Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Fariha Shafiq

34 Comparison of Security Challenges and Issues of Mobile Computing and Internet of Things

Authors: Aabiah Nayeem, Fariha Shafiq, Mustabshra Aftab, Rabia Saman Pirzada, Samia Ghazala

Abstract:

In this modern era of technology, the concept of Internet of Things is very popular in every domain. It is a widely distributed system of things in which the data collected from sensory devices is transmitted, analyzed locally/collectively then broadcasted to network where action can be taken remotely via mobile/web apps. Today’s mobile computing is also gaining importance as the services are provided during mobility. Through mobile computing, data are transmitted via computer without physically connected to a fixed point. The challenge is to provide services with high speed and security. Also, the data gathered from the mobiles must be processed in a secured way. Mobile computing is strongly influenced by internet of things. In this paper, we have discussed security issues and challenges of internet of things and mobile computing and we have compared both of them on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: embedded computing, internet of things, mobile computing, wireless technologies

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33 An Analysis and Design of Mobile Payment System Based on NFC Technology

Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Zubair Ahmed Shaikh

Abstract:

This research provides the comparative study of different mobile payment system and proposes an efficient solution of mobile payment system. The research involves discovering how the mobile payment methods can be used and implemented keeping user and system interaction under consideration. The implementation of Nielsen’s heuristic and universal design principles enhanced the user’s interaction design and made the system more appropriate, understandable and visible to the end user. The design of application is greatly affected by the user driven factors. These factors help in the efficiency of the application usage.

Keywords: mobile payment system, m-commerce, usability, near field communication

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32 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan

Abstract:

Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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31 An Overview of Thermal Storage Techniques for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Talha Shafiq

Abstract:

The traditional electricity operation in solar thermal plants is designed to operate on a single path initiating at power plant and executes at the consumer. Due to lack of energy storage facilities during this operation, a decrease in the efficiency is often observed with the power plant performance. This paper reviews the significance of energy storage in supply design and elaborates various methods that can be adopted in this regard which are equally cost effective and environmental friendly. Moreover, various parameters in thermal storage technique are also critically analyzed to clarify the pros and cons in this facility. Discussing the different thermal storage system, their technical and economical evaluation has also been reviewed.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage

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30 The Role of Eclectic Approach to Teach Communicative Function at Secondary Level

Authors: Fariha Asif

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eclectic approach in teaching of communicative functions. The objectives of the study were to get the information about the use of communicative functions through eclectic approach and to point out the most effective way of teaching functional communication and social interaction with the help of communicative activities through eclectic approach. The next step was to select sample from the selected population. As the research was descriptive so a questionnaire was developed on the basis of hypothesis and distributed to different selected schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Then data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted through computer by finding percentages of different responses given by teachers to see the results. It was concluded that eclectic approach is effective in teaching communicative functions and communicative functions are better when taught through eclectic approach and communicative activities are more appropriate way of teaching communicative functions. It was found those teachers who were qualified in ELT gave better opinions as compare to those who did not have this degree. Techniques like presentations, dialogues and roleplay proved to be effective for teaching functional communication through communicative activities and also motivate the students not only in learning rules but also in using them to communicate with others.

Keywords: methodology, functions, teaching, ESP

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29 Factors Associated with Recruitment and Adherence for Virtual Mindfulness Interventions in Youths

Authors: Kimberly Belfry, Shavon Stafford, Fariha Chowdhury, Jennifer Crawford, Soyeon Kim

Abstract:

Intervention programs are mostly delivered online during the pandemic. Screen fatigue has become a significant deterrent for virtually-deliveredinterventions, and thus, we aimed to examine factors associated with recruitment and adherence toan online mindfulness program for youths. Our preliminary analysis indicated that 40% of interested youths enrolled in the program. No difference in gender and age was found for those enrolled in the program. Adherence rate was approximately 25%, which warrants further examination. Grounding on the preliminary findings, we will conduct a binary logistic regression analysis to identify elements associated with recruitment and adherence. The model will include predictors such as age, sex, recruiter, mental health status, time of the year. Odds ratios and 95% CI will be reported. Our preliminary analysis showed low recruitment and adherence rate. By identifying elements associated with recruitment and adherence, our study provides transferrable information that can improve recruitment and adherence of online-delivered interventions offered during the pandemic.

Keywords: virtual interventions, recruitment, youth, mindfulness

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
28 Empirical Acceleration Functions and Fuzzy Information

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq

Abstract:

In accelerated life testing approaches life time data is obtained under various conditions which are considered more severe than usual condition. Classical techniques are based on obtained precise measurements, and used to model variation among the observations. In fact, there are two types of uncertainty in data: variation among the observations and the fuzziness. Analysis techniques, which do not consider fuzziness and are only based on precise life time observations, lead to pseudo results. This study was aimed to examine the behavior of empirical acceleration functions using fuzzy lifetimes data. The results showed an increased fuzziness in the transformed life times as compare to the input data.

Keywords: acceleration function, accelerated life testing, fuzzy number, non-precise data

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27 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Ali Elheber Ahmed

Abstract:

Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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26 Commitment Based Revenue Sharing Contract

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq, Huynh Trung Luong

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a commitment based revenue sharing contract for a supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer facing highly uncertain demand of a short life span fashionable product. In our model, the retailer reserves a commitment level with the manufacturer prior to the selling season. In response, the manufacturer allocates and produces a specific quantity which is the maximum available quantity for the retailer. The retailer is motivated to commit more by offering higher revenue sharing percentage for reserved capacity than non-reserved capacity. Due to asymmetric information, it is found that the manufacturer can optimize quantity allocation decision while the commitment level decision of the retailer may not be optimal.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, revenue sharing contract, commitment based revenue sharing, quantity allocation

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25 Role of Judiciary in Developing Countries

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Administration of justice in a society is evolutionary process. In pre-modern societies vital organs that we consider separate today i.e. legislation, implementation and adjudication were controlled by a King, the sovereign authority. Whereas now it is recognized that Development of a country revolves in seven arenas i.e. Civil Society, Political Society, Economic Society, Legislature, Judiciary, Executive & Bureaucracy. Each society whether developing or developed, has need of institutions and structures that can resolve difference of opinions of private or public nature between contending parties. Administration of justice has a key-role in the development of the society. Through this paper, it is to highlight that an independent judiciary having the support of public opinion therefore is inevitable to wriggle out from such problems in order to restore and protect the fundamental rights, constitution and democratic political system in third world countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: role of judiciary, developing countries, judicial activism, present scenario

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24 Community-based Mapping as a Planning Tool; Examples from Pakistan

Authors: Noman Ahmed, Fariha Tahseen

Abstract:

Since several decades, unplanned urbanization and rapid growth of informal settlements have evolved and increased in size and number. Large cities such as Karachi have been impacted with sprawl and rising share of unplanned settlements where poor communities reside. Threats of eviction, deteriorating law and order situation, lack of essential amenities and infrastructure, extortion and bullying from local and non-local musclemen and feeble response of government agencies towards their development needs are some predicaments. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have caused important interventions in such locations. Appraisal of the community-based mapping as a tool in supporting the development work in less privileged areas in Karachi has been the objective of this research. The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP), under the leadership of its slain director Perween Rahman had a significant role to play in developing and extending this approach in low income locations in Karachi and beyond. The paper investigates the application of mapping in the process of peri urban land invasion causing rapid transformation of traditional settlements in Karachi. Mixed methodology components comprising literature review, archival research, and unstructured interviews with key informants and case studies have been used.

Keywords: squatters (katchi abadis), land grabbing, community empowerment, housing rights, mapping, infrastructure development

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23 Alternate Dispute Resolution: Expeditious Justice

Authors: Uzma Fakhar, Osama Fakhar, Aamir Shafiq Ch

Abstract:

Methods of alternate dispute resolution (ADR) like conciliation, arbitration, mediation are the supplement to ensure inexpensive and expeditious justice in a country. Justice delayed has not only created chaos, but an element of rebellious behavior towards judiciary is being floated among people. Complexity of traditional judicial system and its diversity has created an overall coherence. Admittedly, In Pakistan the traditional judicial system has failed to achieve its goals which resulted in the backlog of cases pending in courts, resultantly even the critics of alternate dispute resolution agree to restore the spirit of expeditious justice by reforming the old Panchayat system. The Government is keen to enact certain laws and make amendments to facilitate the resolution of a dispute through a simple and faster ADR framework instead of a lengthy and exhausting complex trial in order to create proliferation and faith in alternate dispute resolution. This research highlights the value of ADR in a country like Pakistan for revival of the confidence of the people upon the judicial process and a useful judicial tool to reduce the pressure on the judiciary.

Keywords: alternate dispute resolution, development of law, expeditious justice, Pakistan

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22 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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21 Glycation of Serum Albumin: Cause Remarkable Alteration in Protein Structure and Generation of Early Glycation End Products

Authors: Ishrat Jahan Saifi, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, M. R. Ajmal

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Glycation of protein is very important as well as a harmful process, which may lead to develop DM in human body. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood and it is highly prone to glycation by the reducing sugars. 2-¬deoxy d-¬Ribose (dRib) is a highly reactive reducing sugar which is produced in cells as a product of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. It is generated during the degradation of DNA in human body. It may cause glycation in HSA rapidly and is involved in the development of DM. In present study, we did in¬vitro glycation of HSA with different concentrations of 2-¬deoxy d-¬ribose and found that dRib glycated HSA rapidly within 4h incubation at 37◦C. UV¬ Spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) technique have been done to determine the structural changes in HSA upon glycation. Results of this study suggested that dRib is the potential glycating agent and it causes alteration in protein structure and biophysical properties which may lead to development and progression of Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: 2-deoxy D-ribose, human serum albumin, glycation, diabetes mellitus

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20 Suitability Number of Coarse-Grained Soils and Relationships among Fineness Modulus, Density and Strength Parameters

Authors: Khandaker Fariha Ahmed, Md. Noman Munshi, Tarin Sultana, Md. Zoynul Abedin

Abstract:

Suitability number (SN) is perhaps one of the most important parameters of coarse-grained soil in assessing its appropriateness to use as a backfill in retaining structures, sand compaction pile, Vibro compaction, and other similar foundation and ground improvement works. Though determined in an empirical manner, it is imperative to study SN to understand its relation with other aggregate properties like fineness modulus (FM), and strength and density properties of sandy soil. The present paper reports the findings of the study on the examination of the properties of sandy soil, as mentioned. Random numbers were generated to obtain the percent fineness on various sieve sizes, and fineness modulus and suitability numbers were predicted. Sand samples were collected from the field, and test samples were prepared to determine maximum density, minimum density and shear strength parameter φ against particular fineness modulus and corresponding suitability number Five samples of SN value of excellent (0-10) and three samples of SN value fair (20-30) were taken and relevant tests were done. The data obtained from the laboratory tests were statistically analyzed. Results show that with the increase of SN, the value of FM decreases. Within the SN value rated as excellent (0-10), there is a decreasing trend of φ for a higher value of SN. It is found that SN is dependent on various combinations of grain size properties like D10, D30, and D20, D50. Strong linear relationships were obtained between SN and FM (R²=.0.93) and between SN value and φ (R²=.94). Correlation equations are proposed to define relationships among SN, φ, and FM.

Keywords: density, fineness modulus, shear strength parameter, suitability number

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19 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee

Abstract:

Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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18 Protection against Sodium Arsenate Induced Fetal Toxicity in Albino Mice by Vitamin C and E

Authors: Fariha Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir

Abstract:

Epidemiological evidences indicated that arsenic contamination in drinking water increased the incidence of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and premature babies in pregnant women. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of vitamin C&E against sodium arsenate induced fetal toxicity in albino mice. Twenty-four pregnant albino mice of BALB/c strain were randomly divided into 4 groups having 6 animals in each. Group A1 served as control and was injected with 0.1ml/kg/day distilled water I/P for 18 days. Groups A2,A3 & A4 received single I/P injection of sodium arsenate 35mg/kg on 8th gestational day, whereas groups A3 and A4 were also given Vitamin C and E by I/P injection, 9 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day respectively, starting from 8th GD and continued for the rest of the pregnancy period. The early implantation sites, fetal resorptions, weight of live fetuses and crown rump length were recorded. Gross morphological examination was carried out for malformations. Fetal kidneys were extracted for histological and micrometric analysis. Group A2 exhibited an increased incidence of abortion, fetal resorptions, significant decrease in number of litter and fetal weight; the difference of means was statistically significant among the groups (p<0.000). In group A2 fetal kidneys presented glomerulonephritis with acute tubular necrotic changes and interstitial fibrosis. Groups A3&A4 showed statistically significant improvement in these parameters. The results revealed the antioxidant potential of Vitamin C and E in protecting against arsenic induced fetal toxicity in mice.

Keywords: fetal toxicity, fetal resorptions, interstitial fibrosis, tocopherol

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17 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq Ahmed, Sabastine Ezugwu

Abstract:

Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, heat transfer, nanofluid, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, thermophysical properties

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16 Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Micro-Silica and Locally Produced Metakaolin and Effect on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: S. U. Khan, T. Ayub, N. Shafiq

Abstract:

The properties of locally produced metakaolin (MK) as cement replacing material and the comparison of reactivity with commercially available micro-silica have been investigated. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and load-deflection behaviour under bending are the properties that have been studied. The amorphous phase of MK with micro-silica was compared through X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Further, interfacial transition zone of concrete with micro-silica and MK was observed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Three mixes of concrete were prepared. One of the mix is without cement replacement as control mix, and the remaining two mixes are 10% cement replacement with micro-silica and MK. It has been found that MK, due to its irregular structure and amorphous phase, has high reactivity with portlandite in concrete. The compressive strength at early age is higher with MK as compared to micro-silica. MK concrete showed higher splitting tensile strength and higher load carrying capacity as compared to control and micro-silica concrete at all ages respectively.

Keywords: metakaolin, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, load deflection, interfacial transition zone

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15 Design and Analysis of Enhanced Heat Transfer Kit for Plate Type Heat Exchanger

Authors: Muhammad Shahrukh Saeed, Syed Ahmad Nameer, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Aisha Jillani

Abstract:

Heat exchangers play a critical role in industrial applications of thermal systems. Its physical size and performance are vital parameters; therefore enhancement of heat transfer through different techniques remained a major research area for both academia and industry. This research reports the main purpose of heat exchanger with better kit design which plays a vital role during the process of heat transfer. Plate type heat exchanger mainly requires a design in which the plates can be easily be installed and removed without having any problem with the plates. For the flow of the fluid within the heat exchanger, it requires a flow should be fully developed. As natural laws allows the driving energy of the system to flow until equilibrium is achieved. As with a plate type heat exchanger heat the heat penetrates the surface which separates the hot medium with the cold one very easily. As some of the precautions should be considered while taking the heat exchanger accountable like heat should transfer from hot medium to cold, there should always be difference in temperature present and heat loss from hot body should be equal to the heat gained by the cold body regardless of the losses present to the surroundings. Aluminum plates of same grade are used in all experiments to ensure similarity. Size of all plates was 254 mm X 100 mm and thickness was taken as 5 mm.

Keywords: heat transfer coefficient, aluminium, entry length, design

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14 Law and its Implementation and Consequences in Pakistan

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Legislation includes the law or the statutes which is being reputable by a sovereign authority and generally can be implemented by the courts of law time to time to accomplish the objectives. Historically speaking upon the emergence of Pakistan in 1947, the intact laws of the British Raj remained effective after ablution by Islamic Ideology. Thus, there was an intention to begin the statutes book afresh for Pakistan's legal history. In consequence thereof, the process of developing detailed plans, procedures and mechanisms to ensure legislative and regulatory requirements are achieved began keeping in view the cultural values and the local customs. This article is an input to the enduring discussion about implementing rule of law in Pakistan whereas; the rule of law requires the harmony of laws which is mostly in the arrangement of codified state laws. Pakistan has legal plural civilizations where completely different and independent systems of law like the Mohammadan law, the state law and the traditional law exist. The prevailing practiced law in Pakistan is actually the traditional law though the said law is not acknowledged by the State. This caused the main problem of the rule of law in the difference between the state laws and the cultural values. These values, customs and so-called traditional laws are the main obstacle to enforce the State law in true letter and spirit which has caused dissatisfaction of the masses and distrust upon the judicial system of the country.

Keywords: consequences, implement, law, Pakistan

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13 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Sabrina Mahboob, Anamika Saha, Afrin Jahan, Mohammad Nurul Islam

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

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12 Ectoine: A Compatible Solute in Radio-Halophilic Stenotrophomonas sp. WMA-LM19 Strain to Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Protein Damage

Authors: Wasim Sajjad, Manzoor Ahmad, Sundas Qadir, Muhammad Rafiq, Fariha Hasan, Richard Tehan, Kerry L. McPhail, Aamer Ali Shah

Abstract:

Aim: This study aims to investigate the possible radiation protective role of a compatible solute in the tolerance of radio-halophilic bacterium against stresses, like desiccation and exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Results: Nine different radio-resistant bacteria were isolated from desert soil, where strain WMA-LM19 was chosen for detailed studies on the basis of its high tolerance for ultraviolet radiation among all these isolates. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the bacterium was closely related to Stenotrophomonas sp. (KT008383). A bacterial milking strategy was applied for extraction of intracellular compatible solutes in 70% (v/v) ethanol, which were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compound was characterized as ectoine by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS). Ectoine demonstrated more efficient preventive activity (54.80%) to erythrocyte membranes and also inhibited oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in comparison to the standard ascorbic acid. Furthermore, a high level of ectoine-mediated protection of bovine serum albumin against ionizing radiation (1500-2000 Jm-2) was observed, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Conclusion: The results indicated that ectoine can be used as a potential mitigator and radio-protective agent to overcome radiation- and salinity-mediated oxidative damage in extreme environments. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows that ectoine from radio-halophiles can be used as a potential source in topical creams as sunscreen. The investigation of ectoine as UV protectant also changes the prospective that radiation resistance is specific only to molecular adaptation.

Keywords: ectoine, anti-oxidant, stenotrophomonas sp., ultraviolet radiation

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11 Regioselective Nucleophilic Substitution of the Baylis-Hillman Adducts with Iodine

Authors: Zahid Shafiq, Li Liu, Dong Wang, Yong-Jun Chen

Abstract:

As synthetic organic methods are increasingly concerned with the growing importance of sustainable chemistry, iodine recently has emerged as an inexpensive, non-toxic, readily available and environmentally benign catalyst for various organic transformations to afford the corresponding products in high yields with high regio- and chemoselectivity. Iodine has found widespread applications in various organic synthesis such as Michael addition, coupling reaction and also in the multicomponent synthesis where it can efficiently activate C=C, C=O, C=N, and so forth. Iodine not only has been shown to be an efficient mild Lewis acid in various processes, but also due to its moderate nature, and water tolerance, reactions catalyzed by iodine can be effectively carried out in neutral media under very mild conditions. We have successfully described an efficient procedure for the nucleophilic substitution of the Baylis-Hillman (BH) adducts and their corresponding acetates with indoles to get α-substitution product using catalytic Silver Triflate (AgOTf) as Lewis acid. At this point, we were interested to develop an environmentally benign catalytic system to effect this substitution reaction and to avoid the use of metal Lewis acid as a catalyst. Since, we observed the formation of -product during the course of the reaction, we also became interested to explore the reaction conditions in order to control regioselectivity and to obtain both regioisomers. The developed methodology resulted in regioselective substitution products with controlled selectivity. Further, the substitution products were used to synthesize various Tri- and Tetracyclo Azepino indole derivatives via reductive amination.

Keywords: indole, regioselective, Baylis-Hillman, substitution

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10 Anxiety Factors in the Saudi EFL Learners

Authors: Fariha Asif

Abstract:

The Saudi EFL learners face a number of problems in EFL learning, anxiety is the most potent one among those. It means that its resolution can lead to better language skills in Saudi students. That’s why, the study is carried out and is considered to be of interest to the Saudi language learners, educators and the policy makers because of the potentially negative impact that anxiety has on English language learning. The purpose of the study is to explore the factors that cause language anxiety in the Saudi EFL learners while learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language. The investigation of the anxiety-producing factors that arise while learning to communicate in the target language will hopefully broaden the insight into the issue of language anxiety and will help language teachers in making the classroom environment less stressful. The study seeks to answer the questions such as what are the psycholinguistic factors that cause language anxiety among ESL/EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language, especially in the context of the Saudi students. What are the socio-cultural factors that cause language anxiety among Saudi EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language? How is anxiety manifested in the language learning of the Saudi EFL learners? And which strategies can be used to successfully cope with language anxiety? The scope of the study is limited to the college and university English Teachers and subject specialists (males and females) in public sectors colleges and universities in Saudi Arabia. Some of the key findings of the study are:, Anxiety plays an important role in English as foreign language learning for the Saudi EFL learners. Some teachers believe that anxiety bears negatives effects for the learners, while some others think that anxiety serves a positive outcome for the learners by giving them an extra bit of motivation to do their best in English language learning. Language teachers seem to have consensus that L1 interference is one of the major factors that cause anxiety among the Saudi EFL learners. Most of the Saudi EFL learners are found to have fear of making mistakes. They don’t take initiative and opt to keep quiet and don’t respond fearing that they would make mistakes and this would ruin their image in front of their peers. Discouraging classroom environment is also counted as one of the major anxiety causing factors. The teachers, who don’t encourage learners positively, make them anxious and they start avoiding class participation. It is also found that English language teachers have their important role to minimize the negative effects of anxiety in the classes. The teachers’ positive encouragement can do wonders in this regard. A positive, motivating and encouraging class environment is essential to produce desired results in English language learning for the Saudi EFL learners.

Keywords: factors, psychology, speaking, EFL

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9 Perceived Stigma, Perception of Burden and Psychological Distress among Parents of Intellectually Disable Children: Role of Perceived Social Support

Authors: Saima Shafiq, Najma Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the relationship of perceived stigma, perception of burden and psychological distress among parents of intellectually disabled children. The study also aimed to explore the moderating role of perceived social support on all the variables of the study. The sample of the study comprised of (N = 250) parents of intellectually disabled children. The present study utilized the co-relational research design. It consists of two phases. Phase-I consisted of two steps which contained the translation of two scales that were used in the present study and tried out on the sample of parents (N = 70). The Affiliated Stigma Scale and Care Giver Burden Inventory were translated into Urdu for the present study. Phase-1 revealed that translated scaled entailed satisfactory psychometric properties. Phase -II of the study was carried out in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation, linear regression analysis, and t-test were computed for hypothesis testing. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to study the moderating effect of perceived social support. Findings revealed that there was a positive relationship between perceived stigma and psychological distress, perception of burden and psychological distress. Linear regression analysis showed that perceived stigma and perception of burden were positive predictors of psychological distress. The study did not show the moderating role of perceived social support among variables of the present study. The major limitation of the study is the sample size and the major implication is awareness regarding problems of parents of intellectually disabled children.

Keywords: perceived stigma, perception of burden, psychological distress, perceived social support

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8 Population Growth of Bracon hebetor Say. under the Influence of Various Lepidopteran Host

Authors: Mohammad Muslim, M. Shafiq Ansari, Fazil Hasan

Abstract:

Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is considered as a highly cosmopolitan ecto-parasitoid of various species of order Lepidoptera. To study the influence of lepidopteran hosts on population growth of B. hebetor, the newly mated gravid females were released on various host and the eggs laid by such females on respective host were counted and a single egg was allow to develop on single host larvae. The experiment was conducted at 27 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and 14L: 10D hr in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) chamber. Upon hatching the tiny larvae of parasitoid pierced the body of insect host, enter into them and consumed the internal body contents of paralyzed host larvae. Present findings showed that B. hebetor took ~36 days to complete its survivorship on Corcyra cephalonica and Galleria mellonella. However, on Spodoptera littoralis the survivorship decreased to 24 days. Nevertheless, development of H. hebetor’s immature was significantly prolonged on S. littoralis and S. litura compared to other insect hosts tested. Female of B. hebetor took longer time to lay eggs on C. cephalonica and G. mellonella than other hosts tested in this study. Longevity of male and female is significantly prolonged on C. cephalonica and G. mellonella compared to others insect hosts tested. Population growth parameters like mx Ro, rm, Tc, and τ was considerably highest on C. cephalonica and lowest on S. littoralis. Based on the demographic studies C. cephalonica and H. armegera were proved to be the most suitable host for the mass rearing of B. hebetor. Nevertheless, results of present investigation could be utilized to improve the mass-breeding program of B. hebetor, so that sufficient number of B. hebetor’s adults could be provided time to time for the effective control of lepidopteran pests of various economically important crops.

Keywords: Bracon hebetor, lepidopteran hosts, demography, biology, development

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7 Diapause Incidence in Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

Authors: Fazil Hasan, M. Shafiq Ansari, Mohammad Muslim

Abstract:

Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an exotic insect and effective biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). Our study aimed to determine the induction and termination of diapause, in response to abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) and the effect of diapause on adult longevity and female fecundity. The adults burrowed into the soil about 1–6 cm below the surface for diapause at any time from July to December with a peak of 70% in the 2nd week of December at Aligarh region, India. The termination of diapause took place in May and June with the commencement of monsoon rains. Non-diapausing adults were also capable of breeding during winter under laboratory conditions. There was a significantly increased in the percentage of diapaused adults in subsequent generation i.e. 4% in F1 generation and 90% in F7 generation. The percentage of diapause was also significantly increased with age of adults. It has a positive effect on female fecundity as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapaused duration. Experiments proved that soil moisture played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. The adults which undergone diapause in January and February were continuously exposed to 35º, 40º and 45º C for one week and a daily dose of 10 and 8 hours for 6 and 5 days, respectively resulting in termination of diapause. This method may be used to initiate mass multiplication for carrying out releases early in the season. Exposure of adults to extremely low temperatures i.e. 5º and 10º C induced 94.3% and 92.5% diapause, respectively with no adult mortality. Therefore, low temperatures can also be used as a medium for the storage of mass reared beetles for a long time without having negative effect on their longevity and fecundity. Thus, our findings are of great utility in the biological suppression of P. hysterophorus as it will enhance the effectiveness of this beetle through manipulation of diapause.

Keywords: Zygogramma bicolorata, environmental factors, age, sex, diapause, Parthenium hysterophorus, biocontrol

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6 The Use of Additives to Prevent Fouling in Polyethylene and Polypropylene Gas and Slurry Phase Processes

Authors: L. Shafiq, A. Rigby

Abstract:

All polyethylene processes are highly exothermic, and the safe removal of the heat of reaction is a fundamental issue in the process design. In slurry and gas processes, the velocity of the polymer particles in the reactor and external coolers can be very high, and under certain conditions, this can lead to static charging of these particles. Such static charged polymer particles may start building up on the reactor wall, limiting heat transfer, and ultimately leading to severe reactor fouling and forced reactor shut down. Statsafe™ is an FDA approved anti-fouling additive currently used around the world for polyolefin production as an anti-fouling additive. The unique polymer chemistry aids static discharge, which prevents the build-up of charged polyolefin particles, which could lead to fouling. Statsafe™ is being used and trailed in gas, slurry, and a combination of these technologies around the world. We will share data to demonstrate how the use of Statsafe™ allows more stable operation at higher solids level by eliminating static, which would otherwise prevent closer packing of particles in the hydrocarbon slurry. Because static charge generation depends also on the concentration of polymer particles in the slurry, the maximum slurry concentration can be higher when using Statsafe™, leading to higher production rates. The elimination of fouling also leads to less downtime. Special focus will be made on the impact anti-static additives have on catalyst performance within the polymerization process and how this has been measured. Lab-scale studies have investigated the effect on the activity of Ziegler Natta catalysts when anti-static additives are used at various concentrations in gas and slurry, polyethylene and polypropylene processes. An in-depth gas phase study investigated the effect of additives on the final polyethylene properties such as particle size, morphology, fines, bulk density, melt flow index, gradient density, and melting point.

Keywords: anti-static additives, catalyst performance, FDA approved anti-fouling additive, polymerisation

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5 Levels of CTX1 in Premenopausal Osteoporotic Women Study Conducted in Khyberpuktoonkhwa Province, Pakistan

Authors: Mehwish Durrani, Rubina Nazli, Muhammad Abubakr, Muhammad Shafiq

Abstract:

Objectives: To evaluate the high socio-economic status, urbanization, and decrease ambulation can lead to early osteoporosis in women reporting from Peshawar region. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study was done. Sample size was 100 subjects, using 30% proportion of osteoporosis, 95% confidence level, and 9% margin of error under WHO software for sample size determination. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in the tertiary referral health care facilities of Peshawar viz PGMI Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Ethical approval for the study was taken from the Institutional Ethical Research board (IERD) at Post Graduate Medical Institute, Hayatabad Medical Complex, and Peshawar.The study was done in six months time period. Patients and Methods: Levels of CTX1 as a marker of bone degradation in radiographically assessed perimenopausal women was determined. These females were randomly selected and screened for osteoporosis. Hemoglobin in gm/dl, ESR by Westergren method as millimeter in 1 hour, Serum Ca mg/dl, Serum alkaline Phosphatase international units per liter radiographic grade of osteoporosis according to Singh index as 1-6 and CTX 1 level in pg/ml. Results: High levels of CTX1 was observed in perimenopausal osteoporotic women which were radiographically diagnosed as osteoporotic patients. The High socio-economic class also predispose to osteoporosis. Decrease ambulation another risk factor showed significant association with the increased levels of CTX1. Conclusion: The results of this study propose that minimum ambulation and high socioeconomic class both had significance association with the increase levels of serum CTX1, which in turn will lead to osteoporosis and to its complications.

Keywords: osteoporosis, CTX1, perimenopausal women, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Khyberpuktoonkhwa

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