Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4761

Search results for: vibrating sample magnetomete

4761 Effects of Al on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of (Nd,Pr)-(Fe,Co)-B Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Rahim Sabbaghizadeh, Mansor Hashim, Nooshin Shourcheh


Nanocrystalline Nd8Pr2Fe79-xCo5B6Alx (x=0, 1, 2, 3) magnets were prepared by mechanical alloying and respective heat treatment, and the effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-Co-B alloy were studied. The changes in the nanostructure and magnetic properties were examined by X-Ray diffraction, combined with Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Addition of Al was found to be effective for improving the coercivity and the hysteresis squareness in Nd–Fe–Co–B magnets without decreasing much the remanent magnetization.

Keywords: mechanical alloying, nanocrystalline, Nd-Fe-B, vibrating sample magnetomete

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
4760 Innovation and Analysis of Vibrating Fork Level Switch

Authors: Kuen-Ming Shu, Cheng-Yu Chen


A vibrating-fork sensor can measure the level height of solids and liquids and operates according to the principle that vibrations created by piezoelectric ceramics are transmitted to the vibrating fork, which produces resonance. When the vibrating fork touches an object, its resonance frequency changes and produces a signal that returns to a controller for immediate adjustment, so as to effectively monitor raw material loading. The design of the vibrating fork in a vibrating-fork material sensor is crucial. In this paper, ANSYS finite element analysis software is used to perform modal analysis on the vibrations of the vibrating fork. In addition, to design and produce a superior vibrating fork, the dimensions and welding shape of the vibrating fork are compared in a simulation performed using the Taguchi method.

Keywords: vibrating fork, piezoelectric ceramics, sound wave, ANSYS, Taguchi method, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
4759 Enhancement of Material Removal Rate of Complex Featured Surfaces in Vibratory Finishing

Authors: Kunal Ahluwalia, Ampara Aramcharoen, Chan Wai Luen, Swee Hock Yeo


The different process engineering applications of vibratory finishing technology have led to its versatile use in the development of aviation components. The most noteworthy applications of vibratory finishing include deburring and imparting the required surface finish. In this paper, vibratory finishing has been used to study its effectiveness in removal of laser shock peened (LSP) layers from Titanium workpieces. A vibratory trough operating at a frequency of 25 Hz, amplitude 3.5 mm and titanium specimens (Ti-6Al-4V, Grade 5) of dimensions 50 x 50 x 10 mm³ were utilized for the experiments. A vibrating fixture operating at 200 Hz was used to provide vibration to the test piece and was immersed in the vibratory trough. It was evident that there is an increase in efficiency of removal of the complex featured layer and smoother surface finish with the introduction of the vibrating fixture in the vibratory finishing setup as compared to the conventional vibratory finishing setup wherein the fixture is not vibrating.

Keywords: laser shock peening, material removal, surface roughness, vibrating fixture, vibratory finishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
4758 Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Using an Inexpensive Smartphone Camera: Motion Magnification Technique

Authors: Hasan Hassoun, Jaafar Hallal, Denis Duhamel, Mohammad Hammoud, Ali Hage Diab


This paper aims to prove the accuracy of an inexpensive smartphone camera as a non-contact vibration sensor to recover the vibration modes of a vibrating structure such as a cantilever beam. A video of a vibrating beam is filmed using a smartphone camera and then processed by the motion magnification technique. Based on this method, the first two natural frequencies and their associated mode shapes are estimated experimentally and compared to the analytical ones. Results show a relative error of less than 4% between the experimental and analytical approaches for the first two natural frequencies of the beam. Also, for the first two-mode shapes, a Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) value of above 0.9 between the two approaches is obtained. This slight error between the different techniques ensures the viability of a cheap smartphone camera as a non-contact vibration sensor, particularly for structures vibrating at relatively low natural frequencies.

Keywords: modal analysis, motion magnification, smartphone camera, structural vibration, vibration modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
4757 On an Experimental Method for Investigating the Dynamic Parameters of Multi-Story Buildings at Vibrating Seismic Loadings

Authors: Shakir Mamedov, Tukezban Hasanova


Research of dynamic properties of various materials and elements of structures at shock affecting and on the waves so many scientific works of the Azerbaijani scientists are devoted. However, Experimental definition of dynamic parameters of fluctuations of constructions and buildings while carries estimated character. The purpose of the present experimental researches is definition of parameters of fluctuations of installation of observations. In this case, a mockup of four floor buildings and sixteen floor skeleton-type buildings built in the Baku with the stiffening diaphragm at natural vibrating seismic affectings.

Keywords: fluctuations, seismoreceivers, dynamic experiments, acceleration

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
4756 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Milled Nickel Powder

Authors: O. M. Lemine


The effect of milling parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel powder was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results did not reveal any phase change of nickel during the milling. The average crystallite size decreases with a prolongation of milling times, whereas the lattice parameters increase. The hysteresis loop reveals the intrinsic magnetic behaviour. It was observed an increase in the magnetization which can be correlated to the volume expansion showed by XRD results.

Keywords: nickel powders, nanocrystallines, XRD, VSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
4755 Practical Guide To Design Dynamic Block-Type Shallow Foundation Supporting Vibrating Machine

Authors: Dodi Ikhsanshaleh


When subjected to dynamic load, foundation oscillates in the way that depends on the soil behaviour, the geometry and inertia of the foundation and the dynamic exctation. The practical guideline to analysis block-type foundation excitated by dynamic load from vibrating machine is presented. The analysis use Lumped Mass Parameter Method to express dynamic properties such as stiffness and damping of soil. The numerical examples are performed on design block-type foundation supporting gas turbine compressor which is important equipment package in gas processing plant

Keywords: block foundation, dynamic load, lumped mass parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
4754 Comparing Two Non-Contact Squeeze Film Levitation Designs

Authors: Ahmed Almurshedi, Mark Atherton, Mares Cristinel, Tadeusz Stolarski, Masaaki Miyatake


Transportation and handling of delicate and lightweight objects is a significant issue in some industries. Two levitation prototype designs, a horn transducer design and surface-mounted piezoelectric actuator vibrating plate design, are compared. Both designs are based on the method of squeeze-film levitation (SFL) and the aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics and performance of each. To this end, physical experiments are conducted and are demonstrated that the horn-type transducer prototype design produces better levitation performance but it design complexity and operating characteristics make it less suitable than the vibrating plate design for practical applications.

Keywords: floating, levitation, piezoelectric, squeeze-film, transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
4753 Preliminary Investigation into the Potentials of Mixed Blend of Acha (Digitaria exiles), Aya (Cyperus esculenta) and Defatted Water Melon Seed (Citrullis lanatus) Flour as a Weaning Formula

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, O. G. Akagu


The potentials of acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and defatted water melon seed (Citrullis lanatus) as a weaning formula was investigated using the following blends for acha, aya and defatted water melon seed respectively in percentage proportion to obtain the weaning formulae; WS1(20:50:30); WS2(30:40:30); WS3(40:30:30); WS4(50:20:30). The result of the chemical analysis showed that; the sample WS1 had the highest value (15.6%) for protein while sample WS4 had the least value (14.1%). The fat content sample WS4 having the highest value (30.8%) while sample WS1 had the least value (27.3%). The ash content sample WS4 had the highest value (3.22%) while sample WS1 had the least value (2.63%). The carbohydrate content showed that sample WS1 having the highest value (50.5%) while sample WS4 had the least value (46.58%). While sample WS4 had the highest energy value (528.32 Kcal) and sample WS2 had the least value (515.06 Kcal). However, all the sample results fell within the dietary daily reference intake for infants between 0-3 years and required only local technology in its production.

Keywords: weaning formula, acha, aya, deffted water melon seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
4752 Phase Transition in Iron Storage Protein Ferritin

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Ferritin is a protein which present in the blood of mammals. It maintains the need of iron inside the body. It has an antiferromagnetic iron core, 7-8 nm in size, which is encapsulated inside a protein cage. The thickness of this protein shell is about 2-3 nm. This protein shell reduces the interaction among particles and make ferritin a model superparamagnet. The major composition of ferritin core is mineral ferrihydrite. The molecular formula of ferritin core is (FeOOH)8[FeOOPO3H2]. In this study, we discuss the phase transition of ferritin. We characterized ferritin using x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron micrograph, thermogravimetric analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that ferritin core is amorphous in nature with average particle size of 8 nm. The thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis curves shows mass loss at different temperatures. We heated ferritin at these temperatures. It is found that ferritin core starts decomposing after 390^o C. At 1020^o C, the ferritin core is finally converted to alpha phase of iron oxide. Magnetization behavior of final sample clearly shows the iron oxyhydroxide core is completely converted to alpha iron oxide.

Keywords: Antiferromagnetic, Ferritin, Phase, Superparamagnetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
4751 Age–Related Changes of the Sella Turcica Morphometry in Adults Older Than 20-25 Years

Authors: Yu. I. Pigolkin, M. A. Garcia Corro


Age determination of unknown dead bodies in forensic personal identification is a complicated process which involves the application of numerous methods and techniques. Skeletal remains are less exposed to influences of environmental factors. In order to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimation additional properties of bones correlating with age are required to be revealed. Material and Methods: Dimensional examination of the sella turcica was carried out on cadavers with the cranium opened by a circular vibrating saw. The sample consisted of a total of 90 Russian subjects, ranging in age from two months and 87 years. Results: The tendency of dimensional variations throughout life was detected. There were no observed gender differences in the morphometry of the sella turcica. The shared use of the sella turcica depth and length values revealed the possibility to categorize an examined sample in a certain age period. Conclusions: Based on the results of existing methods of age determination, the morphometry of the sella turcica can be an additional characteristic, amplifying the received values, and accordingly, increasing the accuracy of forensic biological age diagnosis.

Keywords: age–related changes in bone structures, forensic personal identification, sella turcica morphometry, body identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
4750 The Dynamics of a 3D Vibrating and Rotating Disc Gyroscope

Authors: Getachew T. Sedebo, Stephan V. Joubert, Michael Y. Shatalov


Conventional configuration of the vibratory disc gyroscope is based on in-plane non-axisymmetric vibrations of the disc with a prescribed circumferential wave number. Due to the Bryan's effect, the vibrating pattern of the disc becomes sensitive to the axial component of inertial rotation of the disc. Rotation of the vibrating pattern relative to the disc is proportional to the inertial angular rate and is measured by sensors. In the present paper, the authors investigate a possibility of making a 3D sensor on the basis of both in-plane and bending vibrations of the disc resonator. We derive equations of motion for the disc vibratory gyroscope, where both in-plane and bending vibrations are considered. Hamiltonian variational principle is used in setting up equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions. The theory of thin shells with the linear elasticity principles is used in formulating the problem and also the disc is assumed to be isotropic and obeys Hooke's Law. The governing equation for a specific mode is converted to an ODE to determine the eigenfunction. The resulting ODE has exact solution as a linear combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. We demonstrate how to obtain an explicit solution and hence the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for annular disc with fixed inner boundary and free outer boundary. Finally, the characteristics equations are obtained and the corresponding eigenvalues are calculated. The eigenvalues are used for the calculation of tuning conditions of the 3D disc vibratory gyroscope.

Keywords: Bryan’s effect, bending vibrations, disc gyroscope, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, tuning conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
4749 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Different Stabilizers and Study of Their Size and Properties

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Ramezan zadeh 1 , Majid Seifi 2 , Hoda Hekmat ara 2 1Biomedical Engineering Department, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Physics Department, Guilan University , P.O. Box 41335-1914, Rasht, Iran.


Magnetic nano particles of ferric chloride were synthesised using a co-precipitation technique. For the optimal results, ferric chloride at room temperature was added to different surfactant with different ratio of metal ions/surfactant. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrum to show the presence of nanoparticles, structure and morphology. Magnetic measurements were also carried out on samples using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. To show the effect of surfactant on size distribution and crystalline structure of produced nanoparticles, surfactants with various charge such as anionic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), cationic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and neutral TritonX-100 was employed. By changing the surfactant and ratio of metal ions/surfactant the size and crystalline structure of these nanoparticles were controlled. We also show that using anionic stabilizer leads to smallest size and narrowest size distribution and the most crystalline (polycrystalline) structure. In developing our production technique, many parameters were varied. Efforts at reproducing good yields indicated which of the experimental parameters were the most critical and how carefully they had to be controlled. The conditions reported here were the best that we encountered but the range of possible parameter choice is so large that these probably only represent a local optimum. The samples for our chemical process were prepared by adding 0.675 gr ferric chloride (FeCl3, 6H2O) to three different surfactant in water solution. The solution was sonicated for about 30 min until a transparent solution was achieved. Then 0.5 gr sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a reduction agent was poured to the reaction drop by drop which resulted to participate reddish brown Fe2O3 nanoparticles. After washing with ethanol the obtained powder was calcinated in 600°C for 2h. Here, the sample 1 contained CTAB as a surfactant with ratio of metal ions/surfactant 1/2, sample 2 with CTAB and ratio 1/1, sample 3 with SDS and ratio 1/2, sample 4 SDS 1/1, sample 5 is triton-X-100 with 1/2 and sample 6 triton-X-100 with 1/1.

Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, stabilizer, co-precipitation, surfactant

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4748 The Effects of the Aspect Ratio of a Flexible Cylinder on the Vortex Dynamics

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


The vortex structures observed in the wake of a flexible cylinder can be significantly different from those of a traditional vibrating, spring mounted, rigid cylinder. These differences can significantly affect the VIV characteristics of the flow and subsequently the VIV response of the cylindrical structures. In this work, we present how the aspect ratio of a flexible cylinder can change the vortex structures in its wake. We will discuss different vortex dynamics which can be observed in the wake of the vibrating flexible cylinder, and how they can affect the vibrational response of the cylinder. Moreover, we will study the transition of these structures versus the aspect ratio of the flexible cylinder. We will discuss how these transitions affect the in-line and transverse forces on the structure. In the end, we will provide general guidelines on the minimum acceptable aspect ratio for the offshore riser studies which may have grave implications for future numerical and experimental works.

Keywords: aspect ratio, flexible cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
4747 The Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Magnetic Properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ M-Type Hexaferrites

Authors: Kang-Hyuk Lee, Wei Yan, Sang-Im Yoo


Recently, Ca₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂O₁₉ (Ca-La M-type) hexaferrites have been reported to possess higher crystalline anisotropy compared with SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (Sr M-type) hexaferrite without reducing its saturation magnetization (Ms), resulting in higher coercivity (Hc). While iron deficiency is known to be helpful for the growth and the formation of NiZn spinel ferrites, the effect of iron deficiency in Ca-La M-type hexaferrites has never been reported yet. In this study, therefore, we tried to investigate the effect of iron deficiency on the magnetic properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ hexaferrites prepared by solid state reaction. As-calcined powder was pressed into pellets and sintered at 1275~1325℃ for 4 h in air. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Powder XRD analyses revealed that Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ (0.75 ≦ y ≦ 2.15) ferrites calcined at 1250-1300℃ for 12 h in air were composed of single phase without the second phases. With increasing the iron deficiency, y, the lattice parameters a, c and unite cell volumes were decreased first up to y=10.25 and then increased again. The highest Ms value of 77.5 emu/g was obtainable from the sample of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ sintered at 1300℃ for 4 h in air. Detailed microstructures and magnetic properties of Ca-La M-type hexagonal ferrites will be presented for a discussion

Keywords: Ca-La M-type hexaferrite, magnetic properties, iron deficiency, hexaferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
4746 Characterization of Performance of Blocks Produced from Dredged Sample

Authors: Adebayo B., Omotehinse A. O.


The performance and characteristics of blocks produced from dredged sample was investigated. Blocks were produced using appropriate mixes of dredged sample and sharp sand. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of the dredged sample (Igbokoda dredged sample) were determined using the British Standard. The physico-mechanical properties (water absorption, density and compressive strength) of blocks produced were evaluated. The dredged sample is classified as a silty material. Seven replacement levels of sharp sand were considered in the study (SS- Sharp Sand and DS – Dredged Sample) was done with constant amount of cement. 1- 85 % DS and 15 % SS, 2- 70 % DS and 30 % SS, 3- 55 % DS and 45 % SS, 4- 50 % DS and 50 % SS, 5- 45 % DS and 55 % SS, 6- 30 % DS and 70 % SS, 7- 15 % DS and 85 % SS and 8 – IS 100 % with cement; 9 – SS 100 % with cement) of different ages (7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days) for the production of blocks. The compressive strength of the blocks produced ranges between 0.52 MPa to 3.0 MPa and considering the mixes, the highest compressive strength was found in mix of 15 % DS and 85 % SS.

Keywords: dredge sample, silt, sharp sand, block, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
4745 Predicting Indonesia External Debt Crisis: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

Authors: Riznaldi Akbar


In this study, we compared the performance of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model with back-propagation algorithm in correctly predicting in-sample and out-of-sample external debt crisis in Indonesia. We found that exchange rate, foreign reserves, and exports are the major determinants to experiencing external debt crisis. The ANN in-sample performance provides relatively superior results. The ANN model is able to classify correctly crisis of 89.12 per cent with reasonably low false alarms of 7.01 per cent. In out-of-sample, the prediction performance fairly deteriorates compared to their in-sample performances. It could be explained as the ANN model tends to over-fit the data in the in-sample, but it could not fit the out-of-sample very well. The 10-fold cross-validation has been used to improve the out-of-sample prediction accuracy. The results also offer policy implications. The out-of-sample performance could be very sensitive to the size of the samples, as it could yield a higher total misclassification error and lower prediction accuracy. The ANN model could be used to identify past crisis episodes with some accuracy, but predicting crisis outside the estimation sample is much more challenging because of the presence of uncertainty.

Keywords: debt crisis, external debt, artificial neural network, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
4744 Structure and Magnetic Properties of Low-Temperature Synthesized M-W Hexaferrite Composites

Authors: Young-Min Kang


M-type Sr-hexaferrites (SrFe12O19) is one of the most utilized materials in permanent magnets due to their low price, outstanding chemical stability, and appropriate hard magnetic properties. For a M-type Sr-hexaferrite with a saturation magnetization (MS) of ~74.0 emu/g the practical limits of remanent flux density (Br) and maximum energy product (BH) max are ~4.6 kG and ~5.3 MGOe. Meanwhile, W-type hexaferrite (SrFe18O27) with higher MS ~81emu/g can be a good candidate for the development of enhanced ferrite magnet. However the W-type hexaferrite is stable at the temperature over 1350 ºC in air, and thus it is hard to control grain size and the coercivity. We report here high-MS M-W composite hexaferrites synthesized at 1250 ºC in air by doping Ca, Co, Mn, and Zn into the hexaferrite structures. The hexaferrites samples of stoichiometric SrFe12O19 (SrM) and Ca-Co-Mn-Zn doped hexaferrite (Sr0.7Ca0.3Fen-0.6Co0.2Mn0.2Zn0.2Oa) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction process with varying Fe content (10 ≤ n ≤ 17). Analysis by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were performed for phase identification and microstructural observation respectively. Magnetic hysteresis curves were measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature (300 K). Single M-type phase could be obtained in the non-doped SrM sample after calcinations at the range of 1200 ºC ~ 1300 ºC, showing MS in the range of 72 ~ 72.6 emu/g. The Ca-Co-Mn-Zn doped SrM with Fe content, 10 ≤ n ≤ 13, showed both M and W-phases peaks in the XRD after respective calcinations at 1250 ºC. The sample with n=13 showed the MS of 70.7, 75.3, 78.0 emu/g, respectively, after calcination at 1200, 1250, 1300 ºC. The high MS over that of non-doped SrM (~72 emu/g) is attributed to the volume portion of W-phase. It is also revealed that the high MS W-phase could not formed if only one of the Ca, Co, Zn is missed in the substitution. These elements are critical to form the W-phase at the calcinations temperature of 1250 ºC, which is 100 ºC lower than the calcinations temperature for non-doped Sr-hexaferrites.

Keywords: M-type hexaferrite, W-type hexaferrite, saturation magnetization, low-temperature synthesis

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4743 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy


The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

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4742 Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co

Authors: Laslouni Warda, M. Azzaz


The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature

Keywords: Cu-Fe-Co, Cu-Fe, nanocrystals, SEM, hysteresis loops, VSM, anisotropy theory

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4741 Magnetic Properties of Sr-Ferrite Nano-Powder Synthesized by Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab, Z. Shariati


In this paper, strontium ferrite (SrO.6Fe2O3) was synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion process. The thermal behavior of powder obtained from self-propagating combustion of initial gel was evaluated by simultaneous differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric (TG), from room temperature to 1200°C. The as-burnt powder was calcined at various temperatures from 700-900°C to achieve the single-phase Sr-ferrite. Phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. Results showed that the single-phase and nano-sized hexagonal strontium ferrite particles were formed at calcination temperature of 800°C with crystallite size of 27 nm and coercivity of 6238 Oe.

Keywords: hard magnet, Sr-ferrite, sol-gel auto-combustion, nano-powder

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4740 Processing and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) Ferritic Steel

Authors: Farha Mizana Shamsudin, Shahidan Radiman, Yusof Abdullah, Nasri Abdul Hamid


Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are amongst the most promising candidates for large scale structural materials to be applied in next generation fission and fusion nuclear power reactors. This kind of material is relatively stable at high temperature, possess remarkable mechanical properties and comparatively good resistance from neutron radiation damage. The superior performance of ODS ferritic steels over their conventional properties is attributed to the high number density of nano-sized dispersoids that act as nucleation sites and stable sinks for many small helium bubbles resulting from irradiation, and also as pinning points to dislocation movement and grain growth. ODS ferritic steels are usually produced by powder metallurgical routes involving mechanical alloying (MA) process of Y2O3 and pre-alloyed or elemental metallic powders, and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion (HE) techniques. In this study, Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (designated as 14YWT) was produced by mechanical alloying process and followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique. Crystal structure and morphology of this sample were identified and characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) respectively. The magnetic measurement of this sample at room temperature was carried out by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FESEM micrograph revealed a homogeneous microstructure constituted by fine grains of less than 650 nm in size. The ultra-fine dispersoids of size between 5 nm to 19 nm were observed homogeneously distributed within the BCC matrix. The EDS mapping reveals that the dispersoids contain Y-Ti-O nanoclusters and from the magnetization curve plotted by VSM, this sample approaches the behavior of soft ferromagnetic materials. In conclusion, ODS Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) ferritic steel was successfully produced by HIP technique in this present study.

Keywords: hot isostatic pressing, magnetization, microstructure, ODS ferritic steel

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4739 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Zdeněk Veselý, Milan Honner, Jiří Mach


The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. The complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from the 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on the temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
4738 Water Droplet Impact on Vibrating Rigid Superhydrophobic Surfaces

Authors: Jingcheng Ma, Patricia B. Weisensee, Young H. Shin, Yujin Chang, Junjiao Tian, William P. King, Nenad Miljkovic


Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both nature and industry. The transfer of mass, momentum and energy can be influenced by the time of contact between droplet and surface. In order to reduce the contact time, we study the influence of substrate motion prior to impact on the dynamics of droplet recoil. Using optical high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (~ 2mm) on rigid nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60 – 300 Hz and amplitudes of 0 – 3 mm. In addition, we studied the influence of the phase of the substrate at the moment of impact on total contact time. We demonstrate that substrate vibration can alter droplet dynamics, and decrease total contact time by as much as 50% compared to impact on stationary rigid superhydrophobic surfaces. Impact analysis revealed that the vibration frequency mainly affected the maximum contact time, while the amplitude of vibration had little direct effect on the contact time. Through mathematical modeling, we show that the oscillation amplitude influences the possibility density function of droplet impact at a given phase, and thus indirectly influences the average contact time. We also observed more vigorous droplet splashing and breakup during impact at larger amplitudes. Through semi-empirical mathematical modeling, we describe the relationship between contact time and vibration frequency, phase, and amplitude of the substrate. We also show that the maximum acceleration during the impact process is better suited as a threshold parameter for the onset of splashing than a Weber-number criterion. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.

Keywords: contact time, impact dynamics, oscillation, pear-shape droplet

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4737 Dioxomolybdenum (VI) Schiff Base Complex Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Green Nanocatalysis in Epoxidation of Olefins

Authors: Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Sahar Khatami


Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and silica was then coated on the magnetic nanoparticles followed by modification with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane. Then, dioxomolybdenum(VI) Schiff base complex of N,N′-bis(5-chloromethyl-salicylidine)-1,2-phenylenediamine) was immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in epoxidation of olefins using tert-butylhydroperoxide in 1,2-dichloroethane. In this report, the supported complex exhibited 100% selectivity for epoxidation with 100% conversion for cyclooctene. Nanocatalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for subsequent reactions for at least 5 times with less deterioration in catalytic activity.

Keywords: dioxomolybdenum (VI), epoxidation, nanocatalysis, nanoparticles, Schiff base

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4736 FC and ZFC Studies of Nickel Nano Ferrites and Ni Doped Lithium Nano Ferrites by Citrate-Gel Auto Combustion Method

Authors: D. Ravinder


Nickel ferrites and Ni doped Lithium nano ferrites [Li0.5Fe0.5]1-xNixFe2O4 with x= 0.8 and 1.0 synthesized by citrate-gel auto combustion method. The broad peaks in the X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) indicate a crystalline behavior of the prepared samples. Low temperature magnetization studies i,e Field Cooled (FC) and Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) magnetic studies of the investigated samples are measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetization of the prepared samples as a function of an applied magnetic field 10 T was measured at two different temperatures 5 K and 310 K. Field Cooled (FC) and Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100 Oe and 1000 Oe in the temperature range of 5–375 K were carried out.

Keywords: ferro-spinels, field cooled (FC), Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) and blocking temperature, superpara magnetism, drug delivery applications

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4735 Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 Heusler Alloys

Authors: Mst Nazmunnahar, Juan del Val, Alena Vimmrova, Blanca Hernando, Julian González


We report the microstructural and magnetic properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 ribbon Heusler alloys. Experimental results were obtained by differential scanning calorymetry, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. The Ni-Mn-Sn system undergoes a martensitic structural transformation in a wide temperature range. For example, for Ni50Mn39Sn11 the start and finish temperatures of the martensitic and austenite phase transformation for ribbon alloy were Ms = 336K , Mf = 328K, As = 335K and Af = 343K whereas no structural transformation is observed for Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloys. Magnetic measurements show the typical ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature 207K at low applied field of 50 Oe. The complex behavior exhibited by these Heusler alloys should be ascribed to the strong coupling between magnetism and structure, being their magnetic behavior determined by the distance between Mn atoms.

Keywords: as-cast ribbon, Heusler alloys, magnetic properties, structural transformation

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4734 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost


Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

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4733 The Effect of Non-Normality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

Authors: Z. Jannoo, B. W. Yap, N. Auchoybur, M. A. Lazim


The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are non-normal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and non-normality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model with one endogenous and four exogenous variables. Each latent variable has three indicators. For normal distributions, CB-SEM estimates were found to be inaccurate for small sample size while PLS-SEM could produce the path estimates. Meanwhile, for a larger sample size, CB-SEM estimates have lower variability compared to PLS-SEM. Under non-normality, CB-SEM path estimates were inaccurate for small sample size. However, CB-SEM estimates are more accurate than those of PLS-SEM for sample size of 50 and above. The PLS-SEM estimates are not accurate unless sample size is very large.

Keywords: CB-SEM, Monte Carlo simulation, normality conditions, non-normality, PLS-SEM

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4732 Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min.

Keywords: nano hollow sphere, tartrate modification, multiple fluorescence, catalytic property

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