Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1640

Search results for: self compacting concrete

1640 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,


In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability

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1639 An Approach to Make Low-Cost Self-Compacting Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ankit Chakraborty, Raj Shah, Prayas Variya


Self-compacting geo-polymer concrete is a blended version of self-compacting concrete developed in Japan by Okamura. H. in 1986 and geo-polymer concrete proposed by Davidovits in 1999. This method is eco-friendly as there is low CO₂ emission and reduces labor cost due to its self-compacting property and zero percent cement content. We are making an approach to reduce concreting cost and make concreting eco-friendly by replacing cement fully and sand by a certain amount of industrial waste. It will reduce overall concreting cost due to its self-compatibility and replacement of materials, forms eco-friendly concreting technique and gives better fresh property and hardened property results compared to self-compacting concrete and geo-polymer concrete.

Keywords: geopolymer concrete, low cost concreting, low carbon emission, self compactability

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1638 Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Mixed with Fly Ash

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill, Gurbir Kaur Jawanda


Since the introduction of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in Japan during the late 1980’s, acceptance and usage of this concrete in the construction industry has been steadily gaining momentum. In the United States, the usage of SCC has been spearheaded by the precast concrete industry. Good SCC must possess the following key fresh properties: filling ability, passing ability, and resistance to segregation. Self-compacting concrete is one of 'the most revolutionary developments' in concrete research; this concrete is able to flow and to fill the most restocked places of the form work without vibration. There are several methods for testing its properties. In the fresh state: the most frequently used are slump flow test, L box and V-funnel. This work presents properties of self-compacting concrete, mixed with fly ash. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow; V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, the compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 days was also determined and results are included here.

Keywords: compressive strength, fly ash, self-compacting concrete, slump flow test, super plasticizer

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1637 Effect of Manual Compacting and Semi-Automatic Compacting on Behavior of Stabilized Earth Concrete

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fattoum Kharchi, Fahim Kahlouche, Youcef Benna


In the recent years, a considerable level of interest has been developed on the use of earth in construction, led by its rediscovery as an environmentally building material. The Stabilized Earth Concrete (SEC) is a good alternative to the cement concrete, thanks to its thermal and moisture regulating features. Many parameters affect the behavior of stabilized earth concrete. This article presents research results related to the influence of the compacting nature on some SEC properties namely: The mechanical behavior, capillary absorption, shrinkage and sustainability to water erosion, and this, basing on two types of compacting: Manual and semi-automatic.

Keywords: behavior, compacting, manual, SEC, semi-automatic

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1636 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Ali Elheber Ahmed


Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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1635 Evaluation of the Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Sustainable Concrete Exposed to Acid Solution

Authors: Adil Tamimi


Limestone powder is a natural material that is available in many parts of the world. In this research self-compacting concrete was designed and prepared using limestone powder. The resulted concrete was exposed to the hydrochloric acid solution and compared with reference concrete. Mechanical properties of both fresh and hardened concrete have been evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscopy “SEM” has been unitized to analyse the morphological development of the hydration products. In sulphuric acid solution, a large formation of gypsum was detected in both samples of self-compacting concrete and conventional concrete. The Higher amount of thaumasite and ettringite was also detected in the SCC sample. In hydrochloric acid solution, monochloroaluminate was detected.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, mechanical properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy, acid solution

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1634 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa


The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, sulfate attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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1633 The Influence of Zeolitic Spent Refinery Admixture on the Rheological and Technological Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self- Compacting Concrete

Authors: Žymantas Rudžionis, Paulius Grigaliūnas, Danutė Vaičiukynienė


By planning this experimental work to investigate the effect of zeolitic waste on rheological and technological properties of self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete, we had an intention to draw attention to the environmental factor. Large amount of zeolitic waste, as a secondary raw materials are not in use properly and large amount of it is collected without a clear view of it’s usage in future. The principal aim of this work is to assure, that zeolitic waste admixture takes positive effect to the self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete mixes stability, flowability and other properties by using the experimental research methods. In addition to that a research on cement and zeolitic waste mortars were implemented to clarify the effect of zeolitic waste on properties of cement paste and stone. Primary studies indicates that zeolitic waste characterizes clear puzzolanic behavior, do not deteriorate and in some cases ensure positive rheological and mechanical characteristics of self-compacting concrete mixes.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete, zeolitic waste, rheological, properties of concrete, slump flow

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1632 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Water Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: E. Ebru Demirci, Remzi Şahin


The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC) in terms of their capillary water absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCCs had lower capillary water absorption values than that of CCs. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary water absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing were significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. Additionally, it was determined that capillary water absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments.

Keywords: capillary water absorption, curing condition, reinforced concrete beam, self-compacting concrete

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1631 Enhancing Value of Dam Dredged Sediments as a Component of a Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: N. Belas, O. Belaribi, S. Aggoun, K. Bendani, N. Bouhamou, A. Mebrouki


This experimental work is a part of a long research on the valorization of the dam dredged sediments issued from Fergoug Dam (Mascara-West Algeria). These sediments have to be subjected to thermal treatment to become reactive with the cement and thus to obtain an artificial pozzolana. It is therefore a question of developing the calcined mud as substitutable material in part to the cement used in the composition of self compacting concrete. The objective of the present work is to highlight its influence on the behavior of self compacting concrete compared to that of the natural pozzolana and this, in fresh and hardened states. The study is being conducted on three SCC, the first using 20% in volume of natural pozzolana, the second with 20 % of calcined mud and the third for the sake of comparison is made with cement only. The first results showed the possibility of obtaining SCC with calcined mud complying with the AFGC recommendations having a good mechanical behavior which makes interesting its development as construction materials.

Keywords: dam, fresh state, hardened state mud, sediments, self compacting concrete, valorization

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1630 Predicting Durability of Self Compacting Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: R. Boudjelthia


The aim of this study is to determine the influence of mix composition of concrete as the content of water and cement, water–binder ratio, and the replacement of fly ash on the durability of self compacting concrete (SCC) by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To achieve this, an ANNs model is developed to predict the durability of self compacting concrete which is expressed in terms of chloride ions permeability in accordance with ASTM C1202-97 or AASHTO T277. Database gathered from the literature for the training and testing the model. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted using the trained and tested ANN model to investigate the effect of fly ash on the durability of SCC. The results indicate that the developed model is reliable and accurate. the durability of SCC expressed in terms of total charge passed over a 6-h period can be significantly improved by using at least 25% fly ash as replacement of cement. This study show that artificial neural network have strong potentialas a feasible tool for predicting accurately the durability of SCC containing fly ash.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, durability, chloride ions permeability, self compacting concrete

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1629 Effect of Clay Brick Filler on Properties of Self-Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Sandra Juradin, Lidia Karla Vranjes


The environmental impact of the components of concrete is considerable. The paper presents the influence of ground clay brick filler on the properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete (SCLC). In the manufacture and transport of clay bricks, product damage may occur. The filler was obtained by milling the damaged clay brick and sieved under the 0.04 mm size. The composition of each of SCLC mixture was determined according to the CBI method and compared with EFNARC (European Association) criteria. Self-compacting lightweight concrete has been tested in a fresh (slump flow method, visual assessment of stability, T50 time, V-funnel method, L-box method and J-ring) and hardened state (compressive strengths and dynamic modulus of elasticity). Mixtures with this filler had good results of compressive strength, but in fresh state the mixtures were sticky. All results were analyzed and compared with previous studies.

Keywords: CBI methods, ground clay brick, self-compacting lightweight concrete, silica fume

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1628 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique


Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: bagasse ash, compressive strength, self-compacting concrete, splitting tensile strength

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1627 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi


The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

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1626 Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Viscosity Modifying Agent in Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Mushtaq Zeb, Fawad Bilal, Faizan Akbar, Syed Aamir Abbas


Self Compacting Concrete as the name implies--is the concrete requiring a very little or no vibration to fill the form homogeneously. Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is defined by two primary properties: Ability to flow or deform under its own weight (with or without obstructions) and the ability to remain homogeneous while doing so. Flow ability is achieved by utilizing high range water reducing admixtures and segregation resistance is ensured by introducing a chemical viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) or increasing the amount of fines in the concrete. The study explores the use waste marble dust (WMD) to increase the amount of fines and hence achieve self-compatibility in an economical way, suitable for Pakistani construction industry. The study focuses on comparison of fresh properties of SCC containing varying amounts of waste marble dust (WMD) with that containing commercially available viscosity modifying admixture. The comparison is done at different dosages of super plasticizer keeping cement, water, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregate contents constant.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, waste marble dust (WMD), flow ability, segregation resistance

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1625 The Behavior of Self-Compacting Light Weight Concrete Produced by Magnetic Water

Authors: Moosa Mazloom, Hojjat Hatami


The aim of this article is to access the optimal mix design of self-compacting light weight concrete. The effects of magnetic water, superplasticizer based on polycarboxylic-ether, and silica fume on characteristics of this type of concrete are studied. The workability of fresh concrete and the compressive strength of hardened concrete are considered here. For this purpose, nine mix designs were studied. The percentages of superplasticizer were 0.5, 1, and 2% of the weight of cement, and the percentages of silica fume were 0, 6, and 10% of the weight of cement. The water to cementitious ratios were 0.28, 0.32, and 0.36. The workability of concrete samples was analyzed by the devices such as slump flow, V-funnel, L box, U box, and Urimet with J ring. Then, the compressive strengths of the mixes at the ages of 3, 7, 28, and 90 days were obtained. The results show that by using magnetic water, the compressive strengths are improved at all the ages. In the concrete samples with ordinary water, more superplasticizer dosages were needed. Moreover, the combination of superplasticizer and magnetic water had positive effects on the mixes containing silica fume and they could flow easily.

Keywords: magnetic water, self-compacting light weight concrete, silica fume, superplasticizer

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1624 Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Replacing 20% Cement by Fly Ash

Authors: Suman Kumar Adhikary, Zymantus Rudzionis, Arvind Balakrishnan


This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s workability in a fresh state and compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3kg/m3, 4.5kg/m3, 6kg/m3 and 9kg/m3) of polyolefin macro fibers mixed in concrete mixture to observe the workability and strength properties difference between the concrete specimens. 20% class C type fly ash added is the concrete as replacement of cement. The water-cement ratio(W/C) of those concrete mix was 0.35. Masterglenium SKY 700 superplasticizer was added to the concrete mixture for better results. Slump test was carried out for determining the flowability. On 7th, 14th and 28th day of curing process compression strength tests were done and on 28th day flexural strength test and CMOD test were carried to differentiate the strength properties and post-cracking behavior of concrete samples.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, polyolefin fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, CMOD test of concrete

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1623 Size Effect on Shear Strength of Slender Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Subhan Ahmad, Pradeep Bhargava, Ajay Chourasia


Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement leads to loss of property and life since a very little or no warning occurs before failure as in case of flexural failure. Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams decreases as its depth increases. This phenomenon is generally called as the size effect. In this paper, a comparative analysis is performed to estimate the performance of shear strength models in capturing the size effect of reinforced concrete beams made with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete. Four shear strength models that account for the size effect in shear are selected from the literature and applied on the datasets of slender reinforced concrete beams. Beams prepared with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete are considered for the analysis. Results showed that all the four models captured the size effect in shear effectively and produced conservative estimates of the shear strength for beams made with normal strength conventional concrete. These models yielded unconservative estimates for high strength conventional concrete beams with larger effective depths ( > 450 mm). Model of Bazant and Kim (1984) captured the size effect precisely and produced conservative estimates of shear strength of self-compacting concrete beams at all the effective depths. Also, shear strength models considered in this study produced unconservative estimates of shear strength for recycled aggregate concrete beams at all effective depths.

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams; shear strength; prediction models; size effect

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1622 Nonlinear Analysis of Torsionally Loaded Steel Fibred Self-Compacted Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Bars

Authors: Khaled Saad Eldin Mohamed Ragab


This paper investigates analytically the torsion behavior of steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete beams reinforced by GFRP bars. Nonlinear finite element analysis on 12­ beams specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete beams in the post elastic range or the ultimate strength of a reinforced concrete beams produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC) and reinforced by GFRP bars. A general description of the finite element method, theoretical modeling of concrete and reinforcement are presented. In order to verify the analytical model used in this research using test results of the experimental data, the finite element analysis were performed. Then, a parametric study of the effect ratio of volume fraction of steel fibers in ordinary strength concrete, the effect ratio of volume fraction of steel fibers in high strength concrete, and the type of reinforcement of stirrups were investigated. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions thyat may be useful for designers have been raised and represented.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, torsionally loaded, self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC), GFRP bars and sheets

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1621 A Critical Study of the Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) Using Locally Supplied Materials in Bahrain

Authors: A. Umar, A. Tamimi


Development of new types of concrete with improved performance is a very important issue for the whole building industry. The development is based on the optimization of the concrete mix design, with an emphasis not only on the workability and mechanical properties but also to the durability and the reliability of the concrete structure in general. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a high-performance material designed to flow into formwork under its own weight and without the aid of mechanical vibration. At the same time it is cohesive enough to fill spaces of almost any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. Construction time is shorter and production of SCC is environmentally friendly (no noise, no vibration). Furthermore, SCC produces a good surface finish. Despite these advantages, SCC has not gained much local acceptance though it has been promoted in the Middle East for the last ten to twelve years. The reluctance in utilizing the advantages of SCC, in Bahrain, may be due to lack of research or published data pertaining to locally produced SCC. Therefore, there is a need to conduct studies on SCC using locally available material supplies. From the literature, it has been observed that the use of viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA), micro silica and glass fibers have proved to be very effective in stabilizing the rheological properties and the strength of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Therefore, in the present study, it is proposed to carry out investigations of SCC with combinations of various dosages of VMAs with and without micro silica and glass fibers and to study their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, viscosity modifying admixture, micro silica, glass fibers

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1620 Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete with Three-Dimensional Steel Fibres

Authors: Jeffri Ramli, Brabha Nagaratnam, Keerthan Poologanathan, Wai Ming Cheung, Thadshajini Suntharalingham


Fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FRSCC) combines the benefits of SCC of high flowability and randomly dispersed short fibres together in one single concrete. Fibres prevent brittle behaviour and improve several mechanical properties of SCC. In this paper, an experimental investigation of the effect of three-dimensional (3D) fibres on the mechanical properties of SCC has been conducted. Seven SCC mixtures, namely SCC with no fibres as a reference mix, and six 3D steel fibre reinforced SCC mixes were prepared. Two different sizes of 3D steel fibres with perimeters of 115 mm and 220 mm at different fibre contents of 1%, 2%, and 3% (by cement weight) were considered. The mechanical characteristics were obtained through compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength tests. The test results revealed that the addition of 3D fibres improves the mechanical properties of SCC.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, three-dimensional steel fibres, mechanical properties, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength

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1619 Compressive and Torsional Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Moosa Mazloom, Morteza Mehrvand


The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of silica fume and super plasticizer dosages on compressive and torsional properties of SCC. This work concentrated on concrete mixes having water/binder ratios of 0.45 and 0.35, which contained constant total binder contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3, respectively. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement were 0 % and 10 %. The super plasticizer dosages utilized in the mixtures were 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2 % and 1.6 % of the weight of cement. Prism dimensions used in this test were 10 × 10 × 40 cm3. The results of this research indicated that torsional strength of SCC prisms can be calculated using the equations presented in Canadian and American concrete building codes.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, rectangular prism, torsional strength

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1618 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes

Authors: Akram Salah Eddine Belaidi, Said Kenai, El-Hadj Kadri, Benchaâ Benabed, Hamza Soualhi


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was developed in the middle of the 1980’s in Japan. SCC flows alone under its dead weight and consolidates itself without any entry of additional compaction energy and without segregation. As an integral part of a SCC, self-compacting mortars (SCM) may serve as a basis for the mix design of concrete since the measurement of the rheological properties of SCCs. This paper discusses the effect of using natural pozzolana (PZ) and marble powder (MP) in two alternative systems ratios PZ/MP = 1 and 1/3 of the performance of the SCC. A total of 11 SCC’s were prepared having a constant water-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 and total cementitious materials content of 475 kg/m3. Then, the fresh properties of the mortars were tested for mini-slump flow diameter and mini-V-funnel flow time for SCMs and Slumps flow test, L-Box height ratio, V-Funnel flow time and sieve stability for SCC. Moreover, the development in the compressive strength was determined at 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Test results have shown that using of ternary blends improved the fresh properties of the mixtures. The compressive strength of SCC at 90 days with 30% of PZ and MP was similar to those of ordinary concrete use in situ.

Keywords: self-compacting mortar, self-compacting concrete, natural pozzolana, marble powder, rheology, compressive strength

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1617 Characterization of Calcined Clay Blended Self Compacting Concrete-Correlation between Super-Plasticizer Dosage and Self Compacting Concrete Properties

Authors: Kumator Josiphiah Taku


Sustainability in construction is essential to the economic construction and can be achieved by the use of locally available construction materials. This research work, thus, uses locally available materials –calcined clay and Sandcrete SPR-300 superplasticizer in the production of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) by investigating the correlation between the superplasticizer dosage and the fresh and hardened states properties of a grade 50 SCC made by incorporating a Calcined Clay (CC) – Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) blend as the cementitious matter at 20% replacement of PLC with CC and using CC as filler. The superplasticizer dosage was varied from 0.4 to 3.0% by weight of cementitious material and the slump, v-funnel, L-box and strength parameters investigated. The result shows a positive correlation between the increased dosage of the superplasticizer and the fresh and hardened states properties of the SCC up to 2% dosage. The J¬Spread¬, t¬500J¬, Slump flow, L-box H¬2¬/H¬1 ¬ratio and strength, all increases with SP dosage while the V-funnel flow decreased with SP dosage. Overall, SP ratio of 0.5 to 2.0 can be used in improving the properties of SCC produced using calcined clay both as filler and cementitious material.

Keywords: calcined clay, compressive strength, fresh-state properties of SCC, self compacting concrete, superplasticizer dosage

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1616 An Experimental Study on Service Life Prediction of Self: Compacting Concrete Using Sorptivity as a Durability Index

Authors: S. Girish, N. Ajay


Permeation properties have been widely used to quantify durability characteristics of concrete for assessing long term performance and sustainability. The processes of deterioration in concrete are mediated largely by water. There is a strong interest in finding a better way of assessing the material properties of concrete in terms of durability. Water sorptivity is a useful single material property which can be one of the measures of durability useful in service life planning and prediction, especially in severe environmental conditions. This paper presents the results of the comparative study of sorptivity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) with conventionally vibrated concrete. SCC is a new, special type of concrete mixture, characterized by high resistance to segregation that can flow through intricate geometrical configuration in the presence of reinforcement, under its own mass, without vibration and compaction. SCC mixes were developed for the paste contents of 0.38, 0.41 and 0.43 with fly ash as the filler for different cement contents ranging from 300 to 450 kg/m3. The study shows better performance by SCC in terms of capillary absorption. The sorptivity value decreased as the volume of paste increased. The use of higher paste content in SCC can make the concrete robust with better densification of the micro-structure, improving the durability and making the concrete more sustainable with improved long term performance. The sorptivity based on secondary absorption can be effectively used as a durability index to predict the time duration required for the ingress of water to penetrate the concrete, which has practical significance.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, service life prediction, sorptivity, volume of paste

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1615 Incorporation of Coarse Rubber Aggregates in the Formulation of Self-Compacting Concrete: Optimization and Characterization

Authors: Zaoiai Said, Makani Abdelkadir, Tafraoui Ahmed


Concrete material suffers from a relatively low tensile strength and deformation capacity is limited. Such defects of the concrete are very fragile and sensitive to shrinkage cracking materials. The Self- Compacting Concrete (SCC) are highly fluid concretes whose implementation without vibration. This material replaces traditional vibrated concrete mainly seen techno-economic interest it presents. The SCC has several advantages which are at the origin of their development crunching. The research is therefore to conduct a comparison in terms of rheological and mechanical performance between different formulations to find the optimal dosage for rubber granulates. Through this research, we demonstrated that it is possible to make different settings SCC composition having good rheological and mechanical properties. This study also showed that the substitution of natural coarse aggregates (NA) by coarse rubber aggregates (RA) in the composition of the SCC, contributes to a slight variation of workability in the fresh state parameters still remaining in the field of SCC required by the AFGC recommendations. The experimental results show that the compressive strengths of SCC decreased slightly by substituting NA by RA. Finally, the decrease in free shrinkage is proportional to the percentage of RA incorporated into the composition of concrete. This reduction is mainly due to the improvement of the deformability of these materials.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, coarse rubber aggregate, rheological characterization, mechanical performance, shrinkage

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1614 Roller Compacting Concrete “RCC” in Dams

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi


Rehabilitation of dam components such as foundations, buttresses, spillways and overtopping protection require a wide range of construction and design methodologies. Geotechnical Engineering considerations play an important role in the design and construction of foundations of new dams. Much investigation is required to assess and evaluate the existing dams. The application of roller compacting concrete (RCC) has been accepted as a new method for constructing new dams or rehabilitating old ones. In the past 40 years there have been so many changes in the usage of RCC and now it is one of most satisfactory solutions of water and hydropower resource throughout the world. The considerations of rehabilitation and construction of dams might differ due to upstream reservoir and its influence on penetrating and dewatering of downstream, operations requirements and plant layout. One of the advantages of RCC is its rapid placement which allows the dam to be operated quickly. Unlike ordinary concrete it is a drier mix, and stiffs enough for compacting by vibratory rollers. This paper evaluates some different aspects of RCC and focuses on its preparation progress.

Keywords: spillway, vibrating consistency, fly ash, water tightness, foundation

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1613 Fresh State Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Anil Nis, Nilufer Ozyurt Zihnioglu


The object of the study is to investigate fresh state properties of the steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFR-SCC). Three different steel fibers; straight (Vf:0.5%), hooked-end long (Vf:0.5% and 1%) and hybrid fibers (0.5%short+0.5%long) were used in the research aiming to obtain flow properties of non-fibrous self-compacting concrete. Fly ash was used as a supplementary with an optimum dosage of 30% of the total cementitious materials. Polycarboxylic ether based high-performance concrete superplasticizer was used to get high flowability with percentages ranging from 0.81% (non-fibrous SCC) to 1.07% (hybrid SF-SCC) of the cement weight. The flowability properties of SCCs were measured via slump flow and V-funnel tests; passing ability properties of SCCs were measured with J-Ring, L-Box, and U-Box tests. Workability results indicate that small increase on the superplasticizer dosages compensate the adverse effects of steel fibers on flowability properties of SSC. However, higher dosage fiber addition has a negative effect on passing ability properties, causing blocking of the mixes. In addition, compressive strength, tensile strength, and four point bending results were given. Results indicate that SCCs including steel fibers have superior performances on tensile and bending strength of concrete. Crack bridging capability of steel fibers prevents concrete from splitting, yields higher deformation and energy absorption capacities than non-fibrous SCCs.

Keywords: fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete, fly ash, fresh state properties, steel fiber

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1612 Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated Unprocessed Waste Fly Ash after Expose to the Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes, Salem Nehme


The present study experimentally investigated the impact of incorporating unprocessed waste fly ash (UWFA) on the residual mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) after exposure to elevated temperature. Three mixtures of SCC have been produced by replacing the cement mass by 0%, 15% and 30% of UWFA. Generally, the fire resistance of SCC has been enhanced by replacing the cement up to 15% of UWFA, especially in case of residual modulus of elasticity which considers more sensitive than other mechanical properties at elevated temperature. However, a strong linear relationship has been observed between the residual flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, where both of them affected significantly by the cracks appearance and propagation as a result of elevated temperature. Sustainable products could be produced by incorporating unprocessed waste powder materials in the production of concrete, where the waste materials, CO2 emissions, and the energy needed for processing are reduced.

Keywords: self-compacting high-performance concrete, unprocessed waste fly ash, fire resistance, residual modulus of elasticity

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1611 Restrained Shrinkage Behavior of Self Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Boudjelthia Radhwane


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed in Japan in the late 80s has enabled the construction industry to reduce demand on the resources, improve the work condition and also reduce the impact of environment by elimination of the need for compaction. The shrinkage of concrete is the main cause of cracking in bridge decks. Bridge decks tend to be restrained from shrinkage, and this restraint along with other factors causes the bridge to crack. The characteristics of SCC under restrained shrinkage are important to understand in order to predict the cracking behavior in actual structures. Restrained shrinkage testing is done in accordance to AASHTO testing protocol. The free shrinkage performance and cracking behavior were reported and compared when changing the sand to aggregate ratio and the water to cement ratio. The results of free shrinkage show that when a mix design has higher free shrinkage, it will crack in restrained shrinkage earlier than a mix with lower free shrinkage.

Keywords: concrete mix, cracking behavior, restrained shrinkage, self compacting concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 297