Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 953

Search results for: principle of argument

953 The Continuously Supported Infinity Rail Subjected to a Moving Complex Bogie System

Authors: Vladimir Stojanović, Marko D. Petković

Abstract:

The vibration of a complex bogie system that moves on along the high order shear deformable beam on a viscoelastic foundation is studied. The complex bogie system has been modeled by elastically connected rigid bars on an identical supports. Elastic coupling between bars is introduced to simulate rigidly or flexibly (transversal or/and rotational) connection. Identical supports are modeled as a system of attached spring and dashpot to the bar on one side and interact with the beam through the concentrated mass on the other side. It is assumed that the masses and the beam are always in contact. New analytically determined critical velocity of the system is presented. It is analyzed the case when the complex bogie system exceeds the minimum phase velocity of waves in the beam when the vibration of the system may become unstable. Effect of an elastic coupling between bars on the stability of the system has been analyzed. The instability regions are found for the complex bogie system by applying the principle of the argument and D-decomposition method.

Keywords: Reddy-Bickford beam, D-decomposition method, principle of argument, critical velocity

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952 Federal Character Principle and the Challenges of National Integration in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis of Some Federal Appointments under Jonathan and Buhari Administrations

Authors: Simon O. Obadahun, Samuel Otohinoyi

Abstract:

The Nigerian state is heterogeneous both in character and content. Efforts to manage this diversity has so far not yielded the desired result. This paper examines the Federal Character Principle as one of the instruments intended to manage our obvious diversity such that no part of the country is marginalized or feels marginalized or sidelined. The paper observed that the Federal Character Principle have not achieved its set objectives, which is national unity and loyalty. It draws from secondary sources and discovered that there are factors that make an equitable distribution of public appointments difficult which is beyond the powers of the federal character commission. The major argument of this paper is that if the Federal Character Commission as an organization expected to enforce this principle is not restructured and given more power to sanction individuals and organizations that are found of circumventing the relevant guidelines in this regards, the hope of national unity and loyalty will continue to be a mirage.

Keywords: appointments, federalism, federal character, national integration

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951 An ERP Study of Chinese Pseudo-Object Structures

Authors: Changyin Zhou

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Verb-argument relation is a very important aspect of syntax-semantics interaction in sentence processing. Previous ERP (event related potentials) studies in this field mainly concentrated on the relation between the verb and its core arguments. The present study aims to reveal the ERP pattern of Chinese pseudo-object structures (SOSs), in which a peripheral argument is promoted to occupy the position of the patient object, as compared with the patient object structures (POSs). The ERP data were collected when participants were asked to perform acceptability judgments about Chinese phrases. Our result shows that, similar to the previous studies of number-of-argument violations, Chinese SOSs show a bilaterally distributed N400 effect. But different from all the previous studies of verb-argument relations, Chinese SOSs demonstrate a sustained anterior positivity (SAP). This SAP, which is the first report related to complexity of argument structure operation, reflects the integration difficulty of the newly promoted arguments and the progressive nature of well-formedness checking in the processing of Chinese SOSs.

Keywords: Chinese pseudo-object structures, ERP, sustained anterior positivity, verb-argument relation

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950 Identifying Necessary Words for Understanding Academic Articles in English as a Second or a Foreign Language

Authors: Stephen Wagman

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This paper identifies three common structures in English sentences that are important for understanding academic texts, regardless of the characteristics or background of the readers or whether they are reading English as a second or a foreign language. Adapting a model from the Humanities, the explication of texts used in literary studies, the paper analyses sample sentences to reveal structures that enable the reader not only to decide which words are necessary for understanding the main ideas but to make the decision without knowing the meaning of the words. By their very syntax noun structures point to the key word for understanding them. As a rule, the key noun is followed by easily identifiable prepositions, relative pronouns, or verbs and preceded by single adjectives. With few exceptions, the modifiers are unnecessary for understanding the idea of the sentence. In addition, sentences are often structured by lists in which the items frequently consist of parallel groups of words. The principle of a list is that all the items are similar in meaning and it is not necessary to understand all of the items to understand the point of the list. This principle is especially important when the items are long or there is more than one list in the same sentence. The similarity in meaning of these items enables readers to reduce sentences that are hard to grasp to an understandable core without excessive use of a dictionary. Finally, the idea of subordination and the identification of the subordinate parts of sentences through connecting words makes it possible for readers to focus on main ideas without having to sift through the less important and more numerous secondary structures. Sometimes a main idea requires a subordinate one to complete its meaning, but usually, subordinate ideas are unnecessary for understanding the main point of the sentence and its part in the development of the argument from sentence to sentence. Moreover, the connecting words themselves indicate the functions of the subordinate structures. These most frequently show similarity and difference or reasons and results. Recognition of all of these structures can not only enable students to read more efficiently but to focus their attention on the development of the argument and this rather than a multitude of unknown vocabulary items, the repetition in lists, or the subordination in sentences are the one necessary element for comprehension of academic articles.

Keywords: development of the argument, lists, noun structures, subordination

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949 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: CM van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: environment, human rights, international law, protection

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948 The Standard of Best Interest of the Child in Custody Adjudication under the Malaysian Laws

Authors: Roslina Che Soh

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Best interest of the child has been the prevailing principle of the custody legislations of most nations in the world. The tremendous shift from parental rights to parental responsibilities throughout the centuries had made the principle of best interests of the child as the utmost matter which parents must uphold in child upbringing. Despite the commitment to this principle is significantly enshrined in the United Nation Convention on Rights of the Child, the content and application of the principle differs across borders. Differences persist notwithstanding many countries have experienced a substantial shift over the last several decades in the types of custodial arrangements that are thought to best serve children’s interests. The laws in Malaysia similarly uphold this principle but do not provide further deliberation on the principle itself. The principle is entirely developed by the courts through decided cases. Thus, this paper seeks to discuss the extent of the application of best interest of the child principle in custody disputes. In doing so, it attempts to provide an overview of the current laws and the approach of the Civil and the Shariah courts in Malaysia in applying the principle in determining custody disputes. For purposes of comparison, it briefly examines the legislations and the courts practices in Australia and England on this matter. The purpose is to determine the best standard to be adopted by Malaysia and to propose improvement to the laws whenever appropriate.

Keywords: child custody, best interest, Malaysian law, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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947 Introducing the Accounting Reform of Public Finance in the Czech Republic

Authors: M. Otrusinova, E. Pastuszkova

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The article is addressing the currently ongoing reform processes of transforming the public finance accounting based on cash flow principle to accrual principle. The presented analysis concerns the issues associated with the introduction of the state accounting from the perspective of municipal employees in compiling the opinions of financial experts in conditions of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to present outcomes of analysis focused on currently discussed topics which are related to introducing the accrual principle into accounting of selected entities, especially municipalities and municipality-funded institutions. The output of the paper consists of comparing the application of the accrual principle in the financial reporting of municipalities in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In conclusion and based on the survey, respondents from Slovak municipalities that have already adopted the accrual accounting principle show better opinion than Czech municipalities.

Keywords: accrual principle, accounting, accounting reform, Czech Republic, municipalities, public finance

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946 Emile Meyerson's Philosophy of Science in Lacan's Early Theories

Authors: Hugo T. Jorge, Richard T. Simanke

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Lacan’s work addresses overarching issues concerning the scientific intelligibility of the subject in its philosophical sense. Even though his reflection is not, strictly speaking, philosophy of science, it contains many traits that are typical of this branch of philosophy. However, the relation between Lacan’s early thought and the philosophy of science of the time is often disregarded or only incompletely accounted for in Lacanian scholarship. French philosopher of science Emile Meyerson was often implicitly or explicitly referred to in Lacan’s works, yet few publications can be found on their relationship. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of this relationship, indicating some of its possible implications. For this, the convergence between Meyerson’s doctrine of science and Lacan’s works between 1936 and 1953 is discussed, as well as the conditions under which Lacan’s reception of Meyerson’s ideas take place. In conclusion, it is argued that this convergence allows for the clarification of important issues in Lacan’s early work, such as the concept of imago, his views on the nature of truth, and his thesis of the anthropomorphism of natural sciences. Meyerson’s argument for the permanence of common sense within science makes Lacan’s claims on the anthropomorphism of natural sciences more understandable. Similarly, Meyerson’s views on the epistemological shortfall of the Principle of Identity sheds some light on Lacan’s 1936 critique of associationistic concepts of engram and truth and may be at the origins of his antirealist and anti-idealist stances. Meyerson’s Principle of Identity is also related to some aspects of Lacan’s concept of imago. The imago understood as the unconscious condition for the identity in time of family figures in childhood, would be an excellent expression of the Principle of Identity. In this sense, the Principle of Identity may be linked to the concept of imaginary as developed by Lacan in the 1950s. However, Lacan considerably distorts Meyerson’s views in his 1936 critique of Freud’s concept of libido. Finally, a possible relationship between Lacan’s late concept of the real and Meyerson’s concept of the irrational is suggested.

Keywords: imaginary, Lacan, Meyerson, philosophy of science, real

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945 Merging Appeal to Ignorance, Composition, and Division Argument Schemes with Bayesian Networks

Authors: Kong Ngai Pei

Abstract:

The argument scheme approach to argumentation has two components. One is to identify the recurrent patterns of inferences used in everyday discourse. The second is to devise critical questions to evaluate the inferences in these patterns. Although this approach is intuitive and contains many insightful ideas, it has been noted to be not free of problems. One is that due to its disavowing the probability calculus, it cannot give the exact strength of an inference. In order to tackle this problem, thereby paving the way to a more complete normative account of argument strength, it has been proposed, the most promising way is to combine the scheme-based approach with Bayesian networks (BNs). This paper pursues this line of thought, attempting to combine three common schemes, Appeal to Ignorance, Composition, and Division, with BNs. In the first part, it is argued that most (if not all) formulations of the critical questions corresponding to these schemes in the current argumentation literature are incomplete and not very informative. To remedy these flaws, more thorough and precise formulations of these questions are provided. In the second part, how to use graphical idioms (e.g. measurement and synthesis idioms) to translate the schemes as well as their corresponding critical questions to graphical structure of BNs, and how to define probability tables of the nodes using functions of various sorts are shown. In the final part, it is argued that many misuses of these schemes, traditionally called fallacies with the same names as the schemes, can indeed be adequately accounted for by the BN models proposed in this paper.

Keywords: appeal to ignorance, argument schemes, Bayesian networks, composition, division

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944 Early Modern Controversies of Mobility within the Spanish Empire: Francisco De Vitoria and the Peaceful Right to Travel

Authors: Beatriz Salamanca

Abstract:

In his public lecture ‘On the American Indians’ given at the University of Salamanca in 1538-39, Francisco de Vitoria presented an unsettling defense of freedom of movement, arguing that the Spanish had the right to travel and dwell in the New World, since it was considered part of the law of nations [ius gentium] that men enjoyed free mutual intercourse anywhere they went. The principle of freedom of movement brought hopeful expectations, promising to bring mankind together and strengthen the ties of fraternity. However, it led to polemical situations when those whose mobility was in question represented a harmful threat or was for some reason undesired. In this context, Vitoria’s argument has been seen on multiple occasions as a justification of the expansion of the Spanish empire. In order to examine the meaning of Vitoria’s defense of free mobility, a more detailed look at Vitoria’s text is required, together with the study of some of his earliest works, among them, his commentaries on Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae, where he presented relevant insights on the idea of the law of nations. In addition, it is necessary to place Vitoria’s work in the context of the intellectual tradition he belonged to and the responses he obtained from some of his contemporaries who were concerned with similar issues. The claim of this research is that the Spanish right to travel advocated by Vitoria was not intended to be interpreted in absolute terms, for it had to serve the purpose of bringing peace and unity among men, and could not contradict natural law. In addition, Vitoria explicitly observed that the right to travel was only valid if the Spaniards caused no harm, a condition that has been underestimated by his critics. Therefore, Vitoria’s legacy is of enormous value as it initiated a long lasting discussion regarding the question of the grounds under which human mobility could be restricted. Again, under Vitoria’s argument it was clear that this freedom was not absolute, but the controversial nature of his defense of Spanish mobility demonstrates how difficult it was and still is to address the issue of the circulation of peoples across frontiers, and shows the significance of this discussion in today’s globalized world, where the rights and wrongs of notions like immigration, international trade or foreign intervention still lack sufficient consensus. This inquiry about Vitoria’s defense of the principle of freedom of movement is being placed here against the background of the history of political thought, political theory, international law, and international relations, following the methodological framework of contextual history of the ‘Cambridge School’.

Keywords: Francisco de Vitoria, freedom of movement, law of nations, ius gentium, Spanish empire

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943 Anthropomorphism in the Primate Mind-Reading Debate: A Critique of Sober's Justification Argument

Authors: Boyun Lee

Abstract:

This study aims to discuss whether anthropomorphism some scientists tend to use in cross-species comparison can be justified epistemologically, especially in the primate mind-reading debate. Concretely, this study critically analyzes Elliott Sober’s argument about mind-reading hypothesis (MRH), an anthropomorphic hypothesis which states that nonhuman primates (e.g., chimpanzee) are mind-readers like humans. Although many scientists consider anthropomorphism as an error and choosing anthropomorphic hypothesis like MRH without any definite evidence invalid, Sober advocates that anthropomorphism is supported by cladistic parsimony that suggests choosing the simplest hypothesis postulating the minimum number of evolutionary changes, which can be justified epistemologically in the mind-reading debate. However, his argument has several problems. First, Reichenbach’s theorem which Sober uses in process of showing that MRH has the higher likelihood than its competing hypothesis, behavior-reading hypothesis (BRH), does not fit in the context of inferring the evolutionary relationship. Second, the phylogenetic tree Sober supports is one of the possible scenarios of MRH, and even without this problem, it is difficult to prove that the possibility nonhuman primate species and human share mind-reading ability is higher than the possibility of the other case, considering how evolution occurs. Consequently, it seems hard to justify anthropomorphism of MRH under Sober’s argument. Some scientists and philosophers say that anthropomorphism sometimes helps observe interesting phenomena or make hypotheses in comparative biology. Nonetheless, we cannot determine that it provides answers about why and how the interesting phenomena appear or which of the hypotheses is better, at least the mind-reading debate, under the current state.

Keywords: anthropomorphism, cladistic parsimony, comparative biology, mind-reading debate

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942 Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

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The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.

Keywords: feed-forward neural network, clustering, max-entropy principle, probabilistic models

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941 Explanation and Temporality in International Relations

Authors: Alasdair Stanton

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What makes for a good explanation? Twenty years after Wendt’s important treatment of constitution and causation, non-causal explanations (sometimes referred to as ‘understanding’, or ‘descriptive inference’) have become, if not mainstream, at least accepted within International Relations. This article proceeds in two parts: firstly, it examines closely Wendt’s constitutional claims, and while it agrees there is a difference between causal and constitutional, rejects the view that constitutional explanations lack temporality. In fact, this author concludes that a constitutional argument is only possible if it relies upon a more foundational, causal argument. Secondly, through theoretical analysis of the constitutional argument, this research seeks to delineate temporal and non-temporal ways of explaining within International Relations. This article concludes that while the constitutional explanation, like other logical arguments, including comparative, and counter-factual, are not truly non-causal explanations, they are not bound as tightly to the ‘real world’ as temporal arguments such as cause-effect, process tracing, or even interpretivist accounts. However, like mathematical models, non-temporal arguments should aim for empirical testability as well as internal consistency. This work aims to give clear theoretical grounding to those authors using non-temporal arguments, but also to encourage them, and their positivist critics, to engage in thoroughgoing empirical tests.

Keywords: causal explanation, constitutional understanding, empirical, temporality

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940 Margin-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Classifiers

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

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Margin-Based Principle has been proposed for a long time, it has been proved that this principle could reduce the structural risk and improve the performance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Meanwhile, feed-forward neural network is a traditional classifier, which is very hot at present with a deeper architecture. However, the training algorithm of feed-forward neural network is developed and generated from Widrow-Hoff Principle that means to minimize the squared error. In this paper, we propose a new training algorithm for feed-forward neural networks based on Margin-Based Principle, which could effectively promote the accuracy and generalization ability of neural network classifiers with less labeled samples and flexible network. We have conducted experiments on four UCI open data sets and achieved good results as expected. In conclusion, our model could handle more sparse labeled and more high-dimension data set in a high accuracy while modification from old ANN method to our method is easy and almost free of work.

Keywords: Max-Margin Principle, Feed-Forward Neural Network, classifier, structural risk

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939 The Implementation of Sovereignty over Natural Resources Principle: Case Study Indonesian Forest

Authors: Sri Wartini

Abstract:

Based on the sovereignty over natural resources principle, the Indonesian government has an authority to exploit the natural resources within a national jurisdiction of Indonesia. The forest is one of the natural resources which is very valuable for Indonesia. It becomes the source of raw material for many industrial activities, such as pharmaceutical industry, pulp industry, and household furniture industry. Hence, it contributes to the economic development of Indonesia. However, the exploitation of the forest may cause negative impacts, such as environmental pollution and environmental degradation. The implementation of the sovereignty over natural resources principle in Indonesia may jeopardize the forest and affect the sustainability of the forest if there is no appropriate policy of the government to exploit the forest in a sustainable manner. The exploitation of the forest in Indonesia, in some extent, has caused serious impact to environment and biodiversity. Hence, in order to sustain and to maintain the forest as the valuable resources to the future generation, the government of Indonesia has already adopted many programmes and action plans. The aim of the research is to undertake a critical examination of the issues relating to the the implementation of sovereignty over natural resources to the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia. It is a normative research and the methodology employed in this research is library research. While the approaches employed in the research are conceptual approach., statutory approach, and comparative approach. The research finds that the implementation of sovereignty over natural resources principle in the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia is limited by other principles of international environmental law, such as sustainable development principle, intergenerational principle and common concern principle which have been adopted in the government policy and various regulations regarding the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia.

Keywords: Environmental damage, negative impacts, pollution, the sovereignty over natural resources

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938 Social Collaborative Learning Model Based on Proactive Involvement to Promote the Global Merit Principle in Cultivating Youths' Morality

Authors: Wera Supa, Panita Wannapiroon

Abstract:

This paper is a report on the designing of the social collaborative learning model based on proactive involvement to Promote the global merit principle in cultivating youths’ morality. The research procedures into two phases, the first phase is to design the social collaborative learning model based on proactive involvement to promote the global merit principle in cultivating youths’ morality, and the second is to evaluate the social collaborative learning model based on proactive involvement. The sample group in this study consists of 15 experts who are dominant in proactive participation, moral merit principle and youths’ morality cultivation from executive level, lecturers and the professionals in information and communication technology expertise selected using the purposive sampling method. Data analyzed by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. This study has explored that there are four significant factors in promoting the hands-on collaboration of global merit scheme in order to implant virtues to adolescences which are: 1) information and communication Technology Usage; 2) proactive involvement; 3) morality cultivation policy, and 4) global merit principle. The experts agree that the social collaborative learning model based on proactive involvement is highly appropriate.

Keywords: social collaborative learning, proactive involvement, global merit principle, morality

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937 Written Argumentative Texts in Elementary School: The Development of Text Structure and Its Relation to Reading Comprehension

Authors: Sara Zadunaisky Ehrlich, Batia Seroussi, Anat Stavans

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Text structure is a parameter of text quality. This study investigated the structure of written argumentative texts produced by elementary school age children. We set two objectives: to identify and trace the structural components of the argumentative texts and to investigate whether reading comprehension skills were correlated with text structure. 293 school children from 2nd to 5th grades were asked to write two argumentative texts about informal or everyday life controversial topics and completed two reading tasks that targeted different levels of text comprehension. The findings indicated, on the one hand, significant developmental differences between mature and more novice writers in terms of text length and mean proportion of clauses produced for a better elaboration of the different text components. On the other hand, with certain fluctuations, no meaningful differences were found in terms of presence of text structure: at all grade levels, elementary school children produced the basic and minimal structure that included the writer's argument and reasons or arguments' supports. Counter-arguments were scarce even in the upper grades. While the children captured that essentially an argument must be justified, the more the number of supports produced, the fewer the clauses the children produced. Last, weak to mild relations were found between reading comprehension and argumentative text structure. Nevertheless, children who scored higher on sophisticated questions that require inferential or world knowledge displayed more elaborated structures in terms of text length and size of supports to the writer's argument. These findings indicate how school-age children perceive the basic template of an argument with future implications regarding how to elaborate written arguments.

Keywords: argumentative text, text structure, elementary school children, written argumentations

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936 Identifying Principle Components Affecting Competitiveness of Thai Automotive Parts Industry

Authors: Thanatip Lerttanaporn, Tuanjai Somboonwiwat, Charoenchai Khompatraporn

Abstract:

The automotive parts industry is one of the vital sectors in Thai economy and now is facing a greater competition from ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). This article identifies important factors that impact the competitiveness of Thai automotive parts industry. There are eight groups of factors with a total of 58 factors. Due to a variety of factors, the Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principle Component Analysis have been applied to classify factors into groups or principle components. The results show that there are 15 groups and four of them are critical, covering 80% of important value. These four critical groups are then used to formulate strategies to improve the competitiveness of the Thai automotive parts industry.

Keywords: factor analysis, Thai automotive parts, principle components, exploratory factor, ASEAN economic community

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935 Transformation of Periodic Fuzzy Membership Function to Discrete Polygon on Circular Polar Coordinates

Authors: Takashi Mitsuishi

Abstract:

Fuzzy logic has gained acceptance in the recent years in the fields of social sciences and humanities such as psychology and linguistics because it can manage the fuzziness of words and human subjectivity in a logical manner. However, the major field of application of the fuzzy logic is control engineering as it is a part of the set theory and mathematical logic. Mamdani method, which is the most popular technique for approximate reasoning in the field of fuzzy control, is one of the ways to numerically represent the control afforded by human language and sensitivity and has been applied in various practical control plants. Fuzzy logic has been gradually developing as an artificial intelligence in different applications such as neural networks, expert systems, and operations research. The objects of inference vary for different application fields. Some of these include time, angle, color, symptom and medical condition whose fuzzy membership function is a periodic function. In the defuzzification stage, the domain of the membership function should be unique to obtain uniqueness its defuzzified value. However, if the domain of the periodic membership function is determined as unique, an unintuitive defuzzified value may be obtained as the inference result using the center of gravity method. Therefore, the authors propose a method of circular-polar-coordinates transformation and defuzzification of the periodic membership functions in this study. The transformation to circular polar coordinates simplifies the domain of the periodic membership function. Defuzzified value in circular polar coordinates is an argument. Furthermore, it is required that the argument is calculated from a closed plane figure which is a periodic membership function on the circular polar coordinates. If the closed plane figure is continuous with the continuity of the membership function, a significant amount of computation is required. Therefore, to simplify the practice example and significantly reduce the computational complexity, we have discretized the continuous interval and the membership function in this study. In this study, the following three methods are proposed to decide the argument from the discrete polygon which the continuous plane figure is transformed into. The first method provides an argument of a straight line passing through the origin and through the coordinate of the arithmetic mean of each coordinate of the polygon (physical center of gravity). The second one provides an argument of a straight line passing through the origin and the coordinate of the geometric center of gravity of the polygon. The third one provides an argument of a straight line passing through the origin bisecting the perimeter of the polygon (or the closed continuous plane figure).

Keywords: defuzzification, fuzzy membership function, periodic function, polar coordinates transformation

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934 A Study on the Performance of 2-PC-D Classification Model

Authors: Nurul Aini Abdul Wahab, Nor Syamim Halidin, Sayidatina Aisah Masnan, Nur Izzati Romli

Abstract:

There are many applications of principle component method for reducing the large set of variables in various fields. Fisher’s Discriminant function is also a popular tool for classification. In this research, the researcher focuses on studying the performance of Principle Component-Fisher’s Discriminant function in helping to classify rice kernels to their defined classes. The data were collected on the smells or odour of the rice kernel using odour-detection sensor, Cyranose. 32 variables were captured by this electronic nose (e-nose). The objective of this research is to measure how well a combination model, between principle component and linear discriminant, to be as a classification model. Principle component method was used to reduce all 32 variables to a smaller and manageable set of components. Then, the reduced components were used to develop the Fisher’s Discriminant function. In this research, there are 4 defined classes of rice kernel which are Aromatic, Brown, Ordinary and Others. Based on the output from principle component method, the 32 variables were reduced to only 2 components. Based on the output of classification table from the discriminant analysis, 40.76% from the total observations were correctly classified into their classes by the PC-Discriminant function. Indirectly, it gives an idea that the classification model developed has committed to more than 50% of misclassifying the observations. As a conclusion, the Fisher’s Discriminant function that was built on a 2-component from PCA (2-PC-D) is not satisfying to classify the rice kernels into its defined classes.

Keywords: classification model, discriminant function, principle component analysis, variable reduction

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933 Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymeric Composites

Authors: Abir Abdessalem, Sahbi Tamboura, J. Fitoussi, Hachmi Ben Daly, Abbas Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is one of the most used experimental techniques to investigate the temperature and frequency dependence of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials. The measured data are generally shifted by the application of the principle of the time– temperature superposition (TTS) to obtain the viscoelastic system’s master curve. The aim of this work is to show the methodology to define the horizontal shift factor to be applied to the storage modulus measured in order to indicate the validity of (TTS) principle for this material system. This principle was successfully used to determine the long-term properties of the Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) composites.

Keywords: composite material, dynamic mechanical analysis, SMC composites, viscoelastic behavior, modeling

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932 Nature of the Prohibition of Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in EU Law

Authors: Anna Pudlo

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The EU law encompasses many supranational legal systems (EU law, ECHR, international public law and constitutional traditions common to the Member States) which guarantee the protection of fundamental rights, with partly overlapping scopes of applicability, various principles of interpretation of legal norms and a different hierarchy. In EU law, the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation originates from both the primary and secondary EU legislation. At present, the prohibition is considered to be a fundamental right in pursuance of Article 21 of the Charter, but the Court has not yet determined whether it is a right or a principle within the meaning of the Charter. Similarly, the Court has not deemed this criterion to be a general principle of EU law. The personal and materials scope of the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation based on Article 21 of the Charter requires each time to be specified in another legal act of the EU in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter. The effect of the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation understood as above will be two-fold, for the States and for the Union. On the one hand, one may refer to the legal instruments of review of EU law enforcement by a Member State laid down in the Treaties. On the other hand, EU law does not provide for the right to individual petition. Therefore, it is the duty of the domestic courts to protect the right of a person not to be discriminated on grounds of sexual orientation in line with the national procedural rules, within the limits and in accordance with the principles set out in EU law, in particular in Directive 2000/78. The development of the principle of non-discrimination in the Court’s case-law gives rise to certain doubts as to its applicability, namely whether the principle as the general principle of EU law may be granted an autonomous character, with respect to the applicability to matters not included in the personal or material scope of the Directives, although within the EU’s competence. Moreover, both the doctrine and the opinions of the Advocates-General have called for the general competence of CJEU with regard to fundamental rights which, however, might lead to a violation of the principle of separation of competence. The aim of this paper is to answer the question what is the nature of the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in EU law (a general principle in EU law, or a principle or right under the Charter’s terminology). Therefore, the paper focuses on the nature of Article 21 of the Charter (a right or a principle) and the scope (personal and material) of the prohibition of discrimination based on sexual orientation in EU law as well as its effect (vertical or horizontal). The study has included the provisions of EU law together with the relevant CJEU case-law.

Keywords: EU law, EU principles, non-discrimination in EU law, Charter of the Fundamental Rights

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931 Principle Components Updates via Matrix Perturbations

Authors: Aiman Elragig, Hanan Dreiwi, Dung Ly, Idriss Elmabrook

Abstract:

This paper highlights a new approach to look at online principle components analysis (OPCA). Given a data matrix X R,^m x n we characterise the online updates of its covariance as a matrix perturbation problem. Up to the principle components, it turns out that online updates of the batch PCA can be captured by symmetric matrix perturbation of the batch covariance matrix. We have shown that as n→ n0 >> 1, the batch covariance and its update become almost similar. Finally, utilize our new setup of online updates to find a bound on the angle distance of the principle components of X and its update.

Keywords: online data updates, covariance matrix, online principle component analysis, matrix perturbation

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930 Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass

Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Mujahid Kamran

Abstract:

It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.

Keywords: causality, gauge particles, material particles, special relativity

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929 Parental Separation and 'the Best Interests of the Child' at International Law: Guidance for Nation States in the 21st Century

Authors: Cassandra Seery

Abstract:

During the twentieth century, the notion of child rights at the international level began with the League of Nations’ Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1924, culminating in the development and adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (‘the Convention’) in 1989. A key foundation of child rights lies in the development of the ‘best interests of the child’ principle and its subsequent incorporation into domestic legislation across the globe. This principle has become a key concept in child rights protection and has become a widely recognized principle in the protection of child rights. However, despite its status as the primary operating standard in child and family law and its ‘deepening hold in domestic and international instruments’, the meaning of the ‘best interests of the child’ principle has been criticised as open-ended and vague. This paper explores the evolution and development of the principle in the context of parental separation at international law throughout the 21st century and identifies opportunities for the Nation States to further improve legislative responses in associated child protection cases. An extensive review of relevant United Nations documentation (including instruments, resolutions and comments, jurisprudence, reports, guidelines and policies, training materials and so forth) explores: (i) what progress has been made to further develop the principle at the international level with regard to parental separation; and (ii) what developments participating the Nation States should consider as part of future legal and social policy reforms in this space. It will highlight opportunities for improvement and explore the benefit and relevance of international approaches for the Nation States moving forward.

Keywords: international human rights, best interests of the child, legal and social policy, child rights

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928 The Differences and the Similarities between Corporate Governance Principles in Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks

Authors: Osama Shibani

Abstract:

Corporate governance effective is critical to the proper functioning of the banking sector and the economy as a whole, the Basel Committee have issued principles of corporate governance inspired from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), but there is no single model of corporate governance that can work well in every country; each country, or even each organization should develop its own model that can cater for its specific needs and objectives, the corporate governance in Islamic Institutions is unique and offers a particular structure and guided by a control body which is Shariah supervisory Board (SSB), for this reason Islamic Financial Services Board in Malaysia (IFSB) has amended BCBS corporate governance principles commensurate with Islamic financial Institutions to suit the nature of the work of Islamic institutions, this paper highlight these amended by using comparative analysis method in context of the differences of corporate governance structure of Islamic banks and conventional banks. We find few different between principles (Principle 1: The Board's overall responsibilities, Principles 3: Board’s own structure and practices, Principles 9: Compliance, Principle 10: Internal audit, Principle 12: Disclosure and transparency) and there are similarities between principles (Principle 2: Board qualifications and composition, Principles 4: Senior Management (composition and tasks), Principle 6: Risk Management and Principle 8: Risk communication). Finally, we found that corporate governance principles issued by Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) are complemented to CG principles of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) with some modifications to suit the composition of Islamic banks, there are deficiencies in the interest of the Basel Committee to Islamic banks.

Keywords: basel committee (BCBS), corporate governance principles, Islamic financial services board (IFSB), agency theory

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927 Feng Shui Paradigm as Philosophy of Sustainable Design

Authors: E. Erdogan, H. A. Erdogan

Abstract:

Feng Shui, an old Chinese discipline, dates back to more than 5000 years, is one of the design principles that aim at creating habitable and sustainable spaces in harmony with nature by systematizing data within its own structure. Having emerged from Chinese mysticism and embodying elements of faith in its principles, Feng Shui argues that the positive energy in the environment channels human behavior and psychology. This argument is supported with the thesis of quantum physics that ‘everything is made up of energy’ and gains an important place. In spaces where living and working take place with several principles and systematized rules, Feng Shui promises a happier, more peaceful and comfortable life by influencing human psychology, acts, and soul as well as the professional and social life of the individual. Observing these design properties in houses, workplaces, offices, the environment, and daily life as a design paradigm is significant. In this study, how Feng Shui, a Central Asian culture emanated from Chinese mysticism, shapes design and how it is used as an element of sustainable design will be explained.

Keywords: Feng Shui, design principle, sustainability, philosophy

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926 The Responsible Lending Principle in the Spanish Proposal of the Mortgage Credit Act

Authors: Noelia Collado-Rodriguez

Abstract:

The Mortgage Credit Directive 2014/17/UE should have been transposed the 21st of March of 2016. However, in Spain not only we did not meet the deadline, but currently we just have a preliminary draft of the so-called Mortgage Credit Act. Before we analyze the preliminary draft from the standpoint of the responsible lending principle, we should point out that this preliminary draft is not a consumer law statute. Through the text of the preliminary draft we cannot see any reference to the consumer, but we see references to the borrower. Furthermore, and more important, the application of this statute would not be, according to its text, circumscribed to borrowers who address the credit to a personal purpose. Instead, it seems that the preliminary draft aims to be one more of the rules of banking transparency that already exists in the Spanish legislation. In this sense, we can also mention that the sanctions contained in the preliminary draft are referred to these laws of banking ordination and oversight – where the rules of banking transparency belong –. This might be against the spirit of the Mortgage Credit Directive, which allows the extension of its scope to credits aimed to acquire other immovable property beyond the residential one. However, the borrower has to be a consumer accordingly with the Directive. It is quite relevant that the prospective Spanish Mortgage Credit Act might not be a consumer protection statute; specially, from the perspective of the responsible lending principle. The responsible lending principle is a consumer law principle, which is based on the structural weakness of the consumer’s position in the relationship with the creditor. Therefore, it cannot surprise that the Spanish preliminary draft does not state any of the pre contractual conducts that express the responsible lending principle. We are referring to the lender’s duty to provide adequate explanations; the consumer’s suitability test; the lender’s duty to assess consumer’s creditworthiness; the consultation of databases to perform the creditworthiness assessment; and the most important, the lender’s prohibition to grant credit in case of a negative creditworthiness assessment. The preliminary draft just entitles the Economy Ministry to enact provisions related to those topics. Thus, the duties and rules derived from the responsible lending principle included in the EU Directive will not have legal character in Spain, being mere administrative regulations. To conclude, the two main questions that come up after reading the Spanish Mortgage Credit Act preliminary draft are, in the first place, what kind of consequences might arise from the Mortgage Credit Act if finally it is not a consumer law statute. And in the second place, what might be the consequences for the responsible lending principle of being developed by administrative regulations instead of by legislation.

Keywords: consumer credit, consumer protection, creditworthiness assessment, responsible lending

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925 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati

Abstract:

Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: all-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential

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924 Moral Obligation as a Governor to Skeptical Theism's Relativism

Authors: Peter J. Morgan

Abstract:

In response to evidential arguments from evil, Stephen Wykstra presents CORNEA (Condition of Reasonable Epistemic Access) as a foundational principle for Skeptical Theism which urges one to think in terms of what can be expected in a given situation. The use of CORNEA results in skepticism regarding the ability of human ken to know divine levels of knowledge in instances of intense evil. However, William Rowe presents a critique of Skeptical Theism that questions its ability to argue successfully for theism. Rowe contends that siding with Skeptical Theism is akin to boarding a trolley car that does not stop. Contra Wykstra, Rowe observes that, for all that can be known, there could be greater amounts of evils than goods, and the goods that are seen may not be the best possible goods. This amounts to a mortally challenging critique of Skeptical Theism. However, there is a brake on Rowe’s Trolley. This paper makes the argument that the ubiquitous presence of Moral Obligation (MO) serves as a braking system for Rowe’s Trolley. When the rider begins to feel lost in an epistemic stalemate of good and evil it is MO that turns the tide: MO serves as evidence towards the good on a basic human level, and it is a reminder that God’s character will result in actions towards the good.

Keywords: CORNEA, moral obligation, problem of evil, skeptical theism

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