Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 326

Search results for: columns

326 Study the Behavior of Different Composite Short Columns (DST) with Prismatic Sections under Bending Load

Authors: V. Sadeghi Balkanlou, M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, A. Hasanbakloo, B. Bagheri Azar

Abstract:

In this paper, the behavior of different types of DST columns has been studied under bending load. Briefly, composite columns consist of an internal carbon steel tube and an external stainless steel wall that the between the walls are filled with concrete. Composite columns are expected to combine the advantages of all three materials and have the advantage of high flexural stiffness of CFDST columns. In this research, ABAQUS software is used for finite element analysis then the results of ultimate strength of the composite sections are illustrated.

Keywords: DST, stainless steel, carbon steel, ABAQUS, straigh columns, tapered columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
325 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim

Abstract:

Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
324 Laboratory Model Tests on Encased Group Columns

Authors: Kausar Ali

Abstract:

There are several ground treatment techniques which may meet the twin objectives of increasing the bearing capacity with simultaneous reduction of settlements, but the use of stone columns is one of the most suited techniques for flexible structures such as embankments, oil storage tanks etc. that can tolerate some settlement and used worldwide. However, when the stone columns in very soft soils are loaded; stone columns undergo excessive settlement due to low lateral confinement provided by the soft soil, leading to the failure of the structure. The poor performance of stone columns under these conditions can be improved by encasing the columns with a suitable geosynthetic. In this study, the effect of reinforcement on bearing capacity of composite soil has been investigated by conducting laboratory model tests on floating and end bearing long stone columns with l/d ratio of 12. The columns were reinforced by providing geosynthetic encasement over varying column length (upper 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% column length). In this study, a group of columns has been used instead of single column, because in the field, columns used for the purpose always remain in groups. The tests indicate that the encasement over the full column length gives higher failure stress as compared to the encasement over the partial column length for both floating and end bearing long columns. The performance of end-bearing columns was found much better than the floating columns.

Keywords: geosynthetic, ground improvement, soft clay, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
323 The Engineering Design of the Temple of Dendera in the City of Qena, Egypt

Authors: Shady Ahmed Emara

Abstract:

Introductory statement: The temple is characterized by a unique engineering design. This study aimed to explain the means that were used to reach this design. Background of the Study: Temple of Dandara consists of 24 columns with a height of 18m and a diameter of 2m. This paper is about the engineering method for constructing these huge columns. Two experiments were conducted at the temple. The first experiment used AutoCAD to compare the similarity of the columns in terms of dimensions. The second experiment used a laser rangefinder to measure the extent of the match between the heights between the columns. The Major Findings of the Study: (1) The method of constructing the columns was through several divided layers. It is divided into two halves and built opposite each other to maintain the integrity of the columns. (2) The match between the heights of the columns, which reached the error rate between one column and another, is only 1 mm. Concluding Statement: Both experiences will be explained through 2D and 3D.

Keywords: ancient, construction, architecture, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
322 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
321 Overall Stability of Welded Q460GJ Steel Box Columns: Experimental Study and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Zhou Xiong, Kang Shao Bo, Yang Bo

Abstract:

To date, high-performance structural steel has been widely used for columns in construction practices due to its significant advantages over conventional steel. However, the same design approach with conventional steel columns is still adopted in the design of high-performance steel columns. As a result, its superior properties cannot be fully considered in design. This paper conducts a test and finite element analysis on the overall stability behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the test, four steel columns with different slenderness and width-to-thickness ratio were compressed under an axial compression testing machine. And finite element models were established in which material nonlinearity and residual stress distributions of test columns were included. Then, comparisons were made between test results and finite element result, it showed that finite element analysis results are agree well with the test result. It means that the test and finite element model are reliable. Then, we compared the test result with the design value calculated by current code, the result showed that Q460GJ steel box columns have the higher overall buckling capacity than the design value. It is necessary to update the design curves for Q460GJ steel columns so that the overall stability capacity of Q460GJ box columns can be designed appropriately.

Keywords: axial compression, box columns, global buckling, numerical simulations, Q460GJ steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
320 Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions

Authors: T. Karech A. Noui, T. Bouzid

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.

Keywords: piles, stone columns, interaction, foundation, settlement, consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
319 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Sophia C. Alih, Mohammadreza Vafaei, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim

Abstract:

Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: battened column, built-up column, cyclic behavior, seismic design, steel column

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
318 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
317 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, carbon fiber, RC columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
316 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Adel Hanna, Tahar Ayadat, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros

Abstract:

A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: stone columns, group, soft soil, settlement, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
315 Comparative Study on Structural Behaviour of Circular Hollow Steel Tubular, Concrete Filled Steel Tubular, and Reinforced Cement Concrete Stub Columns under Pure Axial Compression

Authors: Niladri Roy, M. Longshithung Patton

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at studying the structural response of circular hollow steel tubular (HST), concrete filled steel tubular (CFST), and reinforced cement concrete (RCC) stub columns when subjected to only axial compressive forces and also examining their comparative nature using finite element (FE) models. These results are further compared with the respective experimental results. FE software package ABAQUS 6.14 has been used for further parametric studies where a total of 108 FE models were modelled. The diameters of the HST, CFST, and RCC stub columns are kept as 100, 140, 180, and 220, with length to diameter ratio fixed at 3 to avoid end effects and flexural failure. To keep the same percentage of steel (by volume), the thicknesses of steel tubes in HST and CFST columns were varied in response to the change in diameter of the main reinforcement bar in RCC columns. M25 grade of concrete was used throughout. The objective is to compare the structural behaviour of HST, CFST, and RCC stub columns on the basis of their axial compressive load carrying capacity and failure modes. The studies show that filling the circular HST columns with concrete increases the Pu of the CCFST columns by 2.97 times. It was also observed that the Pu (HST) is about 0.72 times Pu (RCC) on average, and the Pu (CFST) is about 2.08 times Pu (RCC) on average. After the analysis and comparison, it has been proved that CFST has much more load carrying capacity than HST and RCC and also provides the same strength at a very less sectional size.

Keywords: HST columns, stub columns, CFST columns, RCC columns, finite element modeling, ABAQUS

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
314 Shear Reinforcement of Stone Columns During Soil Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of stone columns as a liquefaction countermeasure focusing on shear reinforcementbenefit. In fact, stone columns which have high shear modulus relative to the surrounding soils potentially can carry higher shear stress levels. Thus, stone columns provide shear reinforcement and decrease the Cyclic Shear Stress Ratio CSR to which the treated soils would be subjected during an earthquake. In order to quantify the level of shear stress reduction in reinforced soil, several approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, the available approaches do not take into account the improvement of the soil parameters, mainly the shear modulusdue to stone columns installation. Indeed, in situ control tests carried out before and after the installation of stone columns based upon the results of collected data derived from 24 case histories have given evidence of the improvement of the existing soil properties.In this paper, the assessment of shear reinforcement of stone columns that accounts such improvement of the soil parameters due to stone column installation is investigated. Comparative results indicate that considering the improvement effects considerably affect the assessment of shear reinforcement for liquefaction analysis of reinforced soil by stone columns.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, shear reinforcement, CSR, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
313 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith

Abstract:

This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: columns, reinforcement ratio, strength, time exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
312 Improvement of Soft Clay Using Floating Cement Dust-Lime Columns

Authors: Adel Belal, Sameh Aboelsoud, Mohy Elmashad, Mohammed Abdelmonem

Abstract:

The two main criteria that control the design and performance of footings are bearing capacity and settlement of soil. In soft soils, the construction of buildings, storage tanks, warehouse, etc. on weak soils usually involves excessive settlement problems. To solve bearing capacity or reduce settlement problems, soil improvement may be considered by using different techniques, including encased cement dust–lime columns. The proposed research studies the effect of adding floating encased cement dust and lime mix columns to soft clay on the clay-bearing capacity. Four experimental tests were carried out. Columns diameters of 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 5.0 cm and columns length of 60% of the clay layer thickness were used. Numerical model was constructed and verified using commercial finite element package (PLAXIS 2D, V8.5). The verified model was used to study the effect of distributing columns around the footing at different distances. The study showed that the floating cement dust lime columns enhanced the clay-bearing capacity with 262%. The numerical model showed that the columns around the footing have a limit effect on the clay improvement.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cement dust – lime columns, ground improvement, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
311 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Dana J. Abed, Mu'tasim S. Abdel-Jaber, Nasim K. Shatarat

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, eccentric loading, cross-sectional

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
310 A Brief Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Fuat Korkut, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian Standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
309 A Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian Standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
308 A Comparative Study for the Axial Load Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Eylem Guzel, Faruk Osmanoglu, Muhammet Kurucu

Abstract:

The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete-filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
307 Buckling Performance of Irregular Section Cold-Formed Steel Columns under Axially Concentric Loading

Authors: Chayanon Hansapinyo

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental investigation and finite element analysis on buckling behavior of irregular section cold-formed steel columns under axially concentric loading. For the experimental study, four different sections of columns were tested to investigate effect of stiffening and width-to-thickness ratio on buckling behavior. For each of the section, three lengths of 230, 950 and 1900 mm. were studied representing short, intermediate long and long columns, respectively. Then, nonlinear finite element analyses of the tested columns were performed. The comparisons in terms of load-deformation response and buckling mode show good agreement and hence the FEM models were validated. Parametric study of stiffening element and thickness of 1.0, 1.15, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0 mm. were analyzed. The test results showed that stiffening effect pays a large contribution to prevent distortional mode. The increase in wall thickness enhanced buckling stress beyond the yielding strength in short and intermediate columns, but not for the long columns.

Keywords: buckling behavior, irregular section, cold-formed steel, concentric loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
306 Square Concrete Columns under Axial Compression

Authors: Suniti Suparp, Panuwat Joyklad, Qudeer Hussain

Abstract:

This is a well-known fact that the actual latera forces due to natural disasters, for example, earthquakes, floods and storms are difficult to predict accurately. Among these natural disasters, so far, the highest amount of deaths and injuries have been recorded for the case of earthquakes all around the world. Therefore, there is always an urgent need to establish suitable strengthening methods for existing concrete and steel structures. This paper is investigating the structural performance of square concrete columns strengthened using low cost and easily available steel clamps. The salient features of these steel clamps are comparatively low cost, easy availability and ease of installation. To achieve research objectives, a large-scale experimental program was established in which a total number of 12 square concrete columns were constructed and tested under pure axial compression. Three square concrete columns were tested without any steel lamps to serve as a reference specimen. Whereas, remaining concrete columns were externally strengthened using steel clamps. The steel clamps were installed at a different spacing to investigate the best configuration of the steel clamps. The experimental results indicate that steel clamps are very effective in altering the structural performance of the square concrete columns. The square concrete columns externally strengthened using steel clamps demonstrate higher load carrying capacity and ductility as compared with the control specimens.

Keywords: concrete, strength, ductility, pre-stressed, steel, clamps, axial compression, columns, stress and strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
305 Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

Abstract:

The present work illustrates a parametric study for the effect of stiffeners on the performance of slender built up steel I-columns. To achieve the desired analysis, finite element technique is used to develop nonlinear three-dimensional models representing the investigated columns. The finite element program (ANSYS 13.0) is used as a calculation tool for the necessary nonlinear analysis. A validation of the obtained numerical results is achieved. The considered parameters in the study are the column slenderness ratio and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of stiffeners. The dimensions of the stiffeners considered in the analysis are the stiffener width and the stiffener thickness. Numerical results signify a considerable effect of stiffeners on the performance and failure load of slender built up steel I-columns.

Keywords: columns, local buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
304 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading

Authors: Dana Abed, Mu`Tasim Abdel-Jaber, Nasim Shatarat

Abstract:

This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, concentric loading, cross-sectional

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
303 Stiffness and Modulus of Subgrade Reaction of the Soft Soil Improved by Stone Columns

Authors: Sudheer Kumar J., Sudhanshu Sharma

Abstract:

Stone columns are extensively used as constructive and environmentally sustainable improvement methods for improving stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction, and maximum lateral displacement in the multilayer soil system. The advantage of using stone columns in improving the single-layer soft soil as a ground reinforcement element for supporting various structures up to shallow depth is well researched, but the understanding of strengthening the multiplayer soil system for a deeper level requires further studies. In this paper, a series of cases have been conducted to study the behaviour of ordinary stone columns (OSC), geosynthetic encased stone columns (GESC) over various objectives for strengthening multilayer soil system up to deep level. A finite element analyses were carried out using the software package PLAXIS to study further correlate the results. The study aims to find the stiffness of composite soil, modulus of subgrade reaction, which is generally required for designing of various foundations, and also discusses the maximum horizontal displacement location, which is the major failure criteria seen after the installation of stone columns.

Keywords: stone columns, geotextile, finite element method, stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction, maximum lateral displacement point

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
302 The Effect of Pulling and Rotation Speed on the Jet Grout Columns

Authors: İbrahim Hakkı Erkan, Özcan Tan

Abstract:

The performance of jet grout columns was affected by many controlled and uncontrolled parameters. The leading parameters for the controlled ones can be listed as injection pressure, rod pulling speed, rod rotation speed, number of nozzles, nozzle diameter and Water/Cement ratio. And the uncontrolled parameters are soil type, soil structure, soil layering condition, underground water level, the changes in strength parameters and the rheologic properties of cement in time. In this study, the performance of jet grout columns and the effects of pulling speed and rotation speed were investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a laboratory type jet grouting system was designed for the experiments. Through this system, jet grout columns were produced in three different conditions. The results of the study showed that the grout pressure and the lifting speed significantly affect the performance of the jet grouting columns.

Keywords: jet grout, sandy soils, soil improvement, soilcreate

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
301 Evaluation of Stone Column Behavior Strengthened Circular Raft Footing under Static Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employing to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
300 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac

Abstract:

Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.

Keywords: lateral-torsional buckling, stability, beam-column, monosymmetric section

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
299 Matrix Completion with Heterogeneous Cost

Authors: Ilqar Ramazanli

Abstract:

The matrix completion problem has been studied broadly under many underlying conditions. The problem has been explored under adaptive or non-adaptive, exact or estimation, single-phase or multi-phase, and many other categories. In most of these cases, the observation cost of each entry is uniform and has the same cost across the columns. However, in many real-life scenarios, we could expect elements from distinct columns or distinct positions to have a different cost. In this paper, we explore this generalization under adaptive conditions. We approach the problem under two different cost models. The first one is that entries from different columns have different observation costs, but within the same column, each entry has a uniform cost. The second one is any two entry has different observation cost, despite being the same or different columns. We provide complexity analysis of our algorithms and provide tightness guarantees.

Keywords: matroid optimization, matrix completion, linear algebra, algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
298 Settlement Performance of Soft Clay Reinforced with Granular Columns

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin, V. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Numerous laboratory-based research studies on the behavior of ground improved with granular columns with respect to bearing capacity have been well-documented. However, information on its settlement performance is still scarce. Laboratory model study on the settlement behavior of soft clay reinforced with granular columns was conducted and results are presented. The investigation uses a soft kaolin clay sample of 300 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The clay samples were reinforced with single and multiple granular columns of various lengths using the displacement and replacement installation method. The results indicated that that no settlement reduction was achieved for a short single floating column. The settlement reduction factors reported for L/d ratios of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 are in the range of 1 to 2. The findings obtained in this research showed that the reduction factors are considerably less and that load-sharing mechanism between columns and surrounding clay is complex, particularly for column groups and is affected by other factors such as negative skin friction.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
297 Mechanism of Performance of Soil-Cement Columns under Shallow Foundations in Liquefiable Soil

Authors: Zaheer Ahmed Almani, Agha Faisal Habib Pathan, Aneel Kumar Hindu

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of ground reinforcement with stiff soil-cement columns on liquefiable ground and on the shallow foundation of structure were investigated. The modelling and analysis of shallow foundation of the structure founded on the composite reinforced ground were carried out with finite difference FLAC commercial software. The results showed that stiff columns were not effective to the redistribute the shear stresses in the composite ground, thus, were not effective to reduce shear stress and shear strain on the soil between the columns. The excessive pore pressure increase which is dependent on volumetric strain (contractive) tendency of loose sand upon shearing, was not reduced to a significant level that liquefaction potential could be remediated. Thus, mechanism of performance with reduction of pore pressure and consequent liquefaction was not predicted in numerical analysis. Nonetheless, the columns were effective to resist the load of structure in compression and reduced the liquefaction-induced large settlements of structure to tolerable limits when provided adjacent and beneath the pad of shallow foundation.

Keywords: earthquake, liquefaction, mechanism, soil-cement columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 88