive and supportive behavior according to a fuzzy intelligence controller that acts as an inference system, which correlates the user’s performance to different stiffness factors. The vision module uses the Kinect’s skeletal tracking to monitor the user’s effort in an unobtrusive and safe way, by estimating the torque that affects the user’s arm. The system’s torque estimations are justified by capturing electromyographic data from primitive hand motions (Shoulder Abduction and Shoulder Forward Flexion). Moreover, we present and analyze how the Barrett WAM generates a force-field with a haptic controller to support or challenge the users. Experiments show that by shifting the proportional value, that corresponds to different stiffness factors of the haptic path, can potentially help the user to improve his/her motor skills. Finally, potential areas for future research are discussed, that address how a rehabilitation robotic framework may include multisensing data, to improve the user’s recovery process.

Keywords: human-robot interaction, kinect, kinematics, dynamics, haptic control, rehabilitation robotics, artificial intelligence

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12 Effect of High-Intensity Core Muscle Exercises Training on Sport Performance in Dancers

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Traditional core stability, core endurance, and balance exercises on a stable surface with isometric muscle actions, low loads, and multiple repetitions, which may not improvements the swimming and running economy performance. However, the effects of high intensity core muscle exercise training on jump height, sprint, and aerobic fitness remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity core muscle exercises training could improve sport performances in dancers. Thirty healthy university dancer students (28 women and 2 men; age 20.0 years, height 159.4 cm, body mass 52.7 kg) were voluntarily participated in this study, and each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30-second, with 30-second of rest between exercises, two times per week for eight weeks and each exercise session was increased by 10-second every week. We measured agility, explosive force, anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness in dancer performance before and after eight weeks of training. The results showed that the 8-week high intensity core muscle training would significantly increase T-test agility (7.78%), explosive force of acceleration (3.35%), vertical jump height (8.10%), jump power (6.95%), lower extremity anaerobic ability (7.10%) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (4.15%). Therefore, it can be concluded that eight weeks of high intensity core muscle exercises training can improve not only agility, sprint ability, vertical jump ability, anaerobic and but also cardiovascular fitness measures as well.

Keywords: balance, jump height, sprint, maximal oxygen uptake

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11 Deployment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Reduce Occurrences of Terrorism in Nigeria

Authors: Okike Benjamin

Abstract:

Terrorism is the use of violence and threat to intimidate or coerce a person, group, society or even government especially for political purposes. Terrorism may be a way of resisting government by some group who may feel marginalized. It could also be a way of expressing displeasure over the activities of government. On 26th December, 2009, US placed Nigeria as a terrorist nation. Recently, the occurrences of terrorism in Nigeria have increased considerably. In Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria, there was a bomb blast which claimed many lives on the eve of 2010 Christmas. Similarly, there was another bomb blast in Mugadishi (Sani Abacha) Barracks Mammy market on the eve of 2011 New Year. For some time now, it is no longer news that bomb exploded in some Northern part of Nigeria. About 25 years ago, stopping terrorism in America by the Americans relied on old-fashioned tools such as strict physical security at vulnerable places, intelligence gathering by government agents, or individuals, vigilance on the part of all citizens, and a sense of community in which citizens do what could be done to protect each other. Just as technology has virtually been used to better the way many other things are done, so also this powerful new weapon called computer technology can be used to detect and prevent terrorism not only in Nigeria, but all over the world. This paper will x-ray the possible causes and effects of bomb blast, which is an act of terrorism and suggest ways in which Explosive Detection Devices (EDDs) and computer software technology could be deployed to reduce the occurrences of terrorism in Nigeria. This become necessary with the abduction of over 200 schoolgirls in Chibok, Borno State from their hostel by members of Boko Haram sect members on 14th April, 2014. Presently, Barrack Obama and other world leaders have sent some of their military personnel to help rescue those innocent schoolgirls whose offence is simply seeking to acquire western education which the sect strongly believe is forbidden.

Keywords: terrorism, bomb blast, computer technology, explosive detection devices, Nigeria

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10 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

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