Search results for: Chinyere Celestina Esimone
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Chinyere Celestina Esimone

17 Integrating Music on Construction Sites: Key Benefits and Cautions: A Literature Perspective

Authors: Oluwatayomi Daniel Fadumo, Chinyere Celestina Esimone


The construction industry, as a massive human capital-related sector, requires an always motivated workforce. The inability to maintain this state has been found to hamper productivity which ultimately leads to poor project delivery, infrastructural development decline, and low morale among citizens. The need to develop an approach to keep this set of people inspired before, during, and after work becomes a necessity; this paper aims to evaluate the key benefits and cautions in integrating music on construction sites in Nigeria to improve effective project delivery. In attaining this, the study identified the advantages of music on construction sites, evaluated the key considerations in introducing music on construction sites, and recommended measures for the effective integration of music on construction sites in Nigeria. The study is a descriptive research through the use of secondary data gleaned from relevant literature, journals, and research sites. The study concluded that different forms of music genres can be implemented ranging from Pop music, rock, metal, and classical music. Introducing music has the advantage of industrial branding, improving workers` morale, setting the pace for working, helping in information retention, and improving mental health and happiness. The key consideration, however, is to provide the right volume and music that doesn’t pose health and safety challenges. The study finally recommended that for effective integration of music on construction sites in Nigeria, policies should be drafted regulating its use, specific radio customized for the site be introduced and that research-based music, proven to have previously helped, should be given to a group of workers.

Keywords: music, construction sites, workers, construction industry, construction management practice

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16 Educaton for Social Reconstruction: Impact of Social Terrorism on Women Education in Nigeria

Authors: Theresa Chinyere ONU


This paper examines the effect of social terrorism on education in Nigeria. The article looked into some prevailing conditions of international political unrest and insecurity. The fear and risk of these conditions to national security and the struggle for power establishment which has further intensified and taken the shape of terrorism has imposed devastating effects on the growth and prosperity of Nigeria; as traffic patterns get disturbed, hospitals and schools get dysfunctional. This has also affected the educational standard in Nigeria as parents are no longer comfortable in sending their children to schools in some states for the fear of terrorist attacks. The study emphasized the integrated the effort of the government management institutions.

Keywords: education, social terrorism, women, Nigeria

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15 Witchcraft Belief and HIV/AIDS in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Health-Care

Authors: Celestina Omoso Isiramen


The influence of witchcraft belief on disease causation, cure and public health system in Nigeria cannot be underrated. This paper investigated the nexus between witchcraft phenomenon and health-seeking behaviour of HIV sufferers in Edo state, Nigeria. Survey methodology was adopted and stratified random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 600 sample group spread into 200 HIV sufferers, 200 spiritual healers and 200 bio-medics from the three Senatorial districts of the state. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire and in-dept interview and analyzed using simple percentage and frequency. Major findings were: belief in witchcraft significantly influenced the people’s perception of HIV causation and wellness and this impacted adversely on public health-care. Poverty, ignorance and dearth of retroviral drugs enhanced the people’s recourse to spiritual healers. Collaboration between spiritual healing techniques and biomedicine was recommended as panacea for curbing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. It concluded that socio-economic problems must be addressed while the importance of integrating the values of spiritual healing into biomedicine cannot be overstressed.

Keywords: biomedicine, health care, HIV/AIDS, spirituality, witchcraft

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14 Using Composite Flour in Bread Making: Cassava and Wheat Flour

Authors: Aishatu Ibrahim, Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu


The study set out to produce bread using composite cassava flour. The main objective of the work is to determine the possibility of using composite cassava flour in bread production and to find out whether it is acceptable in the hospitality industry and by the general public. The research questions were formed and analyzed. A sample size of 10 professional catering judges was used in the department of hospitality management/food science and technology. Relevant literature was received. Data collected was analyzed using mean deviation. Product A which is 20% cassava flour and 80% wheat flour product, and D which is 100% wheat flour product were competing with high acceptability. It was observed that the composite cassava dough needed to be allowed to proof for a longer period. Lastly, the researcher recommends that the caterers should be encouraged to use composite cassava flour in the production of bread in order to reduce cost.

Keywords: bread, cassava, flour, wheat

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13 Development of Adhesive from Prosopis african Seed Endosperm (OKPEYI)

Authors: Florence Chinyere Nwangwu, Rosemary Ene


An experimental study was carried out to develop an adhesive from Prosopis africana seed endosperm. The Prosopis seeds for this work were obtained from Enugu State in the South East part of Nigeria. The Prosopis seeds were prepared by separating the Prosopis endosperm from the seed coat and cotyledon. The dry adhesive gotten from the endosperm was later dissolved to get the adhesive solution. Confirmatory tests like viscosity, density, pH, and binding strength were carried out. The effect of time, temperature, concentration on the yield and properties of the adhesive were investigated. The results obtained showed that increase in concentration, time, temperature decreases the viscosity of the Prosopis adhesive and yield of Prosopis endosperm. It was also deduced that increase in viscosity increases the binding strength of the Prosopis adhesive. The percentage of the adhesive yield from Prosopis endosperm showed that the commercialization of the seed in Nigeria will be possible and profitable.

Keywords: adhesive, Prosopis, viscosity, endosperm

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12 Production of Biodiesel from Melon Seed Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as a Catalyst

Authors: Ene Rosemary Ndidiamaka, Nwangwu Florence Chinyere


The physiochemical properties of the melon seed oil was studied to determine its potentials as viable feed stock for biodisel production. The melon seed was extracted by solvent extraction using n-hexane as the extracting solvent. In this research, methanol was the alcohol used in the production of biodiesel, although alcohols like ethanol, propanol may also be used. Sodium hydroxide was employed for the catalysis. The melon seed oil was characterized for specific gravity, pH, ash content, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, flash point, viscosity, and refractive index using standard methods. The melon seed oil had very high oil content. Specific gravity and flash point of the oil is satisfactory. However, moisture content of the oil exceeded the stipulated ASRTM standard for biodiesel production. The overall results indicates that the melon seed oil is suitable for single-stage transesterification process to biodiesel production.

Keywords: biodiesel, catalyst, melon seed, transesterification

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11 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu


This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

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10 Comparative Analysis of White Bean Cake and Soybean Cake through Sensory Evaluation

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu, Linda Ojeyokan


This study produced and compared the acceptability of white bean cake (akara) and soy bean cake (akara) through sensory evaluation. Two varieties of beans were used; white (haricot) beans and soy beans; processed in the wet (paste) form and dry (flour) form. They were all used in the production of samples of bean cake (akara) under the same condition. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the products; 100% white beans cake paste was labeled (A1), 50% white bean and 50% soya bean cake paste was (B1), 100% white bean cake flour was (A2); 50% white bean cake flour and 50% soya bean cake flour (B2). A five (5) point hedonic scale rating, very good (5), good (4), fair (3), poor (2) and very poor (1) was administered on the ten panel of judge. 40 questionnaires were administered to the general public to access their knowledge of soya beans akara. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine which product is more acceptable. Table, percentages and mean score were methods employed in analyzing data collected. The analysis revealed that soya bean (akara) is generally acceptable except for sample B1 that was rated poor with 2 points, white beans cake was rated very well with 5 points. It was recommended that the hospitality industry could introduce soya bean cakes in the breakfast menu. Families can also include these products in their breakfast.

Keywords: akara, bean cake, soybean, white bean

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9 Intersectional Perspectives on Gender Equality in Higher Education: A Survey on Swiss Universities of Applied Science

Authors: Birgit Schmid, Brigitte Liebig, Susanne Burren, Maritza Le Breton, Martin Boehnel, Celestina Porta


Internationalization of students is part of the agenda of many universities worldwide. Yet, how well do universities achieve to guarantee educational success for male and female students of migrant background? This contribution aims on analyzing the effects of the Swiss university environment on perceived educational outcome of migrant students from a gender sensitive perspective. Social selectivity and gender inequalities strongly influence students’ access and success at universities. However, the complex interaction between universities and their disciplinary environments, and educational success of migrant students of both sex remains rarely examined so far. Starting from an intersectional perspective and neo-institutional approaches on higher education organizations, this contribution addresses formal/informal factors in the university environment in its impact on male/female students’ perception of well-being, success and dropout motivation. The paper starts from a most recent Swiss online-survey of Bachelor-students in two Universities of Applied Science and a University of Education in Switzerland. It compares students’ perspectives in four large BA degree courses with different male/female ratio, i.e. educational science, technical/computer science, economy, and social work (N=9`608). Results highlight the complex interplay of gender, migrant background and further dimensions of social differentiation on students’ perception in these different fields of education. Further, they illustrate correlations between students’ perception of discriminatory contexts, poor ratings of social integration and study success, as well a higher rate of dropout ideas. The paper lines out, that formal aspects of internationalization are less important for successfully integrating male/female migrant students than informal university conditions, such as a culture of diversity, which has to become integral part of internationalization strategies.

Keywords: gender and migration, higher education, internationalization, success

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8 Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies on Aqueous Leaf Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in Albino Rats

Authors: G. E. Forcados, M. L. Shu, C. N. Chinyere


Acalypha wilkesiana is a medicinal plant commonly used in most parts of West Africa as a decoction in treating several human diseases. Existing literature on its toxicity is predominantly on the organic extracts in contrast to the routine use of hot aqueous extracts as decoction. The aim of this study was to examine the phytochemical profile and sub-acute toxicity of A. wilkesiana leaf extracts in albino rats. Three groups of 8 experimental rats each were administered 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days while a fourth (control) group took tap-water. On day 15, the rats were sacrificed, and blood collected. Biochemical and hematological parameters were analysed and histopathological examination of liver and kidney were performed. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of some biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, creatinine, urea) in all the test groups compared to control. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed centrilobular degeneration and necrosis with sinusoidal dilatation as well as polymorphonuclear and mononuclear infiltration, likewise severe glomerular and tubular degeneration and necrosis with hemorrhage in the kidney at all dose levels. The results from this study suggest that aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at dose levels of 300 mg/kg and above. Therefore, precautionary measures are necessary for home use of the leaf extract of A. wilkesiana.

Keywords: acute toxicity, A. wilkesiana, aqeous extract, albino rats, biochemical and haematological parameters, histopathological examination

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7 The Socio-Religious, Economic, and Cultural Impacts of Aso-Ebi on South-East Nigeria

Authors: Nwaoga, Theresa Chinyere


The paper examines the impacts of Aso-Ebi, a Yoruba term for ‘uniform’ on the people of south-east Nigeria. Aso-Ebi is used to denote uniform wear which is typical of the people of south-west Nigeria. In the 1980s and 1990s, uniform wears were used only by immediate family members of a deceased person. This is for easy identification by visitors—to know those who are related to the deceased person. Aso-Ebi is now part of a culture that has existed in Nigeria from the Yoruba and transcended to other parts of Nigeria, precisely south-east Nigeria. The buying of Aso-Ebi and attending the occasions in the attire is the only way of showing solidarity and support to the celebrant. Aso-Ebi has led to creating a sense of belonging, opening of doors for marriage by those single, and fundraising. As part of the findings, it was discovered that Aso-Ebi has led to an increase in marital infidelity and divorce, robbery, prostitution, depression, and an increase in enmity between friends in south-east Nigeria. Data was generated through oral interviews, focus group discussion and participant observation. Secondary data were obtained from journals, textbooks, the internet and periodicals. The phenomenological method of research was used as the methodology. This method allows for an objective report and analysis of the research problem. Aso-Ebi has come to stay in Igbo culture, so there should be a proper re-orientation on the uses of Aso-Ebi during occasions like burial in Igbo land. The campaign can start from the church by discouraging people from using Aso-Ebi during burials and wedding ceremonies.

Keywords: Asho Ebi, uniformed women, burial ceremonies, August meetings

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6 The Isolation and Performance Evaluation of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from Raffia Palm (Raphia hookeri) Wine Used at Different Concentrations for Proofing of Bread Dough

Authors: Elizabeth Chinyere Amadi


Yeast (sacchoromyces cerevisiae) was isolated from the fermenting sap of raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) wine. Different concerntrations of the yeast isolate were used to produce bread samples – B, C, D, E, F containing (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) g of yeast isolate respectively, other ingredients were kept constant. Sample A, containing 2g of commercial baker yeast served as control. The proof heights, weights, volumes and specific volume of the dough and bread samples were determined. The bread samples were also subjected to sensory evaluation using a 9–point hedonic scale. Results showed that proof height increased with increased concentration of the yeast isolate; that is direct proportion. Sample B with the least concentration of the yeast isolate had the least loaf height and volume of 2.80c m and 200 cm³ respectively but exhibited the highest loaf weight of 205.50g. However, Sample A, (commercial bakers’ yeast) had the highest loaf height and volume of 5.00 cm and 400 cm³ respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed sample D compared favorably with sample A in all the organoleptic attributes-(appearance, taste, crumb texture, crust colour and overall acceptability) tested for (P< 0.05). It was recommended that 4g compressed yeast isolate per 100g flour could be used to proof dough as a substitute for commercial bakers’ yeast and produce acceptable bread loaves.

Keywords: isolation of yeast, performance evaluation of yeast, Raffia palm wine, used at different concentrations, proofing of bread dough

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5 Effect of Climate Change on Nutritional Status of Women in Nigeria

Authors: Onu Theresa Chinyere


The study evaluates the perceived effect of climate change on nutritional status of women in Nigeria. Five research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a survey and experimental study research design. One thousand two hundred and fifty one (1,250) respondents were selected from different State in Nigeria using multistage sampling technique. The instruments used to collect data were questionnaire and personal interview on socio economic characteristics of respondents, while Anthropometric data (height and weight) were also used. The data was analyzed using t-test statistic, decided at 50% level of significance. The study found that most states in Nigeria experience high winds, warmer and frequent hot days and night over most land areas, droughts and tides during climate change events. The respondent unanimously agree that climate change causes reduction in food yields, decline in food availability/supply, negatively affecting soil quality, carbon fertilization, decreases flexibilities in technology choices to strengthen food production. The Anthropometric analysis shows that out of 1250 women sampled, 560 (44.8%) maintain normal weight, while 405 (32.40%) women were found to be underweight, since their body mass index is less that 18.5. There were few cases of obesity among the surveyed women since only 80 out of 1250 which represent 6.4% of the women were obese. Bases on the findings, the following recommendations were made-local fertilizer should be encouraged to boost foods yield especially during climate change: women should imbibe the culture of preservation or reservoir that will help in mitigating the effects of climate on food intake and nutritional status, especially during the crisis period, among others.

Keywords: climate change, nutrition anthropometric analysis, obesity culture, environment and women among others

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4 Effect of Sustainability Accounting Disclosure on Financial Performance of Listed Brewery Firms in Nigeria

Authors: Patricia Chinyere Oranefo


This study examined the effect of sustainability accounting disclosure on financial performance of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. The dearth of empirical evidence and literature on “governance disclosure” as one of the explanatory variables of sustainability accounting reporting were the major motivation for this study. The main objective was to ascertain the effect of sustainability accounting disclosure on financial performance of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. An ex–post facto research design approach was adopted for the study. The population of this study comprises of five (5) Brewery firms quoted on the floor of the Nigeria exchange group (NSX) and the sample size of four (4) listed firms was drawn using purposive sampling method. Secondary data were carefully sourced from the financial statement/annual reports and sustainability reports from 2012 to 2021 of the Brewery firms quoted on the Nigeria exchange group (NSX). Panel regression analysis by aid of E-views 10.0 software was used to test for statistical significance of the effect of sustainability accounting disclosure on financial performance of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. The results showed that economic sustainability disclosure indexes do not significantly affect return on asset of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. The findings further revealed that environmental sustainability disclosure indexes do not significantly affect return on equity of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. More so, results showed that Social Sustainability disclosure indexes significantly affect Net Profit Margin of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. Finally, the result established also that governance sustainability disclosure indexes do not significantly affect Earnings per share of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. Consequent upon the findings, this study recommended among others; that managers of Brewers in Nigeria should improve and sustain full disclosure practices on economic, environmental, social and governance disclosures following the guidelines of the Global Reporting Index (GRI) as they are capable of exerting significant effect on financial performance of firms in Nigeria.

Keywords: sustainability, accounting, disclosure, financial performance

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3 Teaching English in Low Resource-Environments: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Gift Chidi-Onwuta, Iwe Nkem Nkechinyere, Chikamadu Christabelle Chinyere


The teaching of English is a resource-driven activity that requires rich resource-classroom settings for the delivery of effective lessons and the acquisition of interpersonal skills for integration in a target-language environment. However, throughout the world, English is often taught in low-resource classrooms. This paper is aimed to reveal the common problems associated with teaching English in low-resource environments and the prospects for teachers who found themselves in such undefined teaching settings. Self-structured and validated questionnaire in a closed-ended format, open question format and scaling format was administered to teachers across five countries: Nigeria, Cameroun, Iraq, Turkey, and Sudan. The study adopts situational language teaching theory (SLTT), which emphasizes a performance improvement imperative. This study inclines to this model because it maintains that learning must be fun and enjoyable like playing a favorite sport, just as in real life. Since teaching resources make learning engaging, we found this model apt for the current study. The perceptions of teachers about accessibility and functionality of teaching material resources, the nature of teaching outcomes in resource-less environments, their levels of involvement in improvisation and the prospects associated with resource limitations were sourced. Data were analysed using percentages and presented in frequency tables. Results: showed that a greater number of teachers across these nations do not have access to sufficient productive resource materials that can aid effective English language teaching. Teaching outcomes, from the findings, are affected by low material resources; however, results show certain advantages to teaching English with limited resources: flexibility and autonomy with students and creativity and innovation amongst teachers. Results further revealed group work, story, critical thinking strategy, flex, cardboards and flashcards, dictation and dramatization as common teaching strategies, as well as materials adopted by teachers to overcome low resource-related challenges in classrooms.

Keywords: teaching materials, low-resource environments, English language teaching, situational language theory

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2 Analyzing the Contamination of Some Food Crops Due to Mineral Deposits in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Alexander Chinyere Nwankpa, Nneka Ngozi Nwankpa


In Nigeria, the Federal government is trying to make sure that everyone has access to enough food that is nutritiously adequate and safe. But in the southwest of Nigeria, notably in Ondo State, the most valuable minerals such as oil and gas, bitumen, kaolin, limestone talc, columbite, tin, gold, coal, and phosphate are abundant. Therefore, some regions of Ondo State are now linked to large quantities of natural radioactivity as a result of the mineral presence. In this work, the baseline radioactivity levels in some of the most important food crops in Ondo State were analyzed, allowing for the prediction of probable radiological health impacts. To this effect, maize (Zea mays), yam (Dioscorea alata) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers were collected from the farmlands in the State because they make up the majority of food's nutritional needs. Ondo State was divided into eight zones in order to provide comprehensive coverage of the research region. At room temperature, the maize (Zea mays), yam (Dioscorea alata), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) samples were dried until they reached a consistent weight. They were pulverized, homogenized, and 250 g packed in a 1-liter Marinelli beaker and kept for 28 days to achieve secular equilibrium. The activity concentrations of Radium-226 (Ra-226), Thorium-232 (Th-232), and Potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in the food samples using Gamma-ray spectrometry. Firstly, the Hyper Pure Germanium detector was calibrated using standard radioactive sources. The gamma counting, which lasted for 36000s for each sample, was carried out in the Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The mean activity concentration of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 for yam were 1.91 ± 0.10 Bq/kg, 2.34 ± 0.21 Bq/kg and 48.84 ± 3.14 Bq/kg, respectively. The content of the radionuclides in maize gave a mean value of 2.83 ± 0.21 Bq/kg for Ra-226, 2.19 ± 0.07 Bq/kg for Th-232 and 41.11 ± 2.16 Bq/kg for K-40. The mean activity concentrations in cassava were 2.52 ± 0.31 Bq/kg for Ra-226, 1.94 ± 0.21 Bq/kg for Th-232 and 45.12 ± 3.31 Bq/kg for K-40. The average committed effective doses in zones 6-8 were 0.55 µSv/y for the consumption of yam, 0.39 µSv/y for maize, and 0.49 µSv/y for cassava. These values are higher than the annual dose guideline of 0.35 µSv/y for the general public. Therefore, the values obtained in this work show that there is radiological contamination of some foodstuffs consumed in some parts of Ondo State. However, we recommend that systematic and appropriate methods also need to be established for the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides since these constitute important contributors to the internal exposure of man through ingestion, inhalation, or wound on the body.

Keywords: contamination, environment, radioactivity, radionuclides

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1 Harnessing Artificial Intelligence for Early Detection and Management of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Authors: Amarachukwu B. Isiaka, Vivian N. Anakwenze, Chinyere C. Ezemba, Chiamaka R. Ilodinso, Chikodili G. Anaukwu, Chukwuebuka M. Ezeokoli, Ugonna H. Uzoka


Infectious diseases continue to pose significant threats to global public health, necessitating advanced and timely detection methods for effective outbreak management. This study explores the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in the early detection and management of infectious disease outbreaks. Leveraging vast datasets from diverse sources, including electronic health records, social media, and environmental monitoring, AI-driven algorithms are employed to analyze patterns and anomalies indicative of potential outbreaks. Machine learning models, trained on historical data and continuously updated with real-time information, contribute to the identification of emerging threats. The implementation of AI extends beyond detection, encompassing predictive analytics for disease spread and severity assessment. Furthermore, the paper discusses the role of AI in predictive modeling, enabling public health officials to anticipate the spread of infectious diseases and allocate resources proactively. Machine learning algorithms can analyze historical data, climatic conditions, and human mobility patterns to predict potential hotspots and optimize intervention strategies. The study evaluates the current landscape of AI applications in infectious disease surveillance and proposes a comprehensive framework for their integration into existing public health infrastructures. The implementation of an AI-driven early detection system requires collaboration between public health agencies, healthcare providers, and technology experts. Ethical considerations, privacy protection, and data security are paramount in developing a framework that balances the benefits of AI with the protection of individual rights. The synergistic collaboration between AI technologies and traditional epidemiological methods is emphasized, highlighting the potential to enhance a nation's ability to detect, respond to, and manage infectious disease outbreaks in a proactive and data-driven manner. The findings of this research underscore the transformative impact of harnessing AI for early detection and management, offering a promising avenue for strengthening the resilience of public health systems in the face of evolving infectious disease challenges. This paper advocates for the integration of artificial intelligence into the existing public health infrastructure for early detection and management of infectious disease outbreaks. The proposed AI-driven system has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach infectious disease surveillance, providing a more proactive and effective response to safeguard public health.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, early detection, disease surveillance, infectious diseases, outbreak management

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